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  • They've caused global scandals.

    他們已經造成了全球的醜聞。

  • They're banned in most athletic competitions.

    它們在大多數體育比賽中都是被禁止的。

  • But are steroids actually bad for you?

    但類固醇真的對你有害嗎?

  • The termsteroidsrefers to a broad category of molecules

    術語 "類固醇 "是指一類廣泛的分子。

  • that share a similar molecular structure,

    具有相似分子結構的。

  • but have many different functions.

    但卻有許多不同的功能。

  • When people talk about steroids in the context of sports,

    當人們在體育界談論類固醇的時候。

  • they're referring to a subset of steroids that resemble testosterone.

    他們指的是類似睪丸激素的類固醇子集。

  • Though elite athletes and bodybuilders began using these steroids in the 1950s,

    雖然精英運動員和健美運動員開始使用這些類固醇在20世紀50年代。

  • today, most steroid users are actually not competitive athletes,

    今天,大多數類固醇用戶實際上不是競技運動員。

  • but people seeking a particular appearance.

    但追求特定外觀的人。

  • These steroids have two main effects: androgenic, or masculinizing,

    這些類固醇有兩個主要作用:雄性激素,或男性化。

  • and anabolic, or growth-promoting.

    和合成代謝,或促進生長。

  • These effects mimic naturally-occurring testosterone,

    這些效果模仿了自然產生的睪丸酮。

  • which drives the development and maintenance

    推動發展和維護

  • of male secondary sex characteristics and general growth in everyone.

    的男性第二性徵,並在每個人身上普遍增長。

  • That means testosterone and the synthetic steroids based on it

    這意味著睪丸激素和合成類固醇基於它。

  • promote body and facial hair growth, enlargement of the vocal cords

    促進身體和麵部毛髮生長,擴大聲帶。

  • and deepening of the voice, increased muscle mass and strength,

    並加深聲音,增加肌肉品質和力量。

  • and increased stature and bone mass.

    並增加身材和骨量。

  • Recreational steroid users are after the anabolic, growth promoting effects.

    休閒類固醇用戶是後合成代謝、 促進增長的效果。

  • To make muscles grow, steroids first promote protein synthesis

    為了使肌肉生長,類固醇首先要促進蛋白質的合成--。

  • proteins are essential building blocks of all cells, tissues, and organs,

    蛋白質是所有細胞、組織和器官的重要構件。

  • including muscles.

    包括肌肉。

  • Steroids also block cortisol,

    類固醇也能阻斷皮質醇。

  • a signaling molecule that drives the breakdown of substances

    促使物質分解的信號分子。

  • including proteins.

    包括蛋白質。

  • Finally, they may push the development of muscle, rather than fat,

    最後,它們可能會推動肌肉的發展,而不是脂肪。

  • and boost our metabolism, shrinking fat deposits.

    並促進我們的新陳代謝,收縮脂肪沉積。

  • These properties make steroids valuable for treating many illnesses and injuries.

    這些特性使類固醇對治療許多疾病和損傷很有價值。

  • They can help people with wasting illnesses,

    他們可以幫助患有消耗性疾病的人。

  • like AIDS and certain cancers,

    如艾滋病和某些癌症。

  • maintain muscle mass and help burn victims recover lost muscle tissue.

    維持肌肉品質,幫助燒傷患者恢復失去的肌肉組織。

  • So if steroids are used as medicine,

    所以,如果把類固醇當藥用。

  • they must be safe to use recreationally, right?

    他們必須安全地使用娛樂,對不對?

  • Well, it's not that simple.

    嗯,這不是那麼簡單。

  • To create the desired muscle growth,

    為了創造理想的肌肉生長。

  • recreational steroid users must typically take doses orders of magnitude higher

    休閒類固醇使用者通常必須採取劑量數量級更高的訂單。

  • than those prescribed for a medical condition.

    比醫療條件規定的那些。

  • Long term, high dose steroid usage can have both undesirable

    長期,大劑量的類固醇使用可以有兩個不良的

  • and outright harmful effects

    和徹底的有害影響----

  • some of them dependent on factors like age, sex,

    其中一些取決於年齡、性別等因素。

  • and underlying health conditions.

    和潛在的健康狀況。

  • We're not sure what all the risk factors are,

    我們不確定所有的風險因素是什麼。

  • but we do know recreational steroid use is particularly risky for adolescents.

