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自動翻譯
  • Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    謄寫員:Ivana Korom 審稿人:Joanna Pietrulewicz。Joanna Pietrulewicz

  • In the early months of the pandemic,

    在大流行的最初幾個月。

  • chef José Andrés circulated two photos

    廚師何塞-安德烈斯傳出兩張照片。

  • that have come to symbolize a modern American food crisis.

    已經成為現代美國糧食危機的象徵。

  • The first shows mountains of potatoes

    第一張是洋芋山

  • that have been left to rot in a field in Idaho.

    在愛達荷州的田野裡腐爛。

  • The restaurants and cafeterias and stadiums that had consumed them

    消費過的餐廳、食堂和體育場館。

  • were shuttered during the pandemic.

    疫情期間被關閉。

  • The second shows a devastating scene outside of the San Antonio food bank.

    第二張是聖安東尼奧食物銀行外的破壞性場景。

  • Thousands of carloads of people lined up,

    數千車人排隊。

  • waiting for food with not enough supply to go around.

    等著吃,卻沒有足夠的供應。

  • "How is it possible these two photos exist at the same time,

    "這兩張照片怎麼可能同時存在。

  • in the most prosperous

    盛極一時

  • and technologically advanced moment in our history," tweeted Andrés.

    和技術先進的時刻,我們的歷史,"推特上的安德烈斯。

  • In the months after the photos were published,

    在照片發表後的幾個月裡。

  • the crisis got worse.

    危機變得更糟。

  • Billions of pounds of potatoes and other fresh produce

    數十億磅的洋芋和其他新鮮產品

  • were chucked by American farmers.

    被美國農民攆走了。

  • At the same time,

    同時。

  • food banks all over the country were reporting demand increases

    全國各地的食物銀行都報告說需求增加了。

  • and 40 percent were facing critical shortfalls.

    和40%面臨嚴重不足。

  • Outside the US,

    在美國之外。

  • especially in the Middle East and throughout Southeastern Africa,

    特別是在中東和整個東南部非洲,

  • COVID-19 was paralyzing food systems that were already vulnerable.

    COVID-19使本來就脆弱的糧食系統陷入癱瘓。

  • Oxfam has predicted that by the end of 2020

    牛津救濟會預計,到2020年底

  • 12,000 people per day could die of hunger related to COVID.

    每天可能有12000人死於與COVID有關的飢餓。

  • That's more than the highest daily mortality rate

    這比最高的日死亡率還要高。

  • recorded so far.

    迄今為止,記錄。

  • But what's worse

    但更糟糕的是

  • and what's much more concerning to all of us

    更加關乎我們大家的是什麼?

  • is that COVID is just one of many major disruptions

    是,COVID只是眾多重大幹擾之一。

  • that have been predicted

    預測的

  • in the years and decades ahead.

    在未來的幾年和幾十年裡。

  • More chronic and complex than the pressures of COVID

    比COVID的壓力更為長期和複雜。

  • are the pressures of climate change.

    是氣候變化的壓力。

  • And those of you who live in California have seen this on your farms.

    而那些住在加州的人,在你們的農場裡也看到了這種情況。

  • You've seen withering heat and drought and fires

    你見過酷暑、乾旱和火災。

  • disrupt avocado and almond and citrus and strawberry farms.

    破壞牛油果、杏仁、柑橘和草莓農場。

  • This summer, we saw the devastating impacts of storms

    今年夏天,我們看到了風暴的破壞性影響。

  • on corn and soy farms.

    玉米和大豆農場上。

  • I've seen the various pressures of drought,

    我見過乾旱的各種壓力。

  • heat, flooding, superstorms,

    熱、洪水、超級風暴。

  • invasive insects, bacterial blight,

    入侵性昆蟲、細菌性枯萎病。

  • shifting seasons and weather volatility

    季節性和天氣波動

  • from Washington to Florida,

    從華盛頓到佛羅里達

  • and from Guatemala to Australia.

    並從瓜地馬拉到澳洲。

  • The upshot is this.

    結果是這樣的。

  • Climate change is becoming something we can taste.

    氣候變化正在成為我們可以品嚐的東西。

  • This is a kitchen-table issue in the literal sense.

