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  • Tell me if this sounds like natural English.  I watched my mom as she dragged the trash can  

    告訴我這聽起來像不像自然英語。 我看著我媽媽拖著垃圾箱

  • to the curb. I wanted to help her. I exclaimed  to her "you should have asked me. I would have  


  • helped you." not quite. It's not quite natural  English and that's because I followed all the  


  • rules for ED endings. Wait. If I followed  all the rules, why didn't I sound natural?  


  • Because Americans do all sorts of  crazy things with the T and D sounds.  


  • This is video two in our series on ED endingsregular past tense verbs. If you didn't see video  


  • one, don't worry, you're going to be okay. We're  going to not just learn the pronunciation rules,  


  • but the pronunciation habits of Americans. So  you can sound totally natural speaking in the  


  • past tense in American English. And remember, if  you like this video, or you learned something new,  


  • please give it a thumbs up and subscribe  with notifications. It helps a lot.  


  • This is the second video and we're going to dive  deep into rule two. I'll do a ten second recap  


  • of the rules. Rule one, if the sound at  the end of the infinitive is unvoiced,  


  • ED is pronounced tt-- walked. Rule twoif it's voiced, the ED is pronounced dd--  


  • agreed. Seemed. Rule three, if that last sound is  T or D, the ED ending is --ihd: needed, painted.  


  • Was that ten seconds or was it longer? So rule two. The last sound in the infinitive is  

    是十秒還是更長? 所以規則二。不定式的最後一個音是

  • a voiced sound. What is a voiced sound? All vowels  and diphthongs are voiced, and some consonants.  


  • First, we'll talk about vowels and diphthongsFor example, the word agree ends in the ee vowel,  

    首先,我們來談談元音和雙元音。 例如,agree這個詞的結尾是ee元音。

  • agree, past tense would be agreed, with thesound. Agreed. Now, you probably learned that  


  • D is pronounced dd-- a stop of air, voicing  the vocal chords, ddd--- dd-- dd-- and then a  

  • release. Agreed. But we actually have a couple of  different pronunciations that we'll use for these  


  • rule 2 ED endings. Let's look at the phrase  I agreed it would be a good idea. Agreed it,  

    規則2 ED結局。我們來看看我同意這句話是個好主意。同意了吧。

  • agreed it, agreed di di di dih-- agreed it-- That's a flap of the tongue, it's not a stop of  

    同意了,同意了,同意了,同意了... ... 那是舌頭的翻動,這不是一個停止的

  • air, it's actually just like the flap T, if you're  familiar with that sound, the D between vowel or  


  • diphthong sounds is a quick single flap of the  tongue against the roof of the mouth. Agreed it,  


  • agreed it, dadadadaa-- agreed it. So anytime with these ED endings  

    同意了,dadadadaa -- 同意了。 所以,任何時候與這些ED結局

  • that you have the sounds of a vowel or  diphthong, D, and then a vowel or diphthong,  


  • it's a flap. Agreed it. Lied about. Lied  ah-- lied about, lied about, lied about.  

    這是一個瓣。同意它。撒謊了。撒謊啊... ... 撒謊了,撒謊了,撒謊了。

  • What if the next word doesn't  begin with a vowel or diphthong,  


  • but rather a consonant? Let's take a look at  the example agreed with-- I agreed with you.  


  • I agreed with you. It's not a fully pronounced  D because there's no release. That would be  


  • this: I agreed with you. I agreed with you. Agreed  with. Agreed with. We don't do that. We don't do  


  • that release when the next word begins withconsonant. We make the noise in the vocal cords,  


  • but we don't release it. We go right into  the next sound, in this case, w. Agreed  

    但我們不釋放它。我們直接進入下一個聲音,在這種情況下,w。 同意。

  • with, agreed with, agreed--  


  • It's the sound but there's not a stop and releaseWe just carry that voiced D right into the w.  

    是聲音,但沒有停頓和釋放。 我們只是把那個聲部的D直接帶入W。

  • Agreed with. Agreed with. We like to make English  really smooth and that's why in these cases,  


  • stop consonants are not fully pronouncedLet's look at a few more examples where we  

    停頓輔音不完全發音。 讓我們再看幾個例子,在這些例子中,我們

  • have a vowel or diphthong, then the D, and  then the next word begins with a consonant.  


  • He sued the company. Sued the, sued the.  

    他起訴了公司。 告了,告了。

  • Do you hear that D in the vocal cords? He  sued the company. Plowed through. Plowed.  


  • Plowed through. Weighed my options. Weighed  my, weighed my, weighed my options.  


