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  • (tribal drum music)

    (部落鼓樂)

  • - [Narrator] Dinosaurs are awesome.

    - [旁白]恐龍是真棒。

  • (dinosaur roaring)

    (恐龍咆哮)

  • We all know it.

    我們都知道。

  • When we figured out

    當我們發現

  • these guys were a thing,

    這些傢伙是一個東西。

  • we wanted more, more fossils, more art, more, well,

    我們想要更多的,更多的化石,更多的藝術,更多的,嗯。

  • whatever this is.

    不管這是什麼。

  • So we went out and found them.

    所以我們出去找到了他們。

  • Fast forward to today,

    快進到今天。

  • we're still discovering like never before.

    我們還在探索前所未有的東西。

  • (soft marimba music)

    (輕柔的馬林巴音樂)

  • - Paleontology as a science started in the 1800s.

    - 古生物學作為一門科學,始於19世紀。

  • Back then, we understood for the first time

    那時候,我們第一次明白

  • they were a unique and different group of animals.

    它們是一群獨特而不同的動物。

  • - [Narrator] Fossil discoveries were happening

    - [旁白]化石發現正在發生

  • long before this distinction, though.

    早在這種區別之前,雖然。

  • Dinosaur bones were mistaken for mythological creatures

    恐龍骨頭被誤認為是神話中的生物

  • thousands of years before science

    數千年前的科學

  • could tell us what they really were.

    可以告訴我們他們到底是什麼。

  • And for generations,

    而且世代相傳。

  • people connected these fossils to living creatures

    人們把這些化石和生物聯繫在一起

  • they already knew.

    他們已經知道了。

  • Until Richard Owen, frenemy of Charles Darwin,

    直到理查德-歐文,查爾斯-達爾文的敵人。

  • concluded these fossils were different

    結論是這些化石是不同的

  • from any living creature on earth.

    從地球上任何生物。

  • - He coined the term dinosaur,

    - 他創造了 "恐龍 "一詞。

  • the terrible lizard.

    可怕的蜥蜴。

  • - [Narrator] New type of animal, big step forward.

    - [旁白]新型動物,向前邁進了一大步。

  • (dinosaur roaring)

    (恐龍咆哮)

  • - For the first 100 years,

    - 在前100年裡。

  • we knew very, very little about dinosaurs.

    我們對恐龍知之甚少。

  • We only knew 50 or 100 species or so.

    我們只知道50或100種左右。

  • - [Narrator] Discovery started slow,

    - [旁白]發現者開始緩慢。

  • but the public's curiosity was high.

    但公眾的好奇心很強。

  • So a view into this prehistoric world

    所以,我們可以看到這個史前世界的景象。

  • came from a different perspective, art.

    來自不同的角度,藝術。

  • (upbeat jazz music)

    (歡快的爵士樂)

  • Creativity brought dinosaurs to the cultural forefront.

    創意將恐龍帶到了文化的前沿。

  • While these drawings, paintings, and sculptures

    雖然這些圖畫、繪畫和雕塑作品

  • were initially based on scientific discoveries,

    最初是基於科學發現。

  • (toilet flushes)

    (衝廁)

  • let's just say that didn't last.

    讓我們只說那沒有持續。

  • Our imaginations might've gotten a headstart,

    我們的想象力可能已經得到了一個先機。

  • but technology, it's catching up.

    但科技,正在迎頭趕上。

  • - Paleontology has been undergoing this massive revolution.

    - 古生物學一直在經歷這場大規模的革命。

  • - [Narrator] One of those technologies?

    - [旁白]這些技術之一?

  • CT scanning, giving paleontologists a new look at dinosaurs.

    CT掃描,讓古生物學家對恐龍有了新的認識。

  • - You can look at the brain size,

    - 你可以看看大腦的大小。

  • you can look at the different parts of the brain,

    你可以看看大腦的不同部分。

  • because basically the bones that demarcate the brain cavity

    因為基本上劃分腦腔的骨頭。

  • are very good proxy for what the brain actually looked like.

