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  • this video was made possible by express VPN.

    這個視頻是由快遞VPN。

  • Start watching new shows during your quarantine that aren't available in your country for free for three months by following the link in the description.

    按照描述中的鏈接,在隔離期間開始免費觀看在你的國家沒有的新節目,為期三個月。

  • This is Pakistan, a large country in South Asia that on paper doesn't look like that heart of a starting position to be in.

    這就是巴基斯坦,南亞的一個大國,從紙面上看,它並不像那個心臟的起始位置。

  • But make no mistake.

    但不要搞錯了。

  • If real life was like a game of Sid Meier's civilization than playing, Pakistan would be one of the most difficult sieves in the entire game toe win as because their starting position is absolute hot garbage.

    如果現實生活就像西德梅爾的文明遊戲比玩,巴基斯坦將是整個遊戲中最難贏的篩子之一,因為他們的首發位置絕對是熱垃圾。

  • And here's why Pakistan's political borders don't really make a lot of sense when you study them a bit more closely.

    而這就是為什麼巴基斯坦的政治邊界在你仔細研究後,並沒有什麼意義。

  • If we switch maps styles to a topographic map, you can see that none of Pakistan's borders really follow any clear geographic boundaries like rivers or mountains.

    如果我們把地圖樣式換成地形圖,你可以看到,巴基斯坦的邊界都沒有真正遵循任何明確的地理邊界,比如河流或山脈。

  • And when we switched to an ethnic map, you can also see that Pakistan's borders don't really appear to follow any clear ethnic divisions, either.

    而當我們切換到民族地圖時,你也可以看到,巴基斯坦的邊界似乎也並沒有按照任何明確的民族劃分。

  • What Pakistan's borders do follow instead is the religious border between the majority Muslim and majority Hindu areas of the Indian subcontinent, and that's not by accident.

    巴基斯坦的邊界所遵循的反而是印度次大陸穆斯林佔多數的地區和印度教佔多數的地區之間的宗教邊界,這並非偶然。

  • It was designed that way from the beginning, on purpose.

    它從一開始就是這樣設計的,是故意的。

  • And like most messy border problems across the world, it's all the fault of the British.

    就像世界上大多數混亂的邊境問題一樣,這都是英國人的錯。

  • A long time ago, the entire Indian subcontinent was ruled by the British, but in 1947 they decided to let it all go in grant independence.

    很久以前,整個印度次大陸是由英國人統治的,但在1947年,他們決定放手讓其獨立。

  • But when they did, they decided to partition the colony of India into two separate, newly independent states.

    但當他們這樣做的時候,他們決定將印度殖民地劃分為兩個獨立的、新獨立的國家。

  • A majority Hindu country that became India and a majority Muslim country that became Pakistan.

    一個印度教佔多數的國家成為印度,一個穆斯林佔多數的國家成為巴基斯坦。

  • The two were separated exclusively based upon the borders of the majority Muslim and the majority Hindu areas in the empire, without any regard to natural geographic boundaries.

    兩者完全是根據帝國中穆斯林佔多數的地區和印度教佔多數的地區的邊界分開的,而不考慮自然地理邊界。

  • And this has created hosts of problems for both countries.

    而這也給兩國帶來了許多問題。

  • In the case of Pakistan, this created a long border with India, from the Arabian Sea through the salt marshes of the Rann of Kutch, the vast inhospitable tar desert, the fertile plains of the Punjab and up through the high mountains of the hotly contested province of Kashmir.

    就巴基斯坦而言,這就形成了與印度的漫長邊界,從阿拉伯海到卡奇蘭恩的鹽鹼地、廣闊荒涼的焦油沙漠、旁遮普的肥沃平原,再到競爭激烈的克什米爾省的高山。

  • Most of this border is recognized and accepted by both Pakistan and India until it gets to the cashmere area, which is a territory claimed entirely by both of them.

    這條邊界的大部分都得到了巴基斯坦和印度的承認和接受,直到它到了開士米地區,這是一個完全由他們兩個人聲稱的領土。

  • They've both fought multiple wars against each other for control over the whole thing.