  • Now let's look at a few more examples, you  tell me how the ED ending should be pronounced:  


  • flapped or unreleased? The next word begins  with a consonant sound so this D is unreleased.  


  • Toyed with. Toyed with. Toyed with. Let's go to Youglish for an example.  

    玩弄。玩弄。Toyed with. 我們去優衣庫舉個例子。

  • Toyed with-- can you say that now really easily  with that unreleased D sound? Toyed with--  

    Toyed with -- 你現在能用那未發佈的D音輕鬆地說出來嗎?Toyed with --

  • toyed with-- what about this oneIs the D flapped or unreleased?  

    玩弄--這個怎麼樣? 是D瓣還是未發佈?

  • Reviewed a-- reviewed a-- that's usually going to  be a flap because the D comes between two vowel  

    審閱了a -- 審閱了a -- 通常會是一個瓣,因為D在兩個元音之間。

  • or diphthong sounds. Reviewed a-- reviewed  a-- let's go to youglish for an example.  


  • One more. What about this one? Booed by-- the next  word begins with a consonant, so that will be an  

    再來一個這個呢?Booed by... 下一個詞是以輔音開頭的 所以是一個...

  • unreleased D. Booed by-- vibrating the vocal  chords, making the D sound but not releasing.  


  • Booed by-- let's look at an example.


  • So for rule two, we looked at vowel and  


  • diphthongs, plus ed. What about all the consonants  that are voiced? That's still rule two. And things  


  • start to get a little more complicated. We'll  look at each of these voiced consonant endings.  


  • Let's start with R like in the word  fired. He was fired last week. Fired  


  • last, fired last, not dd-- a release, that  would be fired last, fired last, but it's: fired  


  • last, that unreleased D sound in the  vocal cords before the next consonant.  


  • If the next word begins with a vowel or diphthongthe D will be flapped, but only because of the R,  


  • the rule for flapping is a D or T will be flapped  between two sounds that are vowels and diphthongs,  


  • or if the first sound, the sound before is an  R and the sound after is a vowel or diphthong,  


  • like in the word party, or hardy. Those are both  flaps because of the R, DT, vowel or diphthong  


  • pattern. Party. Hardy. So when we have an ending  R infinitive, plus the D sound, plus the word that  


  • begins with the vowel or diphthong, that D will be  flapped. It's not like this for any of these other  


  • voiced consonants. It's just because of the R. He  was fired on monday. Fired on-- rarara-- single  

    發聲輔音。只是因為R,他週一就被解僱了。被解僱了... rarara... 單音

  • flap of the tongue. Fired on. And I should say for  any of these rule two words, if the next word is  


  • you or your, a native speaker might turn that  D into a J sound. We do this with any word that  


  • ends in a D when the next word begins with you or  your, like in the phrase: would you-- would jjjj--  

    當下一個詞以you或your開頭時,以D結尾,如:would you--would jjjj--。

  • J sound. Would you. Would you do that for me? Jj-- jj-- so all of these words in rule 2  

    J的聲音。你會。你會為我做嗎? Jj... jj... 所以所有這些詞在規則2中都是...

  • do end in a D sound therefore, you  might hear this happen. Let's take:  


  • fired you, fired you, as an example, fired you.


  • Fired you, fired you, jj-- with that J sound. How  


  • about g? Another voiced consonant like in the  word beg, begged. She begged all the time. When  


  • the next word begins with a vowel or diphthongyou will release that D into the next word: begged  


  • all the time, dall-- dall-- dall-- begged all--  begged all the time. But when the next sound is  


  • a consonant, it gets more complicated. Honestlythere are three ways you might hear it: first,  


  • dropped. I begged for a dog when I was a little  kid. Begged for, begged for. I dropped it there.  


  • Or you might hear that unreleased D sound in  the vocal cords. I begged for a dog. Begged  


  • for a dog. Begged for a dog. Or you might  even hear a light release. I begged for a dog.  


  • Begged ddd-- light release. I begged for a dogLet me show you what I mean. We'll go to Youglish.  

    乞求ddd--輕放。我求了一條狗。 讓我告訴你我的意思。我們將去優格英語。

  • Now in this one, I hear the D in the vocal cordsbut not released. Begged for, begged for.


  • In this next one, I don't really  hear any D. I think it's dropped.  


  • And now an example where  the D is lightly released.  


