Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

  • Here's a question we should all be asking:

    譯者: LoHsien Huang 審譯者: Yi-Ping Cho (Marssi)

  • What went wrong?

    我們所有人都應該要問這個問題:

  • Not just with the pandemic

    到底哪裡出錯了?

  • but with our civic life.

    不是只有疫情大爆發而已,

  • What brought us to this polarized, rancorous political moment?

    還有我們的公民生活。

  • In recent decades,

    是什麼原因把我們帶到這個兩極化 而且充滿怨恨的政治時局?

  • the divide between winners and losers has been deepening,

    近幾十年來,

  • poisoning our politics,

    成功者與失敗者之間的鴻溝深化了,

  • setting us apart.

    毒害了政治環境,

  • This divide is partly about inequality.

    分裂了我們。

  • But it's also about the attitudes toward winning and losing

    這樣的鴻溝一部分是不平等所造成,

  • that have come with it.

    但這也牽涉到

  • Those who landed on top

    我們對於隨之而來的 輸贏的態度有關。

  • came to believe that their success was their own doing,

    那些在頂層的人

  • a measure of their merit,

    認為自己的成功 都是自己努力的成果,

  • and that those who lost out had no one to blame but themselves.

    這是一種衡量價值的方式,

  • This way of thinking about success

    而那些失敗者不應歸咎任何人 只能責怪他們自己。

  • arises from a seemingly attractive principle.

    這種對於成功的想法

  • If everyone has an equal chance,

    來自一種看似吸引人的原則。

  • the winners deserve their winnings.

    如果每個人都有平等的機會,

  • This is the heart of the meritocratic ideal.

    那麼成功者就應該獲得獎賞。

  • In practice, of course, we fall far short.

    這是功績體制理想的核心。

  • Not everybody has an equal chance to rise.

    當然在實際面上, 我們離這樣的理想還很遙遠。

  • Children born to poor families tend to stay poor when they grow up.

    不是所有人都有平等的機會能往上。

  • Affluent parents are able to pass their advantages onto their kids.

    出身貧窮家庭的孩童 往往在長大後依然貧困。

  • At Ivy League universities, for example,

    富裕的父母可以 將自己的優勢傳遞給孩子。

  • there are more students from the top one percent

    舉例來說,在常春藤聯盟大學中,

  • than from the entire bottom half of the country combined.

    來自金字塔頂端 1% 家庭的學生人數

  • But the problem isn't only that we fail to live up

    比來自金字塔後 50% 家庭的 學生加總起來還多。

  • to the meritocratic principles we proclaim.

    但是問題不僅在於我們未能達到

  • The ideal itself is flawed.

    我們所宣稱的功績體制原則。

  • It has a dark side.

    而是這樣的理想本身就有缺陷。

  • Meritocracy is corrosive of the common good.

    它有一個黑暗面。

  • It leads to hubris among the winners

    功績主義會侵蝕公共利益。

  • and humiliation among those who lose out.

    這會導致成功者的傲慢,

  • It encourages the successful to inhale too deeply of their success,

    而使失敗者蒙羞。

  • to forget the luck and good fortune that helped them on their way.

    它鼓勵成功者去深信他們成功的事實,

  • And it leads them to look down on those less fortunate,

    忘記幫助他們前進的運氣和好運。

  • less credentialed than themselves.

    而且讓他們開始輕視 那些運氣比他們差、

  • This matters for politics.

    資格條件比他們差的人。

  • One of the most potent sources of the populous backlash

    這對政治來說很重要。

  • is the sense among many working people that elites look down on them.

    其中一個最強烈的群眾反彈來源就是

  • It's a legitimate complaint.

    許多勞動者感受到菁英的鄙視。

  • Even as globalization brought deepening inequality

    這是合理的抱怨。

  • and stagnant wages,

    即使全球化加劇了不平等

  • its proponents offered workers some bracing advice.

    以及停滯的薪資,

  • "If you want to compete and win in the global economy,

    全球化的支持者為勞動者 提供了一些令人振奮的建議。

  • go to college."

    「如果你想在全球的經濟中 競爭並且獲得勝利,

  • "What you earn depends on what you learn."

    那麼就去念大學。」

  • "You can make it if you try."

    「你賺多少錢取決於你學習什麼。」

  • These elites miss the insult implicit in this advice.

