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  • Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course. Can we get these books to roll in in the future?

    我是約翰.葛林,歡迎來到 Crash Course。我們日後可以把這些書加上片頭嗎?

  • It doesn't feel like Crash Course unless there's a roll in.

    如果沒有片頭,實在不太像 Crash Course。

  • Today, before we begin our mini-series on reading and writing in English, we're going to discuss how to read and why.


  • So, if you watched our series on world history, youll no doubt remember that writing (and the ability to read it) are so-called markers of civilization.

    如果你曾看過我們世界歷史系列,你絕對記得寫作 (還有閱讀能力) 是所謂「文明的象徵」。

  • Now, that's a really problematic idea.


  • I mean, for one thing, great stories can have great lives in the oral tradition.


  • Like, one of my favorite books, Mules and Men by Zora Neale Hurston, was a collection of folklore that lived in the oral tradition until Zora Neale Hurston wrote it down.


  • And the same can be said for another of my favorite books, The Odyssey.

    我另一本喜歡的書《奧德賽》(The Odyssey) 也是以這種方式寫成。

  • But we privilege reading and writing because they allow us to communicate directly and transparently with people who live very far away from us, and they also allow us to kind of hear the voices of the dead.


  • I mean, I don't want to get all liberal arts-y on you, but I want to make this clear; for me, stories are about communication.


  • We didn't invent grammar so that your life would be miserable in grade school as you attempted to learn what the Marquez a preposition is.

    我們創造文法不是為了讓你有悲慘的校園生活,特別當你學習馬奎斯 (哥倫比亞作家) 的介詞使用時。

  • By the way, on this program, I will be inserting names of my favorite writers when I would otherwise insert curse words.


  • We invented grammar because without prepositions, we couldn't describe what it's like to fly through a cloud, or jump over a puddle, or Faulkner beneath the stars.

    我們創造文法是因為如果沒有介詞,我們形容不了什麼是穿過白雲、跌過水坑或在星空下福克納 (和 Fxxx 音相似)。

  • Like, right now, if I'm doing my job, and you're doing your job, you aren't thinking about the fact that I'm contorting my mouth and tongue and vocal cords to create sounds that then exist as ideas in your brain. It's just happening.


  • But if my language gets confusing--if I parles en francais or incorrect word order use or eekspay inyay igpay atinlay, then I erect a barrier between you and me.

    但如果我把語言混在一起 -- 如果我說法文或使用錯誤的詞序,或胡言亂語,我就在你我間建立起阻隔。

  • You and I? You and me.


  • Writing--or at least good writing--is an outgrowth of that urge to use language to communicate complex ideas and experiences between people.


  • And that's true whether you're reading Shakespeare or bad vampire fiction, reading is always an act of empathy.


  • It's always an imagining of what it's like to be someone else.


  • So when Shakespeare uses iambic pentameter, or Salinger uses a red hunting cap, they aren’t doing this so that your English teachers will have something to torture you with.


  • They're doing it, at least if they're doing it on purpose, so the story can have a bigger and better life in your mind.


  • But, for the record, the question of whether they're doing it on purpose is not a very interesting question.


  • Oh, we're still doing open letters?


  • An Open Letter to Authorial Intent. But first, let's see what's in the secret compartment today.


  • Oh, it's a boat beating against the current, borne back ceaselessly into the past.

    小船逆水行舟,但不斷被浪潮推回到過去 (出自《大亨小傳》)。

  • Dear authorial intent, As an author, let me speak to you directly. You don't matter.


  • Look, I'm not willing to go as far as the postmodernists and say that the author is dead because that would make me very nervous.


  • However, the author is not that important.


  • Whether an author intended a symbolic resonance to exist in her book is irrelevant.


  • All that matters is whether it's there because the book does not exist for the benefit of the author.


  • The book exists for the benefit of you.


  • If we, as readers, could have a bigger and richer experience with the world as a result of reading a symbol and that symbol wasn't intended by the author, we still win.


  • Yes, inevitably, reading is a conversation between an author and a reader.


  • But give yourself some power in that conversation, reader. Go out there and make a world.


  • Best wishes, John Green.


  • Here's the thing: It is extremely hard to get other people to feel what we are feeling.

    重點是 : 其實很難讓別人感受到我們的情緒。

  • Like, you may have experienced this in your own life. Say my college girlfriend broke up with me...and she did.


  • I want to explain what I'm feeling to my best friend in the entire world.


  • So I say, I am completely obliterated. My heart is broken.


  • In fact, my heart is shattered into a million pieces..


  • Right, so, a few things are going on here: First, in excellent news, my heart has not been shattered into a million pieces.

    現在有幾樣東西發生。首先 好消息是我的心沒有真的碎成千萬塊。

  • It is pumping blood in precisely the same way that it did before the breakup.