  • Like I said in my rule one video, try not to  get stressed out about there being more than one  


  • option if it's easier for you to always lightly  release your D, that's okay. As you get more used  


  • to English, and you're around a lot of native  speakers, or if you're doing a lot of imitating,  


  • you may find that you start dropping thesound more naturally. What we're doing here  


  • is looking at all the different possibilities and  pronunciations of what you'll hear when speaking  


  • with American. When a word ends in the J soundlike in change, I just listened to a bunch of  


  • examples of changed. Let's listen to a few.


  • So all those had the released D. Changed. But  


  • it can definitely be dropped too. Let's  look at a common phrase: changed my mind.  


  • Changed my. It's fairly common to drop the  ED ending there. The more common a phrase is,  


  • the more likely we'll do some sort of reduction  there. And that's what I found often happens here.  


  • I changed my mind, becomes: I change my mind. I  listened to a lot of phrases and the D was almost  


  • always dropped. So it just sounds like the  present tense. Change my mind. Even though  


  • it's past tense. Here are some examples.


  • Changed my mind. When I listened in  


  • slow motion, I don't hear any kind of D.


  • Here are a few more with that dropped D.


  • What about a word where the last  sound in the infinitive is the L  


  • like in the word drill? When it's followed by  a word that begins with a vowel or diphthong,  


  • release the D into that word to link it. Drilled  into, drilled into. Let's look at some examples  


  • where the next word begins with a consonant.


  • Drilled to--  


  • the D made in the vocal cords, drilled to--, it's  not released we just go right into the T sound. If  

    在聲帶上做的D,鑽到... ... 它沒有被釋放,我們只是直接進入T音。如果...

  • I released it it would be: drilled to, drilled tobut it's drilled to, drilled to. Listen again.


  • Another example.


  • Drilled but,  


  • drilled but. I did hear the D released lightlyDrilled but. This next one was tricky for me.  

    鑽了但。我確實聽到了D的輕聲釋放。 鑽了,但是。接下來這個對我來說很棘手。

  • I had to really slow it down to hear if there is  an unreleased D or not, I think there is.


  • The most common pronunciation I was hearing  in various situations was an unreleased D.  


  • Now we'll cover our three nasal consonants:  M, N, and NG. For M, we'll look at the word  

    現在我們來介紹一下我們的三個鼻音輔音。 M, N, 和NG.對於M,我們看一下這個詞。

  • bummed. That means disappointed. We often use  it without. I'm so bummed out. Now in that case,  


  • because the next word begins with the diphthongwe link with the D --dout, --dout, bummed out--  

    因為下一個詞是以雙音開頭的,我們用D連接--out,--out,bummed out--。

  • bummed out-- i'm so bummed outLet's listen to an example of  

    掃興... 我很掃興。 讓我們聽一個例子

  • that one.


  • --dout,  


  • --dout, bummed out-- Now we'll hear two examples where  

    -out, bummed out -- 現在我們將聽到兩個例子,其中

  • bummed is followed by a consonant. First, it's  dropped, and that's more common, and then you'll  


  • hear it where it's released.


  • Bummed that--  


  • I didn't hear that D at all. That  D was dropped. Here it's released.  


  • Bummed for, bummed for, ddd--  

    無賴的,無賴的,ddd --

  • a light release of the D. You know, I haven't  been talking about much when these ED ending  


  • words are at the end of a thought groupThere, it will usually be a light release.  

    話是在一個思想群的最後。 在那裡,它通常會是一個輕盈的釋放。

  • Let's look at an example.


  • Bummed. Light release. That's a fun word,  


  • isn't it? I'm feeling bummed. I'm kind of bummed  out. Or you can use it as a noun. It's a bummer.  


  • Oh, shoot! My favorite restaurant is closed  today. I wanted to eat there. That's a bummer.  


  • N. N is kind of special. N can make a T silentDo you know this rule when T comes after an n,  

    N.N是一種特殊的。N可以讓T變得沉默。 你知道這個規則嗎,當T出現在n之後。

  • it's not uncommon to drop that T like in  the word internet or interview. When D  


  • comes after an N and before another consonantit's pretty common to drop like in grand piano so  


  • it's really common to drop the D sound in these  ED endings when the sound in the infinitive,  


  • the final sound, was N and the next word  begins with a consonant. Let's look at several examples.


  • These are all with the word signed.


  • All with a dropped D. Now we'll look at drained.  


  • Also all dropped d's here.


  • and as always, when the next  word begins with the vowel or diphthong,  


  • we'll use the released D to  link in, like in this example:


  • Signed into-- into dadadadada-- with that D sound  linking. At the end of a sentence, we'll probably  


  • release that D. What about NG? Well we don't have  many words here. A lot of those NG ending verbs  


  • are not regular like: ring, rang, sing, sangbut we do have the word long, longed. The noun is  


  • longing and this means to yearn for, to have  a strong desire for. I longed for my mother's  


  • attention. Or I longed for my newborn baby when  I was at work. Or I longed to be taken seriously.  


