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  • Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • The air smelled smoky and sulfurous.

    空氣聞起來有煙味和硫磺味。

  • I just stepped off a rickety train to Korba,

    我剛步出前往科爾巴縣的搖晃列車,

  • deep in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh,

    科爾巴縣為在恰蒂斯加爾邦深處,

  • and home to a dozen coal power plants

    這裡有十多個燃煤發電廠,

  • and India's largest open-pit coal mine.

    還有印度最大的露天煤礦場。

  • There it is,

    就是這裡,

  • a literal hellscape,

    真的是個地獄景觀,

  • complete with infernal fires that burn 24/7.

    地獄之火不斷燃燒,全年無休。

  • But, in Korba, coal is life.

    但,在科爾巴,煤礦就是生命。

  • Most people I talked to accepted

    我交談過的人,多半都接受 煤礦經濟支撐著他們的生計,

  • that the coal economy powers their livelihoods,

    卻也在緩慢地害死他們。

  • but it is slowly killing them.

    這是在燃煤發電廠旁邊的社區。

  • Here's a community next door to a coal plant.

    每天早上他們起床時,就有 一層新的灰覆蓋住他們的家,

  • They wake every morning to homes coated in a fresh layer of ash

    灰的來源是電廠噴出的煙。

  • from the smoke that the plant belches.

    科爾巴是地球上污染 最嚴重的地方之一。

  • Korba is one of the most critically polluted places on the planet.

    受到創傷的不只是煤鄉,

  • And it's not just coal country that's hurting,

    整個印度都有致命的化石燃料癮。

  • all of India has a deadly addiction to fossil fuels.

    地球上污染最嚴重的三十個地方 就有二十二個在印度。

  • India's home to 22 of the world's 30 most polluted places on the planet.

    在首都德里,

  • In Delhi, the capital,

    居民平均失去 9.4 年的壽命。

  • residents lose 9.4 years off their life expectancy on average.

    2020 年,因為新型冠狀病毒封城, 可以短暫看到清澈的天空,

  • In 2020, the skies briefly cleared during the coronavirus lockdown,

    因為路上沒有汽車,工廠關閉,

  • as cars stayed off the roads, factories shuttered

    電廠減產。

  • and power plants ramped down.

    但經濟混亂導致四億印度人

  • But the economic dislocation

    面臨更深陷貧窮的風險。

  • has put 400 million Indians at risk of falling deeper into poverty.

    印度不應該得要犧牲發展 才能換取可呼吸的空氣。

  • India should not have to sacrifice development for breathable air.

    有更好的方式。

  • There is a better way.

    因為印度有個歷史性的機會

  • For India has a historic opportunity to industrialize using clean energy.

    可將乾淨能源的使用給工業化。

  • That opportunity is why I moved halfway around the world

    那個機會,就是我從美國 飛過半個地球到印度

  • from the US to India to join ReNew Power,

    加入 ReNew Power 的原因,

  • India's largest renewable energy company, as CTO.

    我去印度這間最大的 可再生能源公司擔任技術長。

  • After two years of crisscrossing the country,

    我花了兩年時間跑遍印度各地,

  • I've seen green shoots everywhere,

    且在各處都看見綠芽,

  • of a budding clean energy boom,

    看見乾淨能源萌芽繁盛,

  • daring me to hope

    我大膽地希望,印度能夠成功

  • that India can pull off the world's most important energy transition.

    做到世界上最重要的能源轉型。

  • Its choices will make or break the world's fight against climate change,

    印度的選擇會是全世界 對抗氣候變遷的關鍵,

  • for if India chooses fossil fuels to power its growing economy,

    因為,如果印度選擇用化石燃料 來支撐不斷成長的經濟,

  • its carbon emissions could explode,

    碳排放可能會爆增,

  • making it the world's number one emitter later this century.

    讓印度在本世紀的晚些時候 成為世界第一的排放國。

  • Still, for most Indians fossil fuels are a luxury.

