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  • You're looking at 60 satellites

    你在看60顆衛星

  • hurtling into the sky.

    飛馳在天空中。

  • And over the next few decades,

    而在接下來的幾十年裡。

  • Elon Musk is hoping to send 42,000

    埃隆-馬斯克希望將4.2萬個

  • of these satellites to space,

    這些衛星進入空間。

  • 15 times the number of operational

    運作次數的15倍

  • satellites in orbit today.

    今天在軌的衛星。

  • It's part of Starlink,

    它是星際鏈接的一部分。

  • the expansive constellation from Musk and SpaceX

    浩瀚星群

  • that hopes to bring the world

    希望能給世界帶來

  • low-latency high-speed internet,

    低延遲的高速互聯網。

  • promising no more buffering

    滿口答應

  • and nearly instantaneous internet

    和幾乎即時的互聯網

  • in every corner of the world.

    在世界的每一個角落。

  • But experts worry it may come

    但專家擔心它可能會出現

  • at a hefty cost for space exploration.

    以高昂的代價進行太空探索。

  • Nearly half of the world's population

    世界上近一半的人口

  • does not have access to the internet,

    不能上網。

  • because most internet options

    因為大多數互聯網選項

  • require an extensive track of costly underground cables,

    需要大量昂貴的地下電纜軌道。

  • leaving many rural locations offline.

    讓許多農村地區失去了聯繫。

  • And while satellite internet can reach those areas...

    而衛星互聯網可以到達這些地區... ...

  • Dave Mosher: Traditional satellite internet

    Dave Mosher傳統的衛星互聯網

  • is provided by a bus-sized spacecraft

    由一個總線大小的航天器提供

  • that is launched 22,236 miles

    發射22 236英里

  • into space in orbit around Earth.

    進入繞地球軌道的空間。

  • Narrator: That distance means the satellite

    旁白:這個距離意味著衛星

  • can reach places that cables can't.

    可以到達電纜無法到達的地方。

  • But since that one satellite

    但由於那一顆衛星

  • is meant to service a lot of people,

    是為了服務很多人。

  • its data capability is limited,

    其數據能力有限。

  • which then limits connection speeds.

    然後限制了連接速度。

  • And that signal has to travel a long way,

    而且這個信號要傳得很遠。

  • creating a lot of lag.

    造成很大的滯後。

  • This is where Elon Musk and SpaceX come in.

    這就是埃隆-馬斯克和SpaceX的作用。

  • Mosher: Starlink is a globe-encircling network

    莫舍。Starlink是一個環繞地球的網絡。

  • of internet-beaming satellites

    互聯網廣播衛星

  • that is trying to get you online

    試圖讓你上線

  • no matter where you are in the world.

    不管你在哪裡

  • Narrator: And there's a rather persuading element

    旁白:還有一個相當有說服力的因素。

  • for SpaceX as well.

    對於SpaceX來說也是如此。

  • Mosher: Elon Musk has said he's just trying to grab

    莫舍爾。埃隆-馬斯克說他只是想抓住

  • a small percentage of a trillion-dollar-a-year

    萬億年薪中的一小部分。

  • telecommunications industry around the world.

    世界各地的電信業。

  • If SpaceX can pull this off,

    如果SpaceX能夠成功。

  • the company could net about $30 to $50 billion a year.

    該公司每年可淨賺約300億至500億美元。

  • Narrator: Musk and SpaceX president Gwynne Shotwell

    旁白:馬斯克和SpaceX公司總裁Gwynne Shotwell

  • say that much money could single-handedly

    一言九鼎

  • fund the development of Starlink, Starship,

    資助《星際鏈接》、《星艦》的開發。

  • and SpaceX's Mars-launch infrastructure.

    和SpaceX的火星發射基礎設施。

  • As of early October,

    截至10月初。

  • SpaceX has launched more than 700 satellites into orbit,

    SpaceX公司已經將700多顆衛星發射到軌道上。

  • with a plan to release a total of 12,000

    計劃共發放12,000份。

  • over the next five years,

    在未來五年內,。

  • half of them by the end of 2024.