    他們都為了控制整個事情的發展,相互之間進行了多次戰爭。

  • As it stands now on the ground, the line of each other's actual de facto control across the province looks like this, which is effectively the border between them, even though nobody actually recognizes it as such.

    現在實地來看,對方在全省的實際控制線是這樣的,這實際上是他們之間的邊界,儘管實際上沒有人承認這一點。

  • This line was created upon the cease fire line that concluded the 1971 war between them.

    這條線是在1971年雙方結束戰爭的停火線基礎上建立的。

  • But there was one incredibly stupid problem with it.

    但是有一個非常愚蠢的問題。

  • It doesn't extend across the entire province.

    它並沒有延伸到整個省。

  • It literally abruptly just ends right here, which left a lot of vague uncertainties as to who, exactly controlled what's beyond it towards China.

    它真的就在這裡突然結束了,這讓很多模糊的不確定因素,到底是誰,控制了它之外的對中國的東西。

  • The reason that the line ended where it did was because it was at the foothills of the colossal Karakorum Mountain range, so all of the land beyond it was just extremely inhospitable and effectively imp passable glaciers.

    這條線在哪裡結束的原因是因為它在巨大的喀喇崑崙山脈的山腳下,所以它以外的所有土地都是極度荒涼的,並且有效地阻礙了冰川的通行。

  • The U.

    U.

  • N.

    N.

  • Just assumed that neither side would really care about its butts care.

    只是以為雙方都不會真正關心自己的屁股關心。

  • They did.

    他們做到了。

  • Beginning in 1984 both sides realized that there was an active geographic hole in their de facto border that the other side could take advantage of, and so they both attempted to plug it up with thousands of troops trying to outmaneuver the other in order to secure the strategic high ground and mountain passes that lead into each other's sides.

    從1984年開始,雙方都意識到,在他們事實上的邊界上有一個活躍的地理漏洞,可以讓對方利用,所以他們都試圖用數千名阿兵哥來堵住這個漏洞,試圖超越對方,以確保通往對方的戰略高地和山口。

  • The high altitude combat 6000 m up above sea level took place here in the CIA Shen glacier area, and the elements claimed the lives of thousands of men from both sides.

    海拔6000米的高空作戰在這裡發生在CIA沈氏冰川地區,風雨無阻奪走了雙方數千人的生命。

  • By the end of the conflict in 2003, India had secured the high ground in the area and control over the main passes through, which gives them the geographic advantage in the area.

    到2003年衝突結束時,印度已經在該地區獲得了高地,並控制了主要通道,這使他們在該地區擁有地理優勢。

  • To this day, India is without a doubt Pakistan's biggest rival on the world stage, and the whole border between the two is considered to be one of the most dangerous places in the entire world.

    時至今日,印度無疑是巴基斯坦在世界舞臺上最大的對手,整個兩國邊境被認為是整個世界最危險的地方之一。

  • And if all out war ever were to break out between them, Pakistan has really weak geographic armor for defenses across the entire line.

    而如果他們之間爆發全面戰爭,巴基斯坦在整條線上的防禦地理裝甲真的很薄弱。

  • As the situation in Kashmir stands today, the Indian military occupies a line that's only 83 kilometers away from the center of the Pakistani capital, Islamabad.

    就目前克什米爾地區的局勢來看,印度軍方佔據的防線距離巴基斯坦首都伊斯蘭堡的中心只有83公里。

  • If Pakistan could control all of Kashmir, it would push the Indian lines far away from the capital city and established a massively significant mountains shield that the Indian army would struggle to punch through to get there.

    如果巴基斯坦能夠控制整個克什米爾地區,就會把印度的防線遠遠地推開,遠離首都,並建立起一個巨大的重要山地盾牌,印軍要想衝過去就很難了。

  • This this is partially why Kashmir is of such massive strategic value to Pakistan.

    這也是克什米爾地區對巴基斯坦具有如此巨大戰略價值的部分原因。

  • But as it is now, the Indian army controls most of it and is within striking distance of the capital.

