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  • Transcriber: Ivana Korom Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz

    謄寫員:Ivana Korom 審稿人:Joanna Pietrulewicz。Joanna Pietrulewicz

  • I'm a human rights lawyer.

    我是個人權律師

  • I've been a human rights lawyer for 30 years,

    我做了30年的人權律師。

  • and this is what I know.

    這是我所知道的。

  • Once there was a man alone in a room.

    曾經有一個人獨自在一個房間裡。

  • And his name was Alton.

    他的名字叫Alton

  • And then seven other men, seven strangers,

    然後是另外七個人,七個陌生人。

  • rushed into his room and dragged him out.

    衝進他的房間,把他拖了出來。

  • And they held him in a horizontal, crucifix position.

    他們把他橫抱在十字架的位置。

  • One on each arm,

    每隻手臂上有一個。

  • two on each leg,

    每條腿上有兩個。

  • and the seventh man held Alton's neck in a vice-like grip

    第七個人像鉗子一樣掐住了奧爾頓的脖子。

  • between his forearms.

    他的前臂之間。

  • And Alton was struggling for breath

    而Alton在掙扎著呼吸

  • and saying, "I can't breathe,"

    並說,"我不能呼吸,"

  • just as George Floyd said, "I can't breathe."

    就像喬治-弗洛伊德說的,"我不能呼吸了。"

  • But they didn't stop.

    但他們並沒有停止。

  • And soon, Alton was dead.

    很快,阿爾頓就死了。

  • When I was asked to represent his mother and his brother and his sister

    當我被要求代表他的母親和他的弟弟和妹妹時

  • in the inquest into his death,

    在對他的死亡進行審訊時。

  • they asked me, "How could it happen?"

    他們問我,"怎麼會這樣?"

  • And I didn't have an answer.

    而我沒有回答。

  • Because Alton had injuries all over his body.

    因為奧爾頓全身都有傷。

  • He had bruising to his neck and his torso.

    他的脖子和軀幹都有淤青。

  • He had injuries to his arms and his legs.

    他的胳膊和腿都有傷。

  • He had blood in his eyes, his ears and his nose.

    他的眼睛、耳朵和鼻子裡都有血。

  • But they claimed no one knew anything.

    但他們聲稱沒有人知道任何事情。

  • They claimed that they couldn't explain how he died.

    他們聲稱,他們無法解釋他是怎麼死的。

  • For Alton had two problems.

    因為奧爾頓有兩個問題。

  • Firstly, the corridor in which he died

    第一,他死的那條走廊。

  • was a prison corridor.

    是一條監獄走廊。

  • And secondly, he was Black.

    其次,他是黑人。

  • So I want to talk to you today

    所以我今天想跟你談談

  • about Alton's mother's question.

    關於Alton母親的問題。

  • How could such a thing happen in our country?

    這樣的事情怎麼會發生在我們國家?

  • How can these things happen

    怎麼會有這樣的事情發生呢?

  • in countries across the world?

    在世界各國?

  • How can they happen still,

    怎麼還能發生。

  • and what could we do to stop it?

    我們能做些什麼來阻止它?

  • For three decades,

    三十年來。

  • I've been representing the families of people of color

    我一直在代表有色人種的家庭。

  • who have been killed in state custody in the United Kingdom.

    在聯合王國被國家拘留期間被殺害的人。

  • And I've done human rights work across four continents.

    我的人權工作遍及四大洲。

  • And what I've learned is this:

    而我學到的是:

  • that if we want to do something about racism,

    如果我們想對種族主義有所作為,

  • we have to first understand what it is.

    我們首先要了解它是什麼。

  • So let's talk about this thing called race.

    所以我們來談談這個叫種族的東西。

  • What exactly is it?

    到底是什麼呢?

  • A fact of our lives?

    我們生活中的一個事實?

  • One of the most powerful forces in the world?

    世界上最強大的力量之一?

  • Something we don't particularly want to talk about?

    一些我們不是特別想說的事情?

  • It is all these things,

    就是這些東西。

  • but it is something else.

    但它是另一種東西。

  • It is a myth.

    這是一個神話。

  • There is no such thing as race.