    到2024年底,其中一半。

  • And Musk wants to add another 30,000 to that,

    而馬斯克還想在此基礎上再增加3萬人。

  • coming to a total of 42,000 satellites circling Earth.

    來,共有4.2萬顆衛星環繞地球。

  • All of these satellites will also be much closer,

    這些衛星也都將更加接近。

  • anywhere from 200 to 400 miles

    縱橫四海

  • above the planet in low-Earth orbit.

    在低地軌道的行星上方。

  • Mosher: This reduces the connection delay

    莫舍。這樣可以減少連接延遲

  • that is found with traditional internet satellite.

    與傳統的互聯網衛星發現。

  • Narrator: Once in orbit,

    旁白:一旦進入軌道

  • these Starlink satellites will be constantly on the move,

    這些星聯衛星將不斷移動。

  • which is why so many are necessary.

    這就是為什麼需要這麼多的人。

  • Mosher: The problem is you have to have many satellites

    莫舍爾。問題是你必須要有很多衛星

  • orbiting to make up for the fact that

    軌道,以彌補以下事實:

  • you can't stay in one spot above the Earth.

    你不能呆在地球上面的一個地方。

  • Because you need several satellites overhead

    因為你需要幾顆衛星在上面

  • at any one time to cover many users.

    在任何時候都可以覆蓋許多用戶。

  • Narrator: Every satellite will connect

    旁白:每個衛星都會連接

  • with several others via laser beams,

    通過激光束與其他幾個。

  • creating something like the network's backbone.

    創建類似網絡的骨幹網。

  • And to actually bring this internet into your home,

    而要真正把這個互聯網帶入你的家庭。

  • you'll need to get a pizza-sized antenna.

    你需要得到一個比薩餅大小的天線。

  • This phased-array antenna can aim its beam

    這種相控陣天線可以將其波束對準

  • at whatever satellite is overhead,

    在任何衛星的頭頂。

  • which will maintain an internet signal in your home.

    這將維持您家中的網絡信號。

  • But this scheme isn't without problems.

    但這個方案也不是沒有問題。

  • Starlink satellites are bright.

    星聯衛星很亮。

  • They reflect the sunlight and shine it back towards Earth,

    它們反射陽光,把陽光照回地球。

  • so they end up looking like bright moving stars.

    所以他們最終看起來像明亮的移動的星星。

  • As cool as it may look, that comes with problems.

    雖然看起來很酷,但這也有問題。

  • Mosher: Starlink satellites are most visible

    莫舍。Starlink衛星最明顯

  • in the night sky right before dawn and right after dusk,

    在黎明前和黃昏後的夜空中。

  • which is the exact time that astronomers

    這正是天文學家們

  • are hunting for near-Earth objects or asteroids,

    正在尋找近地天體或小行星。

  • objects that could hit Earth and possibly harm us.

    可能撞擊地球並可能傷害我們的物體。

  • Narrator: And as more satellites go up,

    旁白:隨著越來越多的衛星升空

  • so does the likelihood that

    所以

  • they'll interfere with astronomers' views.

    他們會干擾天文學家的觀點。

  • Mosher: If Starlink continues to be a problem

    莫舍。如果星聯公司繼續成為問題

  • for these type of sky surveys,

    用於這類天空測量。

  • we may not have as much notice as we want

    時不我待

  • to detect a near-Earth object

    探測近地天體

  • and thwart it and prevent it from hitting Earth.

    並挫敗它,防止它撞擊地球。

  • Narrator: Beyond detecting deadly asteroids,

    旁白:超越了探測致命小行星的範圍

  • the wall of satellites could also obstruct

    衛星牆也可能阻礙了

  • the search for new planets or even black holes.

    尋找新的行星甚至黑洞。

  • Mosher: SpaceX realized it had to do something, and it did.

    Mosher:SpaceX意識到它必須做點什麼,而且它也做了。

  • It created what's called a DarkSat,

    它創造了所謂的DarkSat。

  • which is a satellite that has all of its shiny parts

    衛星,它的所有部件都是閃亮的。

  • coated in a very black, dark material.

    塗上一層很黑很黑的材料。

  • Narrator: It also tried adding visors

    旁白:它還試著加了遮陽板

  • to shield those shiny parts from the ground.