    但現在的情況是,印度軍隊控制了大部分地區,並且距離首都很近。

  • The only big mountains that Pakistan controls along the Indian border that could be used for defense are all located in the far north of the country, far away from all of Pakistan's major population and economic centers, which means that any Indian advance could just simply ignore them.

    巴基斯坦在印度邊境控制的唯一可以用來防守的大山都位於巴基斯坦的最北部,遠離巴基斯坦所有的主要人口和經濟中心,這意味著任何印度的推進都可以直接無視它們。

  • The Indus River is one of the biggest rivers in the world and would make a great defensive line, but unfortunately it runs roughly through the middle of the country, which means that falling back behind it would mean surrendering half of the country.

    印度河是世界上最大的河流之一,可以成為一條很好的防線,但不幸的是,它大致貫穿了我國的中部,這意味著落後於它就意味著要交出半個國家。

  • By that point, the system of India's tributary rivers that runs through the Punjab province are somewhat defensible.

    至此,印度貫穿旁遮普省的支流河系就有些防不勝防了。

  • But even still, the Indian army could punch through all of these highlighted areas without ever having across a river, and that includes some of Pakistan's most major population centers like Lahore, Faisalabad, Hyderabad and the capital, Islamabad.

    但即使如此,印度軍隊仍然可以在所有這些突出的地區打通,而不需要過河,這包括一些巴基斯坦最主要的人口中心,如拉合爾、費薩拉巴德、海德拉巴和首都伊斯蘭堡。

  • Further complicating things is that Pakistan is a relatively easy country to blockade.

    更加複雜的是,巴基斯坦是一個相對容易封鎖的國家。

  • She only has a narrow stretch of coastline here in the south on the Arabian Sea and only a handful of significant ports on it that, if eliminated, can aff effectively transformed Pakistan into a landlocked states.

    她在南部阿拉伯海上只有一條狹長的海岸線,上面只有少數幾個重要的港口,如果消滅了這些港口,可以有效地把巴基斯坦變成一個內陸國家。

  • The port of Karachi alone handle 60% of all of Pakistan's cargo, owing to its strategic location near the Strait of Hormuz, or it in trade routes in the world, where 25% of all the world's oil passes through.

    由於卡拉奇港靠近霍爾木茲海峽的戰略位置,或者說它在世界貿易路線上的戰略位置,全世界25%的石油都經過這裡,是以,僅卡拉奇港就處理了巴基斯坦全部貨物的60%。

  • This heavy reliance on a single city for supplies makes Pakistan exceptionally vulnerable.

    這種嚴重依賴一個城市的供應,使得巴基斯坦異常脆弱。

  • If just Karachi could be blockaded or captured that immediately halt 60% of Pakistan's cargo and supplies from getting inside of the country.

    如果能封鎖或奪取卡拉奇... ...就能立即阻止巴基斯坦60%的貨物和補給品進入該國境內。

  • But the border with India and the over reliance on a single port are not the only crappy border situations that Pakistan has to deal with.

    但與印度的邊界和對單一港口的過度依賴,並不是巴基斯坦唯一要處理的蹩腳邊界情況。

  • There is another, and it's another British created mess here with Afghanistan.

    還有一個,就是英國人在阿富汗這裡製造的另一個爛攤子。

  • The British also created this border back in 18 93 as the boundary between British India and Afghanistan and Pakistan simply inherited the mess for themselves upon independence in 1947.

    英國人也早在1893年就把這條邊界作為英屬印度和阿富汗的邊界,1947年獨立後,巴基斯坦乾脆自己繼承了這個爛攤子。

  • The main problem with it is that it divides the ethnic territory of the Pashtun people between Afghanistan and Pakistan, which is awkward because the Pashtuns are the largest ethnic group inside of Afghanistan, and they largely ruled that country.

    它的主要問題是,它把普什圖人的民族領土劃分在阿富汗和巴基斯坦之間,這很尷尬,因為普什圖人是阿富汗境內最大的民族,他們基本上統治了這個國家。

  • So the Pashtuns of Afghanistan have long desire to be reunited with the rest of the ethnic Pashtuns across the border in Pakistan, and Afghanistan, often lays claim to an extended border that stretches this deep into Pakistan to cover it.