    根本就沒有種族這回事。

  • Scientific research shows that race is an illusion.

    科學研究表明,種族是一種錯覺。

  • For example,

    例如:

  • someone of European descent

    歐裔

  • might be genetically closer to an Asian person

    可能在基因上更接近於亞洲人

  • than to someone else of European descent.

    而不是歐洲人後裔。

  • So if race isn't a biological fact,

    所以,如果種族不是一個生物學事實。

  • what actually is it?

    究竟是什麼?

  • It is a social construct.

    它是一種社會構造。

  • Which means it's been invented.

    這意味著它已經被髮明瞭。

  • But by whom and for what reason?

    但由誰和出於什麼原因?

  • As a species, we share 99.9 percent of DNA with everybody else.

    作為一個物種,我們與其他人共享99.9%的DNA。

  • But visible external characteristics,

    但可見外部特徵。

  • like hair type and skin color,

    比如髮型和膚色。

  • have been used in order to promote this racist genetic lie

    為了宣傳這種種族主義的基因謊言而採取的措施。

  • about the supposed racial genetic differences.

    關於所謂的種族基因差異。

  • Racism has been endemic for centuries.

    種族主義已經流行了幾個世紀。

  • The Nazis, of course, were very keen to promote the racist lie.

    當然,納粹非常熱衷於宣傳種族主義的謊言。

  • But also, in the United States,

    但同時,在美國。

  • there were eugenic experiments and eugenic laws.

    有優生實驗和優生法。

  • And in Australia,

    而在澳洲。

  • children of dual Aboriginal heritage were confiscated from their parents

    雙重土著血統的兒童被從其父母那裡沒收;

  • in order to create a white Australia.

    為了創造一個白色的澳洲。

  • This kind of thinking is rising again with alt-right groups

    這種思想又在右翼組織中興起了

  • hankering after racially pure homelands.

    渴望種族純正的家園。

  • How does this work?

    這怎麼用?

  • You see, we don't have social inequalities because of race.

    你看,我們的社會不平等不是因為種族。

  • We have social inequalities that are justified by race.

    我們的社會不平等是以種族為理由的。

  • I started to understand this

    我開始明白這一點

  • when I was representing anti-apartheid activists.

    當我代表反種族隔離活動家的時候,

  • And they showed me how apartheid was a system of social exploitation

    他們向我展示了種族隔離制度是怎樣的一種社會剝削制度。

  • and discrimination

    歧視

  • that was justified by race.

    這是由種族所證明的。

  • By the supposed superiority of white people

    以白人的所謂優越性

  • and the supposed inferiority of Black people.

    和所謂的黑人的劣根性。

  • The apartheid regime said it was nature

    種族隔離政權說這是自然

  • and so it was inevitable

    於是乎

  • and there was nothing you could do about it.

    而你卻無能為力。

  • The Mother Nature lie gives discrimination and injustice a pass.

    母性謊言給歧視和不公正提供了機會。

  • I've also found it in cases

    我也發現它在案例中

  • where people suffer from the legacy of colonization and empire.

    在那裡,人們遭受著殖民化和帝國的遺留問題。

  • I've seen similar effects amongst people of the same color in Africa.

    我在非洲的同色系人群中也看到過類似的效果。

  • And how people of certain castes are looked down upon in India.

    以及某些種姓的人在印度是如何被看不起的。

  • The victims may be different,

    受害者可能不同。

  • but the mechanism --

    但該機制 -- --

  • the labeling and the lies --

    標籤和謊言 -- --

  • is exactly the same.

    是完全一樣的。

  • And so you can see why people are so keen to embrace the race thing.

    所以你可以看到為什麼人們如此熱衷於接受種族的事情。

  • Because it gives the privileged,

    因為它給了特權。

  • people like us,

    像我們這樣的人。

  • a get out of jail free card.

    一張免費出獄卡。

  • The simple truth is that race is a system.

    簡單的道理是,種族是一種制度。

  • It's like oxygen, like an atmosphere.

    它就像氧氣,像大氣。

  • It flows everywhere in our society.

    它在我們的社會中到處流動。

  • It infects everybody it touches.

    它感染了它所接觸的每一個人。

  • It protects power and privilege.