    這是一個字面意義上的餐桌問題。

  • The International Panel on Climate Change

    國際氣候變化小組

  • has predicted that by mid-century

    據預測,到本世紀中葉

  • the world may reach a threshold of global warming

    世界可能達到全球變暖的臨界點。

  • beyond which current agricultural practices

    耕作方式的影響

  • can no longer support large human civilizations.

    不能再支持大型的人類文明。

  • The USDA scientist Jerry Hatfield put it to me this way:

    美國農業部的科學家Jerry Hatfield這樣對我說。

  • the single biggest threat of climate change

    氣候變化的最大威脅

  • is the collapse of food systems.

    是糧食系統的崩潰。

  • The reality we face,

    我們面臨的現實。

  • one that was exposed by those mountains of potatoes

    暴露在洋芋山下的那一個

  • and the cars lined up during the pandemic,

    以及大流行期間排隊的汽車。

  • is that our supply chains are antiquated.

    是我們的供應鏈已經過時了。

  • Our food systems have not been designed

    我們的食物系統並沒有被設計成

  • to adapt to major disruptions or preempt them.

    適應重大幹擾或先發制人。

  • Addressing this challenge as much as any other

    應對這一挑戰與應對任何其他挑戰一樣重要

  • is going to define our progress in the coming century.

    將決定我們在下個世紀的進步。

  • But there's good news.

    但也有好消息。

  • And the good news is that farmers and entrepreneurs and academics

    而好消息是,農民和企業家以及學者們

  • are radically rethinking national and global food systems.

    正在從根本上重新思考國家和全球糧食系統。

  • They are marrying principles of old-world agroecology

    他們正在結合舊世界的農業生態學原則。

  • and state-of-the-art technologies

    和最先進的技術

  • to create what I call a third way to our food future.

    以創造我所說的第三條通往我們食物未來的道路。

  • We're going to see radical changes

    我們將看到徹底的改變

  • in what we grow and how we eat in the coming decades,

    在未來幾十年裡,我們的種植和飲食方式都會發生變化。

  • as these environmental and population

    因為這些環境和人口

  • and public health pressures intensify.

    和公共衛生壓力加劇。

  • I studied these changes for my book "The Fate of Food:

    我為我的《食物的命運》一書研究了這些變化。

  • What We'll Eat in a Bigger, Hotter, Smarter World."

    在一個更大、更熱、更智能的世界裡,我們會吃什麼。"

  • I traveled for five years into the lands and the minds

    我旅行了五年,進入了土地和思想。

  • and the machines that are shaping the future of food.

    以及正在塑造未來食品的機器。

  • My travels took me through 15 countries and 18 states,

    我的旅行經歷了15個國家和18個州。

  • from apple orchards in Wisconsin to tiny cornfields in Kenya,

    從威斯康星州的蘋果園到肯亞的小玉米田。

  • to massive Norwegian fish farms

    挪威大規模養魚場

  • and computerized foodscapes in Shanghai.

    和上海的計算機化菜場。

  • I investigated new ideas,

    我調查了新的想法。

  • like robotics and CRISPR and vertical farms.

    比如機器人和CRISPR以及垂直農場。

  • And old ideas, like edible insects and permaculture and ancient plants.

    還有老觀念,比如食用昆蟲、養生、古植物。

  • I began to see the emergence of this third way to food production.

    我開始看到這第三種糧食生產方式的出現。

  • A synthesis of the traditional and the radically new.

    傳統與全新的綜合體。

  • There's a growing controversy

    爭議越來越大

  • about the best path to future food security in the US.

    關於美國未來糧食安全的最佳路徑。

  • Food is ripe for reinvention, Bill Gates has proclaimed.

    比爾-蓋茨曾宣稱,食品的再創造已經成熟。

  • Huge flows of investment

    大量投資流動

  • are funding new methods of climate-smart and high-tech agriculture.

    正在資助氣候智能型和高科技農業的新方法;

  • But many sustainable food advocates bristle at this idea of reinvention.

    但許多可持續食品的倡導者對這種重塑的想法嗤之以鼻。

  • They want food deinvented.

    他們想讓食物去發明。

  • They argue for a return to preindustrial

    他們主張恢復到工業化前的狀態。

  • and pre-green revolution,

    和綠色革命前。

  • biodynamic and organic farming.

