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  • It was a Saturday afternoon in May,

    那是五月的一個週六下午

  • and I suddenly realized

    我忽然意識到

  • that the next day was Mother's Day,

    隔天就是母親節

  • and I hadn't gotten anything for my mom,

    而我沒有準備任何禮物給我媽

  • so I started thinking about

    所以我開始思考

  • what should I get my mom for Mother's Day?

    我要送他什麼當作母親節禮物呢?

  • I thought, why don't I make her

    我想到何不為她做一張

  • an interactive Mother's Day card

    互動式的母親節賀卡呢?

  • using the Scratch software that I'd been developing

    使用我開發的塗鴉軟體 Scratch 製作

  • with my research group at the MIT Media Lab?

    我的研究小組在麻省理工大學 (MIT) 媒體實驗室所研發的軟體

  • We developed it so that people could easily create

    我們製作了這個軟體,使人們能夠輕鬆創作

  • their own interactive stories and games and animations,

    他們自己的互動故事、遊戲或者是動畫

  • and then share their creations with one another.

    並且把這些創作與別人分享

  • So I thought, this would be an opportunity to use Scratch

    然後我想 這或許是一個好機會

  • to make an interactive card for my mom.

    使用這個塗鴉軟體 Scratch 作一張互動賀卡給我媽媽

  • Before making my own Mother's Day card,

    在做我的母親卡之前

  • I thought I would take a look

    我想到我可以先逛看看

  • at the Scratch website.

    這個塗鴉網站 ( Scratch )

  • So over the last several years, kids around the world

    幾年前開始,世界各地

  • ages 8 and up, have shared their projects,

    8歲或更大的孩子們已經開始 透過這個網站分享他們的作品

  • and I thought, I wonder if, of those three million projects,

    所以我想 在這300萬件作品裏

  • whether anyone else has thought to put up Mother's Day cards.

    會不會有人想到要放上 他們作的母親節賀卡呢

  • So in the search box I typed in

    所以我就在搜尋欄中鍵入

  • "Mother's Day,"

    「母親節」

  • and I was surprised and delighted to see a list

    之後我驚訝又高興地看到

  • of dozens and dozens of Mother's Day cards

    很多很多的母親節賀卡

  • that showed up on the Scratch website,

    在 Scratch 上展示

  • many of them just in the past 24 hours

    許多賀卡是在24小時內上載的

  • by procrastinators just like myself.

    像我一樣愛拖延的人

  • So I started taking a look at them. (Music)

    所以我開始瀏覽這些作品(音樂)

  • I saw one of them that featured a kitten

    我看到一張以小貓

  • and her mom and wishing her mom a happy Mother's Day.

    和她的媽媽為主角的卡片,卡片中的 小貓祝媽媽母親節快樂

  • And the creator very considerately

    作者非常貼心地

  • offered a replay for her mom.

    為他媽媽做了一個重播按鈕

  • Another one was an interactive project where,

    另一個是一件互動作品

  • when you moved the mouse over the letters of "Happy Mom Day,"

    當你把鼠標移動到這些"母親節快樂"的字母上面時

  • it reveals a special happy Mother's Day slogan.

    它會出現一句特別的母親節祝詞

  • (Music) In this one, the creator told a narrative

    (音樂) 而在這個作品裏,創作者講述了

  • about how she had Googled to find out

    她是如何用 Google (谷歌搜尋引擎) 來找出

  • when Mother's Day was happening.

    到底哪一天是母親節

  • (Typing) And then once she found out when Mother's Day was happening,

    (打字聲) 而當她發現當天就是母親節時

  • she delivered a special Mother's Day greeting

    她立即送出了一份特別的母親節祝福

  • of how much she loved her mom.

    來表達她有多愛她的媽媽

  • So I really enjoyed looking at these projects

    我真的很喜歡瀏覽這些作品

  • and interacting with these projects.

    並且與這些作品互動

  • In fact, I liked it so much that, instead of making my own project,

    事實上,由於太喜歡這些作品, 讓我打消了親手製作賀卡的念頭

  • I sent my mom links to about a dozen of these projects. (Laughter)

    改為把十多個作品的連結發送給我媽媽 (笑聲)

  • And actually, she reacted exactly the way that I hoped that she would.