    是非常好的代理,大腦實際的樣子。

  • So there's a ton of new morphological information

    所以有大量新的形態學資訊

  • that we can get through these high resolution

    我們可以通過這些高分辨率

  • imaging techniques that are fairly new.

    成像技術,是相當新的。

  • - [Narrator] This in depth view has been a game changer

    - [旁白]這種深度觀察已經改變了遊戲規則。

  • in the field,

    在外地。

  • but one classical aspect of paleontology

    但古生物學的一個經典方面

  • has also experienced a renaissance.

    也經歷了一次復興。

  • (shovels scraping)

    (鏟子刮)

  • Finding fossils.

    尋找化石。

  • - In the U.S. or Europe,

    - 在美國或歐洲。

  • that's where paleontology first grew as a science,

    這就是古生物學作為一門科學最初發展的地方。

  • but other continents,

    但其他大陸。

  • they have not been explored as much.

    它們還沒有得到那麼多的探索。

  • There are so many expeditions being conducted right now,

    現在有這麼多的考察活動在進行。

  • but many, many new dinosaur species

    但很多,很多新的恐龍物種

  • are coming from these places.

    是來自這些地方的。

  • - [Narrator] Example, Diego's team in Patagonia

    - 例子,迭戈在巴塔哥尼亞的團隊。

  • discovering the Patagotitan mayorum,

    發現了八卦壇大殿。

  • one of the largest dinosaurs ever found.

    有史以來最大的恐龍之一。

  • Fossil discoveries in China are also answering

    中國的化石發現也在回答著。

  • an age old question,

    一個古老的問題。

  • dinosaurs' relationship to birds.

    恐龍與鳥類的關係。

  • - Birds are extremely rare in the fossil record,

    - 鳥類在化石記錄中極為罕見。

  • and this is for a number of reasons.

    而這是出於多種原因。

  • One is that birds are all pretty small.

    一是鳥兒都挺小的。

  • Aerodynamics limits body size, so you can't get that big.

    空氣動力學限制了體型,所以你不可能變得那麼大。

  • The other thing is that birds have hollow bones.

    另外就是鳥類的骨頭是空心的。

  • They get crushed easily,

    它們很容易被壓碎。

  • they get destroyed, and they just don't survive.

    他們得到破壞,他們只是不生存。

  • So all these fossil birds all come

    所以這些鳥類化石都是

  • from ancient lake deposits,

    從古代湖泊沉積物。

  • (bell dings)

    (鐘聲)

  • the perfect environment to preserve

    完美的保存環境

  • these very delicate fossils.

    這些非常精緻的化石。

  • - [Narrator] Birds evolving from dinosaurs

    - [旁白]鳥類從恐龍進化而來。

  • is not a new idea, but it's the access

    並不是一個新的想法,但它是訪問的

  • to these ancient lake deposits

    這些古老的湖泊沉積物

  • (bell dings)

    (鐘聲)

  • that's finally providing the necessary evidence.

    這終於提供了必要的證據。

  • - The notion that birds are living dinosaurs

    - 鳥類是活的恐龍的概念。

  • actually dates back to like the second half

    其實早在下半年

  • of the 19th century.

    19世紀的。

  • A guy named Thomas Huxley, based on his observations,

    一個叫托馬斯-赫胥黎的人,根據他的觀察。

  • he came up with a hypothesis

    他提出了一個假設

  • that birds descended from small bipedal dinosaurs.

    鳥類是小型雙足恐龍的後裔。

  • But other scientists opposed this idea

    但其他科學家反對這種想法

  • because they said, well, you know,

    因為他們說,嗯,你知道,

  • all birds have a wishbone, right?

    所有的鳥兒都有一根魚骨,對嗎?

  • This is not known in any dinosaurs.

    這在任何恐龍中都不知道。

  • So birds can't be living dinosaurs.