    但我們知道娛樂性的類固醇使用是特別危險的青少年。

  • During puberty, steroid use can prompt bones to mature

    在青春期,使用類固醇可以促使骨骼成熟。

  • before they're done growing, causing growth defects.

    在它們還沒有生長完的時候,造成生長缺陷。

  • Adolescents are also most at risk

    青少年的風險也最大

  • for the harmful psychiatric effects of steroid use.

    對使用類固醇的有害精神影響。

  • The most common of these, increased impulsivity and increased aggression,

    其中最常見的,衝動性增加,攻擊性增強。

  • are well-known asroid rage.”

    是眾所周知的 "羅伊德憤怒"。

  • Up to 60% of users experience these effects.

    高達60%的用戶會出現這些效果。

  • But there are also less common,

    但也有不太常見的。

  • more damaging psychiatric side effects like mania and even psychosis.

    更具破壞性的精神副作用,如躁狂症甚至精神病。

  • Steroid use can damage organs including the liver and kidneys,

    使用類固醇會損害包括肝臟和腎臟在內的器官。

  • and cause cardiovascular problems like high blood pressure.

    並引起高血壓等心血管問題。

  • While some or all of those effects may be reversible,

    雖然這些影響有些或全部可能是可逆的。

  • steroid use can also cause liver cancer, especially in males.

    使用類固醇也會導致肝癌,尤其是男性。

  • Though recreational users take steroids for their anabolic effects,

    雖然娛樂用戶服用類固醇以達到其合成代謝的效果。

  • they also experience androgenic effectsoften undesired.

    他們也經歷了雄性激素效應--往往是不希望的。

  • That can mean increased body hair, enlargement of the clitoris,

    這可能意味著體毛增多,陰蒂增大。

  • and permanent voice deepening in females.

    和女性的永久性聲音加深。

  • At the same time, excess testosterone-like steroids can cause feminization in males,

    同時,過量的睪丸激素類固醇會導致男性女性化。

  • because the body converts the excess into estrogen.

    因為身體會將多餘的轉化為雌激素。

  • This can lead to breast development and shrinking testicles.

    這樣會導致乳房發育和睪丸萎縮。

  • These effects are not uncommon

    這些影響並不罕見--

  • about a third of male steroid users experience them to some degree.

    大約三分之一的男性類固醇使用者在某種程度上經歷了他們。

  • Excess steroid use can also reduce fertility in males and females

    過度使用類固醇也會降低男性和女性的生育能力--。

  • by reducing the sperm in semen or by causing missed periods and conditions

    減少精液中的精子,或導致錯過月經和狀況

  • like polycystic ovary syndrome.

    如多囊卵巢綜合症。

  • All these effects may be reversible if steroid use stopsbut they may not be.

    所有這些影響可能是可逆的如果類固醇使用停止,但他們可能不會。

  • The specific steroid, the duration of use,

    具體的類固醇,使用時間。

  • and other factors could play a role in reversibility.

    和其他因素可能在可逆性中發揮作用。

  • Finally, there's mounting evidence

    最後,有越來越多的證據表明

  • that users are susceptible to steroid dependence.

    用戶容易對類固醇產生依賴性。

  • They can develop tolerance and require increasingly large doses over time.

    它們會產生耐受性,隨著時間的推移需要越來越大的劑量。

  • This increases the risk of harmful effects,

    這增加了有害影響的風險。

  • all of which are increasingly common at higher doses

    所有這些都是在高劑量下越來越常見的。

  • taken for longer durations.

    採取的時間較長。

  • Still, there remains little definitive information

    但是,仍然沒有什麼確切的資訊

  • on how common and how reversible almost any of the harms are

    幾乎所有的危害都是常見的和可逆轉的;

  • at different levels of use.

    在不同的使用水準上。

  • We don't know enough, about either risk factors or exposure levels,

    無論是風險因素還是暴露水準,我們都不夠了解。

  • to definitively say any recreational steroid use will be harm-free.

    明確地說,任何娛樂類固醇使用將是無害的。

They've caused global scandals.

他們已經造成了全球的醜聞。

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B2 中高級 中文 類固醇 使用 激素 肌肉 合成 睪丸

類固醇如何影響你的肌肉和身體的其他部分?- Anees Bahji (How do steroids affect your muscles— and the rest of your body? - Anees Bahji)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 09 日
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