    不過,對大部分印度人而言, 化石燃料是奢侈品。

  • Most live in rural areas,

    大部分人住在鄉村,

  • and wood, cow dung and bioenergy sources

    木材、牛糞,以及生物能源的來源

  • account for two-thirds of household energy use.

    佔了家庭能源的使用的三分之二。

  • Just six percent of Indians own cars,

    只有 6% 的印度人 擁有汽車,2% 有冷氣。

  • and two percent have air conditioning.

    若要脫離貧窮,用現代、 有尊嚴的生活方式過日子,

  • Indians will need far more energy

    印度會需要更大量的能源。

  • to escape poverty and live modern, dignified lifestyles.

    到 2050 年,大部分人會住在城市中,

  • By 2050 most will live in cities,

    他們會想要開車去工作 並讓家中涼爽些。

  • and they'll want to drive to work and cool their homes.

    過程中,印度會變成 世界上人口最多的國家,

  • Along the way, India will become the world's most populous country,

    到世紀中,就會有 16 億人。

  • home to 1.6 billion people by mid-century.

    印度的經濟規模可能會變成十倍;

  • Its economy could multiply tenfold;

    能源需求可能會變成四倍。

  • its energy needs could quadruple.

    現今,印度的能源有四分之三 來自燃煤、石油,和天然氣,

  • Today, coal, oil and gas supply three-quarters of India's energy,

    產生電力、供油給汽車, 並供電給印度的工廠。

  • producing electricity, fueling vehicles and powering India's factories.

    如果,到 2050 年,

  • If, by 2050, India still gets the same proportion from fossil fuels,

    印度的化石燃料比重仍然不變,

  • it'll be a disaster for everyone,

    對所有人都會是場災難,

  • not least local populations,

    尤其是當地人,

  • vulnerable to pollution, climate change or rapacious new coal mining.

    最容易受到污染、氣候變遷, 或貪婪的新採煤所傷害。

  • Instead, India can make renewable energy the beating heart of a reimagined economy

    印度也能換個方式,

  • by achieving three audacious goals all at the same time.

    讓可再生能源成為 重新構想之經濟體的核心,

  • It's a route no country in history has ever taken,

    那就需要同時達成三個大膽的目標:

  • but it is possible,

    歷史上沒有一個國家走上這條路,

  • and this moment demands it.

    但,是有可能的,

  • First, India will need to build solar and wind power

    時代也需要印度這麼做。

  • at an unprecedented scale and speed,

    首先,印度得要建造 太陽能和風力發電,

  • replacing coal-fired power plants.

    規模和速度都必須史無前例,

  • Second, India will need to extend the reach of that renewable energy

    將燃煤電廠取代掉。

  • to power sectors of the economy like industry and transportation

    第二,印度必須將那些 可再生能源的觸及範圍再延伸,

  • that haven't traditionally used electricity.

    供電給其他經濟部門, 如工業和交通,

  • And third, India must become radically more energy-efficient.

    傳統上尚未使用電力的部門。

  • Here's my plan to achieve all three goals.

    第三,印度必須大大提高能源效率。

  • First, India must build thousands of gigawatts of solar and wind power.

    我有個計畫,可以達成這三個目標。

  • To put this in context,

    首先,印度必須建立 數百萬兆瓦的太陽能和風力電力。

  • it will be more than enough renewable energy to power all of America.

    更清楚來說,

  • Fortunately, India is blessed with abundant sunshine.

    這些可再生能源的量 要能供應整個美國還有餘。

  • In theory, you could supply all of its energy needs

    幸運的是,印度有天賜的大量陽光。

  • by tapping the sunlight

    理論上,供應印度的所有能源需求,

  • that shines on less than 10 percent of India's wastelands.

    只需要取得照射在印度

  • India also has substantial untapped wind potential

    不到 10% 荒地的太陽就夠了。

  • on land and offshore.

    印度也有很充足且尚未利用的風力,

  • Wind and solar complement each other

    陸地上和海邊都有。

  • because the wind often blows harder when it's less sunny,

    風力和太陽能彼此互補,

  • like during the monsoon rains.