    來遮擋那些閃亮的部件。

  • But unless the satellites are cloaked

    但是,除非衛星是隱形的。

  • like a spaceship in "Star Trek,"

    就像 "星際迷航 "中的宇宙飛船一樣。

  • technology that does not exist,

    不存在的技術。

  • none of this will fully solve the problem.

    這些都不能完全解決這個問題。

  • And even if it did, there is a much bigger issue at hand.

    就算是這樣,眼下還有一個更大的問題。

  • Mosher: There's a concern about space debris,

    Mosher有一個關於空間碎片的擔憂。

  • because when you have so many satellites

    因為當你有這麼多衛星

  • in the closest, tightest, densest orbits around Earth,

    在繞地球最近、最緊密、最密集的軌道上。

  • there's a higher chance that those satellites

    衛星的可能性比較大。

  • could collide with each other or with other satellites.

    可能相互碰撞或與其他衛星碰撞。

  • Narrator: Those crashes would create

    旁白:這些撞擊會造成...

  • clouds of debris that can orbit the Earth

    殘雲

  • for years, decades, or even centuries.

    幾年、幾十年、甚至幾百年。

  • Mosher: And that debris can then disable

    Mosher:碎片會使人失去功能

  • or cause other satellites

    或導致其他衛星

  • to crash into each other, creating even more debris,

    互相撞擊,產生更多的碎片。

  • and this problem spirals out of control

    愈演愈烈

  • in an effect called the Kessler syndrome.

    在一種叫做凱斯勒綜合徵的效應中。

  • And if we reach that,

    如果我們達到了這一點。

  • then essentially space is too unsafe to access.

    那麼本質上空間太不安全,無法進入。

  • Narrator: To be clear, the risk

    旁白:說白了,風險

  • of a runaway Kessler syndrome is very low.

    逃跑的凱斯勒綜合症的發生率是非常低的。

  • Mosher: But the potential impacts of that are so high

    莫舍。但這可能帶來的影響是如此之大

  • that scientists are working very hard

    科學家們正在努力工作

  • to control such an event from ever happening.

    來控制這種事件的發生。

  • Narrator: SpaceX has said its satellites

    旁白:SpaceX已經說過它的衛星

  • can automatically move out of the way to avoid collisions.

    可以自動讓開,避免碰撞。

  • But dozens of SpaceX satellites are already disabled

    但幾十顆SpaceX衛星已經失效了

  • and can't move at all, posing a potential threat.

    而且根本無法移動,構成了潛在的威脅。

  • And those concerned with SpaceX's plans

    而那些關注SpaceX計劃的人

  • are lobbying the FCC to rein in the company

    正在遊說聯邦通信委員會控制該公司。

  • and more strictly regulate low-Earth orbit.

    並更加嚴格地規範低地軌道。

  • And that could make it more expensive

    這可能會讓它變得更昂貴

  • and harder to deploy the planned 42,000 satellites.

    和更難部署計劃中的42000顆衛星。

  • But it doesn't stop at Starlink.

    但它並沒有停止在星聯公司。

  • Amazon's Kuiper project, OneWeb,

    亞馬遜的Kuiper項目,OneWeb。

  • China's Hongyan, and other projects

    中國紅巖等項目。

  • are looking to challenge SpaceX

    正在尋求挑戰SpaceX

  • by launching their own global networks

    通過啟動自己的全球網絡

  • of hundreds or thousands of satellites.

    數百顆或數千顆衛星的。

  • If they all got their way with little to no regulation,

    如果他們都能在幾乎沒有監管的情況下獲得自己的利益。

  • we could end up with 100,000 satellites

    我們可能會有10萬顆衛星。

  • encasing our planet within the next 10 years,

    在未來10年內將我們的地球包裹起來。

  • dramatically increasing the risk

    大大增加了

  • of blocking off space for everyone.

    的封鎖空間,為大家。

You're looking at 60 satellites

你在看60顆衛星

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B1 中級 中文 衛星 旁白 軌道 地球 互聯網 馬斯克

埃隆-馬斯克的4.2萬顆衛星會對地球造成什麼影響? (What Elon Musk's 42,000 Satellites Could Do To Earth)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 10 日
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