    生物動力和有機農業;

  • To which skeptics inevitably respond,

    對此,懷疑論者不可避免地做出了迴應。

  • "Nice, but does it scale?

    "不錯,但它有規模嗎?

  • Sure, a return to traditional farming methods

    當然,迴歸傳統的耕作方式

  • could produce better food,

    可以生產更好的食物。

  • but can it produce enough food that's affordable?"

    但它能不能生產出足夠多的糧食,讓人負擔得起?"

  • The rift between the reinvention camp and the deinvention camp

    重塑陣營與非重塑陣營之間的裂痕。

  • has existed for decades.

    已經存在了幾十年。

  • But now it's a raging battle.

    但現在卻是戰火紛飛。

  • One side covets the past,

    一邊貪戀過去。

  • the other side covets the future

    覬覦未來

  • and as someone observing this from the outside,

    而作為一個從外面觀察到這一點的人。

  • I began to wonder, why must it be so binary?

    我開始疑惑,為什麼一定要這麼二進制?

  • Can't there be a synthesis of the two approaches?

    就不能把這兩種方法綜合起來嗎?

  • Our challenge is to borrow from the wisdom of the ages,

    我們的挑戰是借用時代的智慧。

  • and from our most advanced science,

    並從我們最先進的科學。

  • to forge this third way.

    來鍛造這第三條路。

  • One that allows us to improve and scale our harvests,

    一個可以讓我們改善和擴大收穫的。

  • while restoring rather than degrading

    同時恢復而不是降低

  • the underlying web of life.

    生活的底層網絡。

  • I belong to neither camp.

    我不屬於任何一個陣營。

  • I'm a failed vegan and a lapsed vegetarian,

    我是一個失敗的素食主義者,也是一個失敗的素食主義者。

  • and a terrible backyard farmer.

    和一個可怕的後院農夫。

  • If I'm honest,

    如果我是誠實的。

  • I will keep trying at this, but I may fail.

    我會繼續努力,但我可能會失敗。

  • But I'm hell-bent on hope,

    但我一心想著希望。

  • and if my travels have taught me anything,

    如果我的旅行教會了我什麼,

  • it's that there's good reason for hope.

    是有充分的理由希望。

  • Plenty of solutions are merging

    大量的解決方案正在合併

  • that can help build sustainable, resilient food systems.

    可幫助建立可持續、有復原力的糧食系統。

  • Even if we can't rely on a critical mass

    即使我們不能依靠一個臨界點。

  • of backyard-farming vegetarians to do this on their own,

    的後院養殖素食者自己做。

  • from the ground up.

    從根本上。

  • Let's start with artificial intelligence and robotics.

    先說說人工智能和機器人吧。

  • Jorge Heraud is a Peruvian-born engineer

    Jorge Heraud是祕魯出生的工程師。

  • who now lives in Silicon Valley,

    現居硅谷的他。

  • and his company developed a robotic weeder named See and Spray,

    和他的公司開發了一個名為See和Spray的機器人織機。

  • and I went to Arkansas to see the maiden voyage of See and Spray.

    我去阿肯色州看了 "See and Spray "號的處女航。

  • And I was half expecting a battalion of C3PO-style robots

    我還以為是C3PO式的機器人大隊呢

  • to march into the fields with pincer hands to pluck the weeds.

    用鉗子手行進到田裡拔草。

  • And instead, I found this.

    而我卻發現了這個。

  • A tractor with a big, white hoop skirt off the back of it.

    一輛拖拉機,後面脫了個大白圈裙。

  • And inside that hoop skirt are 24 cameras

    而那條環形裙裡面有24個攝像頭

  • that use computer vision to see the ground beneath

    利用計算機視覺來觀察地下的地面。

  • and to distinguish between the plants and the weeds.

    並區分植物和雜草。

  • And to deploy with sniper-like precision

    並以狙擊手般的精準度進行部署

  • these tiny jets of concentrated fertilizer,

    這些微小的濃縮肥料的噴射。

  • or herbicide,

    或除草劑。

  • that incinerate the baby weeds.

    焚燒嬰兒雜草的。

  • I learned how robotics can end the practice

    我知道了機器人技術如何結束實踐

  • of broadcast spraying chemicals across millions of acres of land

    在數百萬英畝土地上廣播噴灑化學藥劑的情況。

  • and how we can reduce the use of herbicides

    以及我們如何減少除草劑的使用。

  • by up to 90 percent.