    因為在較沒有太陽時, 風力通常都較強,

  • Here's some even more exciting news:

    比如雨季下雨時。

  • Wind and solar power are now cheaper than coal power,

    還有更讓人興奮的消息:

  • and it costs less to build a solar farm in India

    現在風力和太陽能發電 已經比燃煤發電更便宜了,

  • than anywhere else in the world.

    在印度建造太陽能發電場的成本

  • Batteries have also become dramatically cheaper,

    比全世界任何地方都低。

  • making it possible to store and deliver energy on demand.

    電池也變得便宜許多,

  • Thanks to falling costs, renewable energy has risen rapidly,

    是有可能做到根據需求 來貯存和遞送電力的。

  • but it will need to grow even more explosively

    因為成本下降, 可再生能源快速興起,

  • through mid-century.

    但它得要在這個世紀中期 有更爆發性的成長。

  • This is the critical decade to invest in solar and wind power

    若要投資太陽能和風力發電, 避免再繼續使用新的、

  • and avoid locking in new, long-lived coal power plants.

    長久的燃煤發電廠, 這十年會是關鍵。

  • India must also urgently expand its grid

    印度也必須盡快擴展電力網,

  • to deliver power for massive solar and wind plants

    將電力從陽光普照的 拉賈斯坦邦沙漠或強風不斷的

  • in the sun-soaked deserts of Rajasthan or the windy coast of Gujarat,

    古加拉特邦沿岸的 大型太陽能和風力發電廠

  • to energy-hungry cities like Mumbai.

    遞送給迫切需要能源的城市,

  • Not all renewables should be built at massive scale.

    如孟買。

  • Distributed solar,

    並非所有的可再生能源 都能大規模建造。

  • on the rooftops of warehouses or the outskirts of sprawling cities,

    分佈式太陽能,

  • can produce power close to where it's needed.

    設置在倉房的屋頂上 或龐大城市的郊區,

  • Now, to be sure, nuclear and hydropower

    就供給電力給有需要的鄰近地點。

  • will be essential to energy transitions around the world.

    無可否認,核能和水力發電

  • But India simply lacks the state capacity needed

    對於全世界的能源轉型都很重要。

  • to build complex pricey projects at a breakneck pace,

    但印度就是沒有足夠的國家能力

  • and all that push to build renewable wind and solar power

    來快速建造複雜又昂貴的發電計畫,

  • best plays to India's strengths.

    而建造可再生風力和太陽能發電

  • The second audacious goal

    才是印度可以做好的。

  • is to use renewable energy across the economy,

    第二個大膽目標

  • including in sectors like industry and transportation

    是要讓整個經濟結構 都使用可再生能源,

  • that don't use electricity today.

    包括工業和交通等

  • As rising renewable energy makes the power grid cleaner,

    現今尚未使用電力的部門,

  • India should make all of its trains run on electricity

    隨著可再生能源興起, 電力網會變得更乾淨,

  • and move more heavy freight from heavy trucks to rail.

    印度應該就可以讓 所有的火車使用電力,

  • India's road vehicle fleet can also go electric.

    將大量的貨運 從重型卡車轉到鐵路上。

  • Now, to be clear,

    印度道路上的車輛也可以轉而用電。

  • we're mostly not talking about these electric vehicles,

    讓我說清楚,

  • but these.

    我們談的不是這種電動車,

  • Two- and three-wheelers

    是這種。

  • make up more than 80 percent of India's vehicle fleet.

    二輪和三輪車

  • To accelerate the adoption of electric scooters and rickshaws,

    佔印度車輛的比例高達 80%。

  • India should build out charging stations

    若要加速採用電動機車和三輪車,

  • and beef up local power grids

    印度應該要建造充電站,

  • to handle the influx of electricity demand.

    並增強當地的電力網,

  • Still, electrification won't work everywhere.