    所以鳥類不可能是活著的恐龍。

  • - [Narrator] Next up, John Ostrom,

    - [旁白]下一個,約翰・奧斯特羅姆。

  • who analyzed theropod dinosaurs,

    他分析了獸腳類恐龍。

  • and also hypothesized that birds were living dinosaurs.

    並且還假設鳥類是活的恐龍。

  • - But again, people kind of rejected this hypothesis.

    - 但人們又有點拒絕這個假設。

  • At the time, their new reason was

    當時,他們的新理由是

  • velociraptors that were supposed to be closely related

    迅猛龍

  • to birds were much younger in the fossil record

    在化石記錄中,鳥類的年齡要小得多。

  • than Archaeopteryx, the oldest bird.

    比最古老的鳥類Archaeopteryx。

  • So they were like,

    所以他們很喜歡。

  • how could Archaeopteryx have descended from taxa

    始祖鳥怎麼可能是類群的後代呢?

  • that don't appear in the fossil record

    不見於化石記錄的東西

  • until like 70 million years later, right?

    直到像7000萬年後,對不對?

  • (engine racing)

    (引擎賽車)

  • - [Narrator] Inconclusive evidence persisted,

    - [旁白]不確定的證據仍然存在。

  • until, well, that's what brings us back

    直到,好吧,這就是為什麼我們回來了

  • to these ancient lake deposits.

    到這些古老的湖泊沉積。

  • - So in 1996, you find

    - 所以在1996年,你發現

  • the first feathered dinosaur in China.

    中國第一隻有羽毛的恐龍。

  • So then an enormous amount of field work started to happen,

    於是,大量的實地工作開始發生。

  • and this produced these thousands of specimens.

    這就產生了這幾千種標本。

  • (upbeat music)

    (歡快的音樂)

  • - [Narrator] Paleontologists then discovered an area

    - [旁白]古生物學家隨後發現了一個區域。

  • where fossils predate Archaeopteryx.

    那裡的化石早於始祖鳥。

  • And within this area,

    而在這個區域內。

  • they found small feathered dinosaurs with bird-like traits,

    他們發現了具有鳥類特徵的小型羽毛恐龍。

  • including wings here and here,

    包括這裡和這裡的翅膀。

  • making his theory much stronger, also.

    使他的理論更加強大,也。

  • - There was a little troodontid dinosaur named Mei long

    - 有一隻小恐龍叫梅龍

  • that was discovered, and it's really tiny.

    被發現的,它真的很小。

  • It's like this big,

    就像這個大。

  • and it's preserved with its head underneath its wing,

    而且它的頭被保存在它的翅膀下面。

  • sleeping the same way modern ducks do.

    和現代鴨子睡覺的方式一樣。

  • So that's behavioral evidence

    所以這就是行為證據

  • that birds are in fact living dinosaurs.

    鳥類其實是活的恐龍。

  • - [Narrator] Today, substantial evidence points

    - [旁白]今天,大量證據表明

  • to birds evolving from dinosaurs, specifically theropods,

    到鳥類從恐龍進化而來,特別是獸腳類。

  • and showcases the progression of paleontology.

    並展示了古生物的發展歷程。

  • But the discoveries don't stop here.

    但發現並不止於此。

  • - There are still new things out there

    - 還有新的東西在那裡

  • that once they are discovered

    一旦被發現

  • are gonna shake up everything we think we know.

    要去動搖一切 我們認為我們知道。

  • New data will cause us to adjust our existing hypotheses,

    新的數據會使我們調整現有的假設。

  • so you just kind of have to go with the flow of discoveries.

    所以你只能順其自然的去發現。

(tribal drum music)

(部落鼓樂)

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B1 中級 中文 恐龍 鳥類 化石 旁白 發現 生物學

為什麼現在是古生物學的黃金時代? (Why Now is the Golden Age of Paleontology | Nat Geo Explores)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 15 日
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