  • This is often followed by for, which  of course begins with a consonant.  


  • The ED ending can be dropped, but also this is  an emotional word and it will sometimes be more  


  • stressed. I longed for acceptance. And in these  cases, the D will probably be lightly released.  


  • We'll hear two examples. First, where  it's dropped and then when it's not.  


  • Let's move on to the voiced th. This is another  sound that's not very common in ED ending words  


  • we have: smoothed, bathed. These words will most  often be followed by a word that begins with a  


  • vowel like 'smoothed out' or 'smoothed overor 'bathed in'. We'll lightly release the D  

    元音如 "smoothed out "或 "smoothed over "或 "bathed in"。我們會輕輕地釋放D

  • into that next sound. But when the next sound  is a consonant, it's much easier to drop the  


  • ED ending to connect. Here are three examples  dropping the ED ending with the word smoothed.  


  • The v sound like in: moved his car, moved  his, moved his, there I dropped the h in his,  


  • that's a common reduction, and so the D linked  into the ih sound because that's a vowel.  


  • Moved his dis dis, I moved his car. At the end  of a sentence, we'll probably release that D.  


  • He moved. He moved. But when the next sound  is a consonant, you'll hear both dropped and  


  • lightly released. Here are two examplesIn the first, the D is released. Moved me.  

    輕輕放行。下面是兩個例子。 在第一個,D被釋放。感動了我。

  • In the second example, it's dropped.


  • Words were the infinitive ends in z like  


  • buzzed, the rules are the same. Release D into  a vowel or diphthong like in: buzzed about.  


  • 'Buzzed about' means really talked aboutthere's a lot of interest about something.  

    'Buzzed about'的意思是真正的談論,對某件事情很感興趣。

  • At the end of a thought group, it  will likely be released like here.


  • And when the next word begins with a consonantyou'll have either dropped or lightly released  


  • ending, here's an example where it's released


  • And where the ED ending is completely dropped.


  • We have one more sound here for rule two, and  it's the ZH sound. It's not at all common to have  


  • a verb that ends with ZH plus ED but we do have  barraged. Barraged means to bombard. Aggressively  


  • throw something at someone. And it might not  mean physically throw, you can barrage someone  


  • with words, or someone can feel barraged with  emails, they just keep getting too many emails,  


  • they can't keep up. This word is usually  followed by with or by, but you might hear  


  • 'barraged us' followed by a vowel so you'll link  with the D. They barraged us with phone calls.  

    'barraged us'後面是元音,所以你會和D連在一起,他們用電話向我們咆哮。

  • Dus dus dus, barraged us, barraged us. At  the end of a sentence, I'll lightly release  


  • it. I was completely barraged. But followed  by a consonant, it will likely be dropped.


  • Or lightly released.


  • Whew!  


  • That is a lot for rule 2, isn't it? The  pronunciations of the ED ending depend on the  


  • sounds before and after. And the more you study  and watch examples on Youglish or Ted talks, the  

    前後的聲音。而且你越是學習和觀看優衣庫或Ted talks上的例子,就越能體會到

  • more you'll get used to how Americans pronounce  the ED endings, and you'll be able to smooth out  


  • your own speech and sound natural. Now let's have  you train with some of these rule two cases with  


  • a dropped D to make that feel more comfortable  for you. First, you'll hear a phrase then you'll  


  • hear just the two-word link in slow motion twicethree times, repeat the third time, it's important  


  • to not just learn something but to actually train  it, to speak out loud, to get used to it.


  • I did not expect rule 2 to take this long. We're  going to save rule 3 for another video coming  


  • out in a few weeks. While you wait for that  next video, be sure to check out this video.  


  • Also check out my online courses at Rachel's  English academy. You'll become a more confident  


  • English speaker. I make new videos every TuesdayBe sure to come back next week to watch more.  

    會說英語。我每週二都會製作新的視頻。 下週一定要回來看更多的視頻。

  • I love being your English teacher. That's it  and thanks so much for using Rachel's English.


Tell me if this sounds like natural English.  I watched my mom as she dragged the trash can  

告訴我這聽起來像不像自然英語。 我看著我媽媽拖著垃圾箱


影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 輔音 元音 例子 釋放 結尾 規則

ED結尾(2/3)美式英語口音訓練。完美的發音 (ED ENDINGS (2/3) American English Accent Training: PERFECT PRONUNCIATION)

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