    而實際上,她的反應就正如我希望的一樣

  • She wrote back to me and she said,

    她回覆我並說

  • "I'm so proud to have a son that created the software

    「我非常以有這樣的兒子為傲, 因為他能夠打造出一個軟體,使孩子們能夠

  • that allowed these kids to make Mother's Day cards for their mothers."

    製作母親節賀卡送給他們的媽媽們。」

  • So my mom was happy, and that made me happy,

    所以我媽媽很高興,這令我也很高興

  • but actually I was even happier for another reason.

    但事實上我有一個更值得高興的理由

  • I was happy because these kids were using Scratch

    我高興是因為這些孩子能夠按照我們當初設計 Scratch

  • just in the way that we had hoped that they would.

    的用法來使用它

  • As they created their interactive Mother's Day cards,

    當他們製作互動母親節賀卡的時候

  • you could see that they were really

    你可以看到他們真的

  • becoming fluent with new technologies.

    能夠更熟練地掌握新科技

  • What do I mean by fluent?

    我說的熟練是指甚麽呢?

  • I mean that they were able to start expressing themselves

    我是指他們已經可以開始表達他們自己

  • and to start expressing their ideas.

    並且開始表達他們的想法

  • When you become fluent with language,

    當你開始熟練於一個語言時

  • it means you can write an entry in your journal

    這意味著你可以在你的日誌上寫一個條目

  • or tell a joke to someone or write a letter to a friend.

    告訴別人一個幽默的笑話 或者給朋友寫一封信

  • And it's similar with new technologies.

    使用新科技也是很類似這樣

  • By writing, be creating these interactive Mother's Day cards,

    書寫或創作這些互動的母親節賀卡時

  • these kids were showing that they were really fluent

    這些孩子顯示出

  • with new technologies.

    他們有多熟練於這些新科技的使用

  • Now maybe you won't be so surprised by this,

    你或許對這件事情並不感到驚訝

  • because a lot of times people feel that

    因為大多數時候人們都認為

  • young people today can do all sorts of things with technology.

    現代的年輕人熟於使用科技 做各式各樣的事情

  • I mean, all of us have heard young people referred to as "digital natives."

    我的意思是,我們都聽過年輕人被稱為 「數碼時代的原住民」

  • But actually I'm sort of skeptical about this term.

    某種程度上 我認為這個用詞是有點問題的

  • I'm not so sure we should be thinking of young people as digital natives.

    我不太肯定我們應該把年輕人看作 數碼時代的原住民

  • When you really look at it, how is it that young people

    當你真的看看這個問題,年輕人是怎樣

  • spend most of their time using new technologies?

    花大部分的時間使用新科技呢?

  • You often see them in situations like this,

    你經常看到的情況會是像這樣

  • or like this,

    或是像這樣的

  • and there's no doubt that young people

    可以肯定的是 年輕人

  • are very comfortable and familiar browsing

    可以很輕鬆自在的瀏覽網頁

  • and chatting and texting and gaming.

    上網聊天、互通短訊和打電動

  • But that doesn't really make you fluent.

    但這些並不會真的使你熟練

  • So young people today have lots of experience

    今天的年輕人有許多與新科技互動的經驗

  • and lots of familiarity with interacting with new technologies,

    亦對如何與科技互動相當了解

  • but a lot less so of creating with new technologies

    但使用新科技來創作的人就少得多了

  • and expressing themselves with new technologies.

    也不擅長透過新科技來表達自己的想法

  • It's almost as if they can read

    這就好像在新科技的領域上, 他們雖然懂得閱讀

  • but not write with new technologies.

    卻不懂書寫一樣

  • And I'm really interested in seeing, how can we help young people become fluent

    我真的對於怎樣能夠令年輕人對科技更熟練

  • so they can write with new technologies?

    使他們能夠使用新科技創作 很感興趣

  • And that really means that they need to be able to

    這表示他們需要能夠

  • write their own computer programs, or code.