    以因應大量出現的電力需求。

  • It may not be possible to use electricity to power some heavy industrial processes

    不過,電氣化不是處處都行得通。

  • in the fast-growing steel, cement, fertilizer and petrochemical sectors.

    可能無法用電力來供應能源 給快速成長的製鋼、

  • Plants may need to add equipment

    水泥、肥料,及石油化學等 部門中的一些重工業流程。

  • to capture carbon emissions from burning fossil fuels.

    廠房可能需要加裝設備

  • Another solution could be clean hydrogen.

    來捕集燃燒化石燃料造成的碳排放。

  • Surplus renewable electricity can run machines called electrolyzers

    另一個可能的解決方案是是清淨氫。

  • that can split water into oxygen and green hydrogen fuel.

    過剩的可再生電力 可以供應給一種叫做電解器的機器,

  • That hydrogen can then power applications in transportation and industry,

    它能夠將水分解成 氧氣和綠色氫燃料。

  • such as making steel or chemicals.

    那些氫就能用來供給能源 給交通和工業上的應用,

  • Hydrogen can also act as a sort of battery,

    比如製造鋼或化學物。

  • storing surplus wind and solar power to be used later.

    氫也能當電池用,

  • Finally, the third goal is to radically improve energy efficiency.

    貯存過剩的風力和太陽能 電力,供後續使用。

  • If there's any country in the world where efficiency is all-important,

    最後,第三個目標

  • it's India.

    是要快速改善能源效率。

  • Even if India builds a massive supply of renewable energy

    如果全世界有任何 一個國家要很重視效率,

  • and extends the reach of that energy by stitching together its economy,

    那就是印度。

  • it won't be enough without energy efficiency.

    就算印度能夠大量供應可再生能源,

  • Because if India's voracious demand for energy rises too quickly,

    且將其經濟結構整合, 擴展那些能源的觸及範圍,

  • it'll have to fill the gap with polluting fossil fuels.

    若沒有能源效率,還是不夠的。

  • Here's a crazy statistic:

    因為若印度對能源的需求增加太快,

  • Just to power the insane demand for air conditioning,

    就必須要用造成污染的 化石燃料來填補不足。

  • India will need to add 70 percent of the power system capacity

    統計起來很嚇人:

  • of all of Europe today.

    光是供應冷氣的大量電力需求,

  • And because much of India is hot and humid,

    印度必須要增加的電力系統產能

  • air conditioning demand will peak during sweaty nights,

    等同於當今全歐洲加起來的 70%。

  • making it tough for solar to power ACs.

    且因為印度大部分地區既熱又濕,

  • But far more efficient air conditioners could make it possible

    在讓人出汗的夜晚, 冷氣需求會達到高峰,

  • to power the aspirations of a rising middle class

    此時就很難用太陽能來供應交流電。

  • with renewable energy.

    但如果用更有效能的冷氣機,

  • India's big advantage is that it's largely a clean slate.

    就有可能靠可再生能源

  • An incredible 70 percent of India's infrastructure in 2030

    供電給不斷成長的中產階級。

  • hasn't been built yet.

    印度有個大優勢: 印度大致上可以重頭開始。

  • That presents a huge opportunity to enact stringent efficiency standards

    印度 2030 年的基礎設施, 高達 70% 目前都尚未建造起來。

  • and design energy-efficient buildings and cities.

    那是個大好機會,

  • Still, there are warning signs

    可以制訂嚴格的效能標準,

  • that India's energy transition could sputter out.

    並設計高能源效率的建築物和城市。

  • COVID-19 sharply slowed

    但,仍然有警訊顯示

  • the building of new renewable energy plants.

    印度的能源轉型可能會失敗。

  • Even larger challenges loom.

    新型冠狀病毒疫情大大減緩了

  • First, India's electricity distribution utilities

    建造新再生能源發電廠的速度。

  • are mismanaged, economically fragile

    還有更大的挑戰在逼近。

  • and forced by many states

    首先,印度的配電公用事業

  • to subsidize power to farmers and residential customers.