    它保護權力和特權。

  • Whose?

    誰的?

  • Well, look around you.

    那麼,看看你的周圍。

  • So what is it like for people of color,

    那麼,有色人種是怎樣的呢。

  • people like me,

    像我這樣的人。

  • to try to speak to white people

    試圖與白人對話

  • about racism?

    關於種族主義?

  • Many, many white people find it extremely difficult to do.

    很多很多白叟都覺得極度困難。

  • Some white people say they know nothing about it.

    有的白叟說,他們對此一無所知。

  • Others say that our societies

    還有人說,我們的社會

  • may not even suffer from racism at all.

    甚至可能根本沒有受到種族主義的影響。

  • So if you are a white person who is wondering about all of this,

    所以,如果你是一個小白,對這些都很好奇。

  • there is a thought experiment that you can do.

    有一個思想實驗,你可以做。

  • Because here's the truth.

    因為這就是事實。

  • You know.

    你知道的

  • You already know.

    你已經知道了

  • So ask yourself this:

    所以,你要問自己這個問題。

  • Would you, would you really want your son or your daughter,

    你,你真的會想要你的兒子或者女兒嗎。

  • your brother or your sister,

    你的哥哥或妹妹。

  • to marry a practicing Muslim from the Middle East?

    嫁給一個來自中東的穆斯林教徒?

  • Or someone recently arrived from South Asia, who is a Hindu?

    或者最近從南亞來的人,他是印度教徒?

  • Or an asylum seeker from Sub-Saharan Africa?

    還是來自撒哈拉以南非洲的尋求庇護者?

  • Or someone who's recently crossed the US-Mexican border?

    或者是最近越過美墨邊境的人?

  • You may not have a total objection,

    你可能不會完全反對。

  • but you may have a concern.

    但你可能有一個擔心。

  • A qualm that scratches at the back of your brain.

    一個在你腦後抓撓的顧慮。

  • It's not because of the color of their skin.

    這不是因為他們的膚色。

  • But because you know that in countries like ours,

    但因為你知道,在我們這樣的國家。

  • as things stand now,

    就目前的情況來看。

  • their life prospects are likely to be affected by this union.

    他們的生活前景可能會受到這種結合的影響。

  • And you realize that you do know,

    而你意識到你確實知道。

  • you do understand that people will judge them.

    你知道人們會評判他們。

  • And in a hundred ways,

    而在一百個方面。

  • those judgments will impact their lives

    這些判斷將影響他們的生活

  • and the lives of their children.

    及其子女的生活。

  • At that moment,

    在那一刻。

  • you are connecting with a powerful truth.

    你正在與一個強大的真理連接。

  • Which is that you know systemic racism is real.

    也就是說,你知道系統性的種族主義是真實存在的。

  • So why do you not want to talk about race?

    那你為什麼不想談種族問題?

  • Because it's uncomfortable, certainly.

    因為不舒服,當然。

  • But that's only part of the answer.

    但這只是答案的一部分。

  • The bigger truth is far more damaging.

    更大的真相是更大的傷害。

  • Your bristling isn't just defensiveness.

    你的暴躁不只是防衛。

  • It is a defense mechanism.

    這是一種防禦機制。

  • It defends the system of privilege

    它捍衛了特權制度

  • and the unequal division of wealth and power.

    以及財富和權力的不平等分配。

  • Fragility gives racial inequality a pass.

    脆弱給了種族不平等的機會。

  • Who are the winners and losers?

    誰是贏家,誰是輸家?

  • Well look at the data.

    好吧,看看數據。

  • In income.

    在收入方面:

  • In health inequalities.

    在健康不平等方面:

  • In school exclusion.

    在學校被開除;

  • In career prospects.

    在職業前景方面。

  • In stop and search.

    在攔截和搜查。

  • Look at how people of color

    看看有色人種如何

  • have been disproportionately dying of COVID.

    死於COVID的比例過高;

  • So if the racial myth invisibilizes

    所以,如果種族神話無形化了。

  • and the fragility response silences,

    和脆弱的反應沉默。

  • what choices are you left with?

    你還剩下什麼選擇?

  • The binary choice between you b