    寫自己的電腦軟體,或是程式

  • So, increasingly, people are starting to recognize

    很有趣的是人們逐漸地開始發現

  • the importance of learning to code.

    學習編寫電腦程式的重要性

  • You know, in recent years, there have been

    你知道最近幾年,這裏有

  • hundreds of new organizations and websites

    數以百計的新機構和網站

  • that are helping young people learn to code.

    幫助年輕人學習編寫電腦程式

  • You look online, you'll see places like Codecademy

    你看網上有像「編程學院」 Codecademy 這類的地方

  • and events like CoderDojo

    有像CoderDojo 一樣的組織 (註: 該組織在世界各地幫助年輕人學習如何寫程式)

  • and sites like Girls Who Code,

    又有像「女生愛編程」 Girls Who Code

  • or Black Girls Code.

    又或者「黑女編程」 Black Girls Code 這一類的網站

  • It seems that everybody is getting into the act.

    看起來每個人都開始在參與這件事

  • You know, just at the beginning of this year,

    你知道,就在年初

  • at the turn of the new year,

    進入新的一年之際

  • New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg

    紐約市長米高.彭博

  • made a New Year's resolution that he was going to learn

    為他自己定下的新年目標, 就是要在

  • to code in 2012.

    2012 年中學會編寫電腦程式

  • A few months later, the country of Estonia decided that

    數個月後, 愛沙尼亞這個國家決定

  • all of its first graders should learn to code.

    該國的一年級學生全部都要學習編寫電腦程式

  • And that triggered a debate in the U.K.

    這在英國激發了一場辯論

  • about whether all the children there should learn to code.

    探討是否需要得讓全部孩子都必須 學習編寫電腦程式

  • Now, for some of you, when you hear about this,

    你們當中有些人在聽到這個提議時

  • it might seem sort of strange about everybody learning to code.

    或許會感到有點奇怪, 為什麼每一個人都要學寫程式

  • When many people think of coding, they think of it

    當大部人想到編程,他們想到的是

  • as something that only a very narrow sub-community

    一個很狹隘定義的「亞社群」

  • of people are going to be doing,

    是專屬於某些人的活動

  • and they think of coding looking like this.

    他們覺得程式是長這樣的

  • And in fact, if this is what coding is like,

    事實上,假如程式真的長這樣

  • it will only be a narrow sub-community of people

    當然只有很少一群人會碰觸

  • with special mathematical skills and technological background

    就是那些擁有特別的數學技能,以及科技背景的人

  • that can code.

    才會做的事

  • But coding doesn't have to be like this.

    但編寫程式寫毋須是這樣的

  • Let me show you about what it's like to code in Scratch.

    讓我向你介紹在塗鴉軟件Scratch 中編寫程式會是怎樣吧

  • So in Scratch, to code, you just snap blocks together.

    使用 Scratch 寫程式的話, 你就像是把積木接在一起

  • In this case, you take a move block,

    在這個情況下,你移動一個積木

  • snap it into a stack,

    把它們堆在一起

  • and the stacks of blocks control the behaviors

    那堆積木就會控制

  • of the different characters in your game or your story,

    你的遊戲或故事中不同角色的行為

  • in this case controlling the big fish.

    這個例子中,就是要控制那條大魚

  • After you've created your program, you can click on "share,"

    當你創造了你的程式後,你可以點擊「分享」

  • and then share your project with other people,

    接著你就可以把你的程式與其他人分享

  • so that they can use the project

    別人可以用你的程式

  • and start working on the project as well.

    並且也可以調整成他們自己的

  • So, of course, making a fish game isn't the only thing

    當然,創作一個關於魚的遊戲並不是

  • you can do with Scratch.

    Scratch 唯一能夠做的事

  • Of the millions of projects on the Scratch website,

    在Scratch 網站上數以百萬的作品當中

  • there's everything from animated stories

    可以說是包羅萬有, 從動畫故事

  • to school science projects

    到學校科學習作

  • to anime soap operas

    到動漫肥皂劇

  • to virtual construction kits

    到虛擬建築工具箱

  • to recreations of classic video games

    到二次創作的經典電玩遊戲

  • to political opinion polls

    到政治傾向調查

  • to trigonometry tutorials

    到三角幾何學教室

  • to interactive artwork, and, yes,

    到互動藝術作品。對! 還有

  • interactive Mother's Day cards.