    高達90%。

  • But the bigger picture is even more exciting.

    但更大的格局更讓人興奮。

  • Intelligent machines can treat plants individually,

    智能機器可以單獨處理植物。

  • applying not just herbicides

    不僅僅是使用除草劑

  • but fungicides and insecticides

    但殺真菌和殺蟲劑

  • and fertilizers on a plant-by-plant, rather than field-by-field basis.

    和肥料,而不是逐個田塊進行。

  • So that eventually,

    所以,最終。

  • this kind of hyperspecific farming

    這種超特異性農作

  • can allow for more diversity and intercropping on fields.

    可以使田地更加多樣化和互作。

  • And big farms can begin to mimic natural systems

    而大農場可以開始模仿自然系統

  • and improve soil health.

    並改善土壤健康狀況。

  • Heraud is the embodiment of third-way thinking, right?

    赫拉德是第三種思維的體現吧?

  • Robots, he told me,

    他告訴我,機器人。

  • don't have to remove us from nature,

    不需要把我們從自然界中移除。

  • they can bring us closer to it, they can restore it.

    他們可以讓我們更接近它, 他們可以恢復它。

  • Increasing crop diversity will be crucial

    增加作物多樣性將是至關重要的

  • to building resilient food systems.

    建立有彈性的糧食系統。

  • And so will decentralizing agriculture

    農業的分散化也將如此

  • so that when farmers in one region are disrupted,

    以便當一個地區的農民受到干擾時。

  • the others around, they can keep growing.

    周圍的其他人,他們可以繼續成長。

  • The rise of vertical farms,

    垂直農場的興起。

  • like this farm, built inside a former steel mill in Newark, New Jersey,

    像這個農場,建在新澤西州紐瓦克的一個前鋼鐵廠內。

  • can play a key role in decentralizing agriculture.

    可以在農業分散化方面發揮關鍵作用。

  • Aeroponic farms use a tiny fraction

    氣耕農場只用了極小的一部分。

  • of the water that is used in in-ground farms.

    地養殖場用水的比例。

  • And they can grow food much faster, about 40 percent faster.

    而且它們種植糧食的速度更快,大約快40%。

  • And when located in and near cities,

    而當位於城市及附近的。

  • where the food is consumed,

    食的地方。

  • they eliminate a huge amount of trucking and food waste.

    他們消除了大量的卡車運輸和食物浪費。

  • It struck me at first as creepy

    我一開始覺得很詭異。

  • in kind of a "Silent Running" way

    沉默的奔跑

  • that we'd be growing our future fruits and vegetables

    我們將在未來的水果和蔬菜的種植。

  • inside, without soil or sun.

    內,沒有土壤和陽光。

  • And after weeks of spending time in these plant factories,

    而在這些工廠工廠裡呆了幾個星期後。

  • I began to see it as oddly, almost perfectly natural

    我開始覺得這很奇怪,幾乎是很自然的事。

  • to deliver the plants only and exactly what they need,

    只為植物提供它們所需要的東西。

  • with zero herbicides and radical efficiency.

    具有零除草劑和根本效率。

  • Here again, we see innovators borrowing from,

    在這裡,我們又看到了創新者的借鏡。

  • and perhaps even elevating the wisdom of natural ecosystems.

    甚至可能提升自然生態系統的智慧。

  • Developments in plant-based and alternative meats

    植物性肉類和替代性肉類的發展情況

  • are also profoundly hopeful.

    也是深刻的希望。

  • And they follow a similar trend

    而它們也遵循著類似的趨勢

  • toward local, resilient, low-carbon protein production.

    朝著在地的、有彈性的、低碳的蛋白質生產方向發展。

  • Consumers are excited about this,

    消費者對此很興奮。

  • and during the pandemic,

    和大流行期間。

  • we've seen a 250 percent increase

    我們已經看到了250%的增長

  • in demand for alternative meats.

    對替代肉類的需求。

  • A study by the Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    臨床營養學雜誌》的一項研究

  • found that the participants who were eating the plant-based proteins

    發現食用植物性蛋白質的參與者。

  • saw a drop in their cholesterol levels,

    看到他們的膽固醇水準下降。

  • in their weight

    重量上

  • and eventually, a drop in their risk of heart disease.