  • Secondly, in further good news, I am not totally obliterated.


  • Total obliteration of me would look like this.


  • I'm using the techniques of hyperbole, in the case of obliteration, and metaphor, in the case of my broken heart, to try to describe the things that are happening inside of me.


  • But because I'm not using particularly compelling or original figurative language, my friend may struggle to empathize with me, and this is my BEST FRIEND in the entire world.


  • Now imagine that you're trying to communicate far more complicated and nuanced experiences and emotions.


  • And instead of just trying to communicate them to your best friend, you're trying to talk to strangers, some of whom may live very far away and, in fact, live centuries after your death.


  • Not only that, but instead of this happening during a pleasant conversation, they are reading your dry, dead text on a page.


  • So they can't hear your intonation or see the tears dripping from your cheeks even though it turns out that this breakup is going to be one of the best things that ever happened to you.


  • So THAT is the challenge that Shakespeare faces, and it's also the challenge that you face whenever you write for an audience, whether it's a novel or a pedantic YouTube comment about the accuracy of our Gallifreyan.

    那就是莎士比亞面對的挑戰,這也是你寫任何東西給群眾看時要面對的挑戰,無論是小說或在 YouTube 上對咖哩文的精確度的學術評論。

  • Hush! This is fantastic Gallifreyan.

    噓!這是厲害的咖哩文 (影集《奇異博士》中的文字)。

  • So I'm going to ask you to read critically, to look closely at a text and pay attention to the subtle ways the author is trying to communicate the full complexity of human experience, but I'm not asking you to go symbol-hunting because reading is supposed to be some treasure map in which you discover symbols, write them down, and then get an A in class.

    所以我希望你帶著批判性的思考來仔細研讀文字,注意作者用微妙的方式,表達人類經驗中的複雜度。但我不是要你去尋找象徵,因為閱讀應該是某種藏寶圖,你發現某些象徵,寫下來,然後在班上拿到 A 的優異成績。

  • I'm asking you to read critically because by understanding language, you will...

    我希望你讀得仔細點,因為藉由理解語言,你會 :

  • 1. have a fuller understanding of lives other than your own, which

    1. 對於你自己以外的生活有更全面的理解,這件事也 ...

  • 2. will help you to be more empathetic, and thereby

    2. 會讓你更有同理心,因此 ...

  • 3. help you to avoid getting dumped by that young woman in the first place, although more importantly

    3. 幫助你一開始就避免被那個年輕女人甩掉,但更重要的是 ...

  • 4. reading critically and attentively can give you the linguistic tools to share your own story with more precision.

    4. 仔細閱讀可以給你語言上的工具,讓你精準分享自己的故事。

  • And that will help people to understand your joy and your heartbreak, yes, but will also be helpful in many other ways, like when you are trying to convince the company to move forward with your fourth quarter strategy or whatever it is that people with real jobs do.


  • Reading thoughtfully gives us better tools to explain corporate profits and broken hearts.


  • And it also connects us to each other.


  • The real reason the green light in The Great Gatsby is such a wonderful symbol is because we all know what it's like to be outside in the evening, staring off into the distance at a future that may never be ours.


  • We've all felt that stomach-churning mix of yearning and ambition that Gatsby feels as he stares out at that green light across the harbor.

    我們都感受過那種蓋茲比 (《大亨小說》主角) 盯著港口另一端的綠燈時,充滿渴望和雄心大志的腸胃翻騰感。

  • And by knowing what it's like to be Gatsby, we learn more about those around us, those who came before us, and we learn more about ourselves.


  • So, over the next few weeks, we'll be reading not just Gatsby but also Romeo and Juliet, some poetry by Emily Dickinson, and The Catcher in the Rye.


  • There are links to get all of these books in the video info below.


  • We'll begin with Romeo and Juliet next week. I'll see you then.


  • Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko.

    Crash Course 是由 Stan Muller 製作和導演的。我們的場記是 Meredith Danko。

  • The associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by me.

    監製是 Danica Johnson。劇本是我寫的。

  • And our graphics team is Thought Bubble. If you have questions about today's video, you can leave them in comments where they will be answered by our team of experts.

    我們的美術團隊是 Thought Bubble。如果你對今天的影片有問題,你可以留言,我們團隊中的專家會回答。

  • And if you haven't already, read Romeo and Juliet. It's a very good play, although at times derivative of West Side Story.


  • Thanks for watching Crash Course.

    謝謝收看 Crash Course。

  • And as we say in my hometown, don't forget to be awesome.


Hi I'm John Green and this is Crash Course. Can we get these books to roll in in the future?

我是約翰.葛林,歡迎來到 Crash Course。我們日後可以把這些書加上片頭嗎?


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