    管理不當且在經濟上十分脆弱,

  • India needs reforms

    且被許多邦強迫要求

  • to more efficiently combat energy poverty

    要補助農民和住宅用戶的用電。

  • while overhauling unprofitable utilities so they can pay for clean energy on time.

    印度需要改革才能用 更有效的方式對抗能源貧窮,

  • Doing so will make it possible

    同時全面檢視無法獲利的公用事業, 讓它們能準時支付乾淨能源。

  • to raise trillions of dollars at home and abroad

    這麼做就有可能

  • to finance India's clean energy transition.

    在國內外籌得數兆美金,

  • Second, that transition will stall without new and improved technologies.

    來資助印度的乾淨能源轉型。

  • Here's an economic opportunity

    第二,若沒有改良的新科技, 轉型也會陷入泥潭。

  • for India to cultivate advanced clean energy industries.

    這是個經濟上的機會,

  • In the future, India should manufacture and export

    印度可以藉機培養 先進的乾淨能源產業。

  • energy-efficient air conditioners,

    在未來,印度應該要製造和出口

  • electric two- and three-wheelers

    高能源效率的冷氣機、 電動機車和三輪車,

  • and equipment to produce and use hydrogen.

    以及製造和使用氫的設備。

  • India's already strong in wind power manufacturing,

    印度在風力發電製造 方面已經很強了,

  • and it could become a global leader in digital energy technologies.

    在數位能源科技上, 印度可以成為全球的領導者。

  • The international community can help here

    如果國際社會想要幫忙,

  • by funding innovation to make India's energy transition faster

    可以資助創新來讓印度的能源轉型 更快速、更能負擔得起。

  • and more affordable.

    像美國這類國家

  • Countries like the United States

    應該要協助資助大眾 採購先進的冷氣機,

  • should help fund public procurement of advanced air conditioners

    並在印度進行合作計畫, 展示出重要技術,

  • and partner to build projects on the ground in India

    比如長時間能源貯存和碳補集技術。

  • that demonstrate critical technologies,

    最後,煤礦不會輕易投降。

  • such as long-duration energy storage and carbon capture.

    在印度,煤礦是個大事業。

  • Finally, coal isn't going away without a fight.

    在印度的煤都科爾巴附近,

  • It's big business in India.

    私人企業還在繼續擴展採煤,

  • Near Korba, India's coal capital,

    甚至為了挖掘地底的煤礦 而將大象保護區的森林砍伐掉。

  • private companies are pushing ahead to expand coal mining,

    我親眼目擊了這種破壞。

  • even deforesting an elephant preserve to dig out the coal underneath.

    但,只要有一個科爾巴縣, 就會有一個喀奇縣。

  • I witnessed the destruction firsthand.

    在古吉拉特邦這個強風 不斷的區域,我驚呆了,

  • But for every Korba there is a Kutch.

    建造團隊把七十公噸的機艙吊起

  • In this wind-swept region of Gujarat, I gaped

    放到比足球場長度還要高的塔頂。

  • as construction crews hoisted 70-ton nacelles

    風力機葉片是印度製,

  • atop towers taller than a football field is long.

    它們將來要產生的電力

  • The wind turbine blades are manufactured in India,

    會協助供應經濟成長所需。

  • and the electricity they'll go on to generate

    比起煤礦,可再生能源更能提供印度

  • will help power economic growth.

    一個更乾淨、更繁榮的未來。

  • Renewable energy offers India a cleaner and more prosperous future

    除非我們加快轉型,

  • than coal ever can.

    不然空氣污染和氣候變遷 會持續蹂躪這個國家,

  • Unless we hasten the transition,

    並危害地球。

  • air pollution and climate change will continue to ravage the country

    所以,咱們上工吧。

  • and endanger the planet.

    謝謝。

  • So, let's get to work.

  • Thank you.

Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B1 中級 中文 印度 能源 再生 電力 風力 太陽能

India’s historic opportunity to industrialize using clean energy | Varun Sivaram

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 16 日
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