    互動母親節賀卡

  • So I think there's so many different ways

    所以我認為這裏有很多的途徑

  • that people can express themselves using this,

    讓人們可以從中表達自己

  • to be able to take their ideas and share their ideas with the world.

    跟全世界分享他們的靈感

  • And it doesn't just stay on the screen.

    而且,這不單單局限在電腦螢幕上

  • You can also code to interact with the physical world around you.

    你可以利用編寫程式,去和周遭的現實世界互動

  • Here's an example from Hong Kong,

    這裏有一個來自香港的例子

  • where some kids made a game

    這些孩子製作了一個遊戲

  • and then built their own physical interface device

    他們打造了一個實體介面裝置

  • and had a light sensor, so the light sensor

    它有一個光感應器,那個感應器

  • detects the hole in the board,

    會感應木板上的那個洞

  • so as they move the physical saw,

    所以在他們移動那把實體鋸子時

  • the light sensor detects the hole

    那個光感應器可以感應到那個洞

  • and controls the virtual saw on the screen

    進而能控制螢幕上的虛擬鋸子

  • and saws down the tree.

    去鋸掉那棵大樹

  • We're going to continue to look at new ways

    我們一直在尋找新的方法

  • of bringing together the physical world and the virtual world

    去連繫現實與虛擬世界

  • and connecting to the world around us.

    並且連接我們周遭的世界

  • This is an example from a new version of Scratch

    這是一個來自新版本Scratch 的例子

  • that we'll be releasing in the next few months,

    將會在數個月之後發佈

  • and we're looking again to be able

    我們再次嘗試

  • to push you in new directions.

    來帶給你新的想法

  • Here's an example.

    這是一個例子

  • It uses the webcam.

    它用上了網絡攝影機

  • And as I move my hand, I can pop the balloons

    當我移動我的手,我可以拍破那些氣球

  • or I can move the bug.

    又或者移動那蟲子

  • So it's a little bit like Microsoft Kinect,

    這有點像微軟的 Kinect 裝置

  • where you interact with gestures in the world.

    讓你可以用身體語言跟世界互動

  • But instead of just playing someone else's game,

    但與其參與其他人的遊戲

  • you get to create the games,

    你可以創作你自己的遊戲

  • and if you see someone else's game,

    如果你看到別人的遊戲

  • you can just say "see inside,"

    你可以說 「讓我們來看看裏面長甚麼樣」

  • and you can look at the stacks of blocks that control it.

    你可以看到那堆控制遊戲的積木

  • So there's a new block that says how much video motion there is,

    這堆新的積木就是顯示攝影機裡有多少動作

  • and then, if there's so much video motion,

    如果有大幅的動作

  • it will then tell the balloon to pop.

    它就會指示那些氣球爆開

  • The same way that this uses the camera

    正如你可以用攝影機

  • to get information into Scratch,

    去輸入資料到 Scratch 一樣

  • you can also use the microphone.

    你亦可以利用麥克風

  • Here's an example of a project using the microphone.

    這是一個利用麥克風創作的例子

  • So I'm going to let all of you control this game

    我將會讓你們所有人一起去控制這個遊戲

  • using your voices.

    用你們的聲音

  • (Crickets chirping) (Shouts) (Chomping)

    (蟋蟀叫聲) (呼叫) (咀嚼聲)

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)(呼叫)(蝙蝠跌落聲)

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

  • As kids are creating projects like this,

    當孩子們在創作這樣的作品時

  • they're learning to code,

    他們在學習編寫電腦程式

  • but even more importantly, they're coding to learn.

    但更重要的是, 他們從編寫電腦程式中學習

  • Because as they learn to code,

    因為從學習編寫電腦程式的過程中

  • it enables them to learn many other things,

    他們可以學到更多其他的東西

  • opens up many new opportunities for learning.

    開啟不同學習機會的大門

  • Again, it's useful to make an analogy to reading and writing.