    所以,阿富汗的普什圖人一直以來都渴望與巴基斯坦邊境的其他普什圖族人團聚,而阿富汗,往往宣稱有一條延伸的邊界,延伸到巴基斯坦這麼深的地方來覆蓋它。

  • As recently as 2017, the president of Afghanistan has stated that Afghanistan will never recognize the border with Pakistan.

    就在2017年,阿富汗總統曾表示,阿富汗永遠不會承認與巴基斯坦的邊界。

  • As it stands today.

    今天的情況是:

  • When Pakistan joined the United Nations in 1947 there was only a single country who voted against them joining it, and it wasn't India.

    1947年巴基斯坦加入聯合國時,只有一個國家投票反對他們加入聯合國,那不是印度。

  • It was Afghanistan.

    那是阿富汗。

  • So because of these messy borders left over by the British, Pakistan faces enemies on both of her flanks who openly claimed territory that Pakistan also claims or controls.

    所以因為英國人留下的這些亂七八糟的邊界,巴基斯坦面對的是她兩翼的敵人,他們公開宣稱的領土,巴基斯坦也宣稱或控制。

  • This means that the prospect of a two front war against both parties if they ever allied with one another against Pakistan is a very real possibility.

    這意味著,如果雙方曾經結盟對抗巴基斯坦,兩線作戰的前景是非常現實的。

  • Therefore, it has always been within Pakistan's best interests to seek influence in Afghanistan and attempt to pacify their government by any means necessary in order to keep this for from happening.

    是以,尋求在阿富汗的影響力,並試圖通過任何必要的手段來安撫阿富汗政府,以防止這種情況的發生,這一直是巴基斯坦的最大利益。

  • It also doesn't help, though, that the border runs right through the middle of the extremely mountainous part of the Pashtun tribal lands, which makes the border extremely difficult to govern police and control for both countries, drug smugglers, terrorist groups like the Taliban and other CD individuals routinely cross it between both sides, which also makes this border one of the most violent and unstable places in the entire world, meaning that Pakistan has two inherently unstable borders on either side.

    不過這也無濟於事,這條邊界正好穿過普什圖部落地的極度山區,這使得兩國警方和控制邊界的難度極大,毒品走私者、塔利班等恐怖組織和其他CD人員經常在雙方之間穿行,這也使得這條邊界成為整個世界上最暴力和最不穩定的地方之一,也就是說,巴基斯坦的兩邊有兩條天生不穩定的邊界。

  • This on Lee leaves Pakistan borders with two other countries, Iran and China.

    這上李讓巴基斯坦與伊朗和中國兩個國家接壤。

  • The border with Iran is through the sparsely inhabited, arid province of Baluchistan, which, like the Pashtuns, cuts the Baluch people between Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan.

    與伊朗的邊界要經過人煙稀少、乾旱的俾路支斯坦省,它和普什圖人一樣,將俾路支人切割在巴基斯坦、伊朗和阿富汗之間。

  • Unlike the Pashtuns, though, the Baluch don't have an independent state of their own, so they can't pose an existential threat to Pakistan in the same way that the Pashtuns of Afghanistan do.

    不過與普什圖人不同的是,俾路支人並沒有自己的獨立國家,所以他們不能像阿富汗的普什圖人那樣,對巴基斯坦構成生存威脅。

  • Iran and Pakistan cooperate to an extent on squashing Baloch separatism in their respective zones of control, But a working alliance between the two is severely complicated by Iran's Shia government and Pakistan's Sunni government.

    伊朗和巴基斯坦在一定程度上合作壓制各自控制區內的俾路支分裂主義,但伊朗什葉派政府和巴基斯坦遜尼派政府使雙方的工作聯盟嚴重複雜化。

  • This leaves Onley China as a potential geographic ally for Pakistan in the region.