    並最終使其患心臟病的風險下降。

  • The potential environmental benefits of plant-based meats are astounding.

    植物性肉類的潛在環境效益是驚人的。

  • And there's even potential in lab-grown or cell-based meats.

    而在實驗室種植的肉類或基於細胞的肉類中,甚至還有潛力。

  • Uma Valeti fed me my first plate of lab-grown duck breast,

    烏瑪-瓦力提餵我吃了第一盤實驗室長大的鴨胸肉。

  • harvested fresh from a bioreactor.

    從生物反應器中新鮮收穫。

  • It had been grown from a small sampling of cells

    它是從一小部分細胞中生長出來的。

  • taken from muscle tissue and fat and connective tissues,

    取自肌肉組織和脂肪及結締組織。

  • which is exactly what we eat when we eat meat.

    這正是我們吃肉時吃的東西。

  • This lab-grown or cell-based duck meat

    這種實驗室培養的鴨肉或細胞型鴨肉。

  • has very little threat of bacterial contamination,

    細菌汙染的威脅非常小。

  • it's about 85 percent lower CO2 emissions associated with it.

    與之相關的二氧化碳排放量降低了85%左右。

  • Eventually it can be grown

    最終,它可以成長為

  • like those crops inside vertical farms in decentralized facilities

    就像那些分散的垂直農場內的農作物一樣。

  • that aren't vulnerable to supply-chain disruptions.

    不容易受到供應鏈中斷的影響。

  • Valeti started out as a cardiologist,

    瓦萊蒂是以心臟科醫生起家的。

  • who understood that doctors have been developing

    誰明白醫生一直在發展

  • human and animal tissues in laboratories for decades.

    人類和動物組織在實驗室中的幾十年。

  • He was inspired as much by that

    他的靈感也是如此

  • as he was by a 1931 quote from Winston Churchill that says,

    因為他被1931年溫斯頓-丘吉爾的一句話說:。

  • "We shall escape the absurdity of growing the whole chicken

    "我們將擺脫整隻雞生長的荒謬性

  • in order to eat the breast or the wing,

    為了吃胸脯或翅膀。

  • by growing them separately in suitable mediums."

    通過在合適的介質中分別種植它們"。

  • Like Heraud, Valeti is a quintessential third-way thinker.

    和赫拉德一樣,瓦萊蒂也是典型的第三條道路的思考者。

  • He's reimagined an old idea using new technology,

    他用新技術重塑了一個古老的想法。

  • to usher in a solution whose time has come.

    迎來一個時代已經到來的解決方案。

  • I've met with dozens of farmers and entrepreneurs and engineers

    我見過幾十個農民、企業家和工程師。

  • who emulate third-way thinking, all over the world.

    模仿三觀的人,在全世界範圍內。

  • They're using modern breeding tools like CRISPR

    他們正在使用CRISPR等現代育種工具。

  • to develop nutritious heirloom crops that can withstand drought and heat.

    以發展營養豐富、耐旱耐熱的傳家寶作物。

  • They're using AI to make aquaculture sustainable.

    他們正在利用人工智能來實現水產養殖的可持續發展。

  • They're finding ways to eliminate food waste.

    他們正在想辦法消除食物浪費。

  • They are scaling up

    他們正在擴大規模

  • conservation agriculture and managed grazing.

    保護性農業和管理性放牧;

  • And they're reviving ancient plants,

    而且他們正在復興古老的植物。

  • and they're recycling sewage and gray water

    他們在回收汙水和灰水

  • to develop a drought-proof water supply.

    以發展抗旱供水。

  • The upshot is this:

    結果是這樣的。

  • Human innovation that marries old and new approaches to food production

    將新舊糧食生產方式相結合的人類創新;

  • can, and I believe, will usher in this third way

    可以,而且我相信,將迎來這第三條道路。

  • and redefine sustainable food on a grand scale.

    並重新定義大規模的可持續食品。

Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

謄寫員:Ivana Korom 審稿人:Joanna Pietrulewicz。Joanna Pietrulewicz

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B2 中高級 中文 糧食 農場 農業 機器人 種植 食物

氣候變化正在成為一個你可以品嚐的問題|阿曼達-利特爾 (Climate change is becoming a problem you can taste | Amanda Little)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 17 日