    再一次,閱讀與寫作的比喻在這裏很有用

  • When you learn to read and write, it opens up

    當你學習閱讀及寫作時, 它們為你引進了

  • opportunities for you to learn so many other things.

    學習更多其他事物的機會

  • When you learn to read, you can then read to learn.

    當你學習閱讀時, 你也同時是經由閱讀去學習到其他事情

  • And it's the same thing with coding.

    編寫電腦程式也是一樣

  • If you learn to code, you can code to learn.

    當你學習編寫電腦程式時, 你也同時藉由程式學習到其他事情

  • Now some of the things you can learn are sort of obvious.

    有一些你可以學到的事情是顯而易見的

  • You learn more about how computers work.

    你可以知道電腦是怎樣運作的

  • But that's just where it starts.

    但這只是個開端

  • When you learn to code, it opens up for you to learn

    當你學習編寫電腦程式時, 它為你開啟學習

  • many other things.

    很多其他東西的大門

  • Let me show you an example.

    讓我為你展示一個例子吧

  • Here's another project,

    這裏有另一個作品

  • and I saw this when I was visiting

    我第一次看到它 是當我在參觀

  • one of the computer clubhouses.

    某一個電腦俱樂部的時候

  • These are after-school learning centers that we helped start

    這是一些我們協助成立的課餘學習中心

  • that help young people from low-income communities

    幫助來自低收入家庭的孩子

  • learn to express themselves creatively with new technologies.

    學習如何利用新科技 有創意地表達自己

  • And when I went to one of the clubhouses a couple years ago,

    當我在幾年前到其中一個這樣的俱樂部時

  • I saw a 13-year-old boy who was using our Scratch software

    我看到一個13歲的男孩用我們的 Scratch

  • to create a game somewhat like this one,

    去創作一個類似這樣的遊戲

  • and he was very happy with his game and proud of his game,

    他非常高興,並且對自己的遊戲感到自豪

  • but also he wanted to do more.

    但他還想做更多

  • He wanted to keep score.

    他希望能夠計分

  • So this was a game where the big fish eats the little fish,

    這是一個大魚吃掉小魚的遊戲

  • but he wanted to keep score, so that each time

    但他希望計分, 所以每當

  • the big fish eats the little fish,

    大魚吃掉小魚的時候

  • the score would go up and it would keep track,

    分數便會上升, 而分數也被記錄下來。

  • and he didn't know how to do that.

    但他不懂得怎樣做

  • So I showed him.

    所以我向他示範可以怎樣做

  • In Scratch, you can create something called a variable.

    在Scratch 裏面, 你可以建立一個物件叫做「變量」

  • I'll call it score.

    我將它取名為「分數」

  • And that creates some new blocks for you,

    接著它會為你建立幾個積木

  • and also creates a little scoreboard that keeps track of the score,

    同時建立一個小小的計分板,幫助你計分

  • so each time I click on "change score," it increments the score.

    每次我點擊「改變分數」時,分數就會增加

  • So I showed this to the clubhouse member --

    所以我向這個會員展示這個方法 --

  • let's call him Victor -- and Victor,

    暫且就叫他做維克多吧 --

  • when he saw that this block would let him increment the score,

    當維克多見到這些積木能夠幫他增加分數時

  • he knew exactly what to do.

    他當下就知道要做些甚麼了

  • He took the block

    他拿了這些積木

  • and he put it into the program

    把它們放進自己的程式中

  • exactly where the big fish eats the little fish.

    正放到大魚吃掉小魚的動作之後

  • So then, each time the big fish eats the little fish,

    接著,每次當大魚要吃小魚的時候

  • he will increment the score, and the score will go up by one.

    他就會增加分數,那個分數會增加一分

  • And it's in fact working.

    這的確是可以運作的

  • And he saw this, and he was so excited,

    當他看到這裡,他非常地興奮

  • he reached his hand out to me,

    他向我伸出手

  • and he said, "Thank you, thank you, thank you."

    不斷地說: 「謝謝,謝謝,謝謝」

  • And what went through my mind was,

    那個時候我心想:

  • how often is it that teachers are thanked by their students

    學校裡的老師有多常被學生這樣感謝呢?

  • for teaching