    這使得昂利中國成為巴基斯坦在該地區的潛在地理盟友。

  • And sure enough, China is without a doubt Pakistan's closest ally on the world stage.

    果然,中國無疑是巴基斯坦在世界舞臺上最親密的盟友。

  • The geography of Pakistan is more challenging and difficult than most.

    巴基斯坦的地理環境比大多數人更具有挑戰性和難度。

  • But with strong leadership, shrewd alliances and careful diplomacy, even a difficult situation like this can be made manageable.

    但是,如果有強有力的上司、精明的聯盟和謹慎的外交,即使是這樣的困難局面也可以得到控制。

  • Now.

    現在就去

  • Difficult situations come in all different shapes and sizes.

    困難的情況形形色色,大小不一。

  • There's macro difficult situations like Pakistan's geography.

    有宏觀的困難情況,比如巴基斯坦的地理環境。

  • And then there's micro difficult situations like you being trapped inside of your house all day because of a global pandemic.

    還有一些微觀的困難情況,比如你因為全球大流行病而整天被困在房子裡面。

  • If you've been struggling with your own difficult situation by running out of shows, toe watch or things to do, then you should go and check out express VPN.

    如果你一直在為自己的困難處境而苦惱,因為沒有節目、趾看或事情可做,那麼你應該去看看快遞VPN。

  • Next express VPN allows you to change the location on your devices to different countries so that you can watch shows and movies that aren't available in the country where you're located.

    Next express VPN允許你將設備上的位置改為不同的國家,這樣你就可以觀看在你所在的國家沒有的節目和電影。

  • For example, I live in the U.

    比如,我住在美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • And I was able to quickly change the location on my PC to the UK and gained access to shows in America that we don't normally get on Netflix like Dr Who?

    而且我能夠迅速將電腦上的位置改為英國,並獲得了我們平時在Netflix上得不到的美國節目,比如《神祕博士》?

  • Star Trek Discovery, Brooklyn, 99 Rick and Morty and a a bunch of other good stuff.

    《星際迷航發現》《布魯克林》《99瑞克與莫蒂》等一大堆好東西。

  • Meanwhile, if you're in the UK or Europe or anywhere else, you can change your location to the U.

    同時,如果你在英國或歐洲或其他任何地方,你可以將你的位置改為美國。

  • S.

    S.

  • And get access to Netflix shows.

    並獲得Netflix節目的訪問權。

  • They're like the walking dead or mad men.

    他們就像行屍走肉或瘋子一樣。

  • And all of that is in addition to the fact that express VPN also provides an extra layer of security to your Internet experience by preventing others from being able to view what you're searching for and what sites you're visiting if you're working from home right now, it's even more important now than ever to ensure that 100% of your data being transferred between your devices and the Internet is securely encrypted.

    而所有這一切,除了快遞VPN還提供了一個額外的安全層,通過防止其他人能夠查看你正在搜索的內容和你正在訪問的網站,如果你現在在家工作,現在比以往任何時候都更重要,以確保你的數據在你的設備和互聯網之間傳輸的100%是安全加密的。

  • And that's just something else that express VPN will do for you.

    而這只是快遞VPN為你做的其他事情。

  • Best of all, though, is that you can get three entire months using express VPN and everything that comes with it for free by clicking the link in the description or by going to express VPN dot com slash real life floor.

    但最好的是,你可以通過點擊描述中的鏈接或到express VPN點com斜線現實生活的地板上,免費獲得整整三個月的使用express VPN和它所附帶的一切。

  • It seriously helped me out so much with my own boredom during my own stay at home and you'll be supporting real life floor at the same time by checking them out and is always thank you for watching.

    它認真地幫助我解決了我自己在家期間的無聊,你會支持現實生活中的地板,同時通過檢查他們,是永遠感謝你看。

this video was made possible by express VPN.

這個視頻是由快遞VPN。

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B1 中級 中文 巴基斯坦 邊界 印度 阿富汗 地理 地區

為什麼巴基斯坦的地理環境很糟糕 (Why Pakistan's Geography Sucks)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 30 日
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