    「如果你嘗試就可以成功。」

  • If you don't go to college,

    這些菁英忽略了這當中隱含的羞辱。

  • if you don't flourish in the new economy,

    如果你不去念大學,

  • your failure is your fault.

    如果你沒在這個新經濟中發展,

  • That's the implication.

    那麼你的失敗就是你自己造成的。

  • It's no wonder many working people turned against meritocratic elites.

    這就是其中的隱含之意。

  • So what should we do?

    難怪許多勞動者反對功績體制下的菁英。

  • We need to rethink three aspects of our civic life.

    所以我們應該怎麼做?

  • The role of college,

    我們需要重新思考 公民生活的三個層面。

  • the dignity of work

    大學所扮演的角色、

  • and the meaning of success.

    工作的尊嚴,

  • We should begin by rethinking the role of universities

    以及成功的意義。

  • as arbiters of opportunity.

    我們應該開始重新思考, 將大學所扮演的角色

  • For those of us who spend our days in the company of the credentialed,

    看成是機會仲裁者。

  • it's easy to forget a simple fact:

    對於那些在證書陪伴下 過日子的人來說,

  • Most people don't have a four-year college degree.

    相當容易忘記一個簡單的事實:

  • In fact, nearly two-thirds of Americans don't.

    大多數人並沒有四年的大學學位。

  • So it is folly to create an economy

    事實上,將近三分之二的 美國人並沒有大學學歷。

  • that makes a university diploma a necessary condition

    因此,創造一個經濟體

  • of dignified work and a decent life.

    讓大學文憑被看作獲得有尊嚴的工作 與體面生活的必要條件,

  • Encouraging people to go to college is a good thing.

    這想法是相當愚蠢的。

  • Broadening access for those who can't afford it

    鼓勵人們去念大學是件好事。

  • is even better.

    為那些負擔不起的人提供更多的機會,

  • But this is not a solution to inequality.

    這麼做會更好。

  • We should focus less on arming people for meritocratic combat,

    但是這並不是解決不平等的方法。

  • and focus more on making life better

    應該少放些心力去叫大家武裝自己 僅是為了功績體制下的鬥爭。

  • for people who lack a diploma

    而是放更多心力創造更好的生活,

  • but who make essential contributions to our society.

    為了那些沒有文憑,

  • We should renew the dignity of work

    但對我們的社會做出貢獻的人。

  • and place it at the center of our politics.

    我們應該恢復工作的尊嚴,

  • We should remember that work is not only about making a living,

    而且把它放在我們的政治核心中。

  • it's also about contributing to the common good

    我們應該記住工作不僅是溫飽而已,

  • and winning recognition for doing so.

    這也是在為公共利益做出貢獻,

  • Robert F. Kennedy put it well half a century ago.

    並且因為這麼做而得到認同。

  • Fellowship, community, shared patriotism.

    羅伯特·法蘭西斯·甘迺迪 在半世紀前說得很好:

  • These essential values do not come

    共同參與、共同社會、 共同的愛國主義。

  • from just buying and consuming goods together.

    這些不可或缺的價值

  • They come from dignified employment,

    不僅是大家一起購買和消費產品而已。

  • at decent pay.

    它們是來自有尊嚴的工作,

  • The kind of employment that enables us to say,

    以及正當的收入。

  • "I helped to build this country.

    這樣的工作讓我們可以說,

  • I am a participant in its great public ventures."

    「我有幫忙建造這個國家。」

  • This civic sentiment

    「我有參與偉大的公共事務。」

  • is largely missing from our public life today.

    這種公民情感

  • We often assume that the money people make

    卻在當今的公共生活中大量流失。

  • is the measure of their contribution to the common good.

    我們經常假設大家賺到的錢

  • But this is a mistake.

    是用來衡量一個人 對公共利益做出多少貢獻的方法。

  • Martin Luther King Jr. explained why.

    但這是一個錯誤的想法。

  • Reflecting on a strike by sanitation workers

    馬丁·路德·金恩 解釋了為什麼這是錯誤的。

  • in Memphis, Tennessee,

    他回想起在田納西州曼菲斯

  • shortly before he was assassinated,

    清潔工人所發起的罷工事件,

  • King said,

    那就發生在他被刺殺前不久。

  • "The person who picks up our garbage is, in the final analysis,

    金恩說:

  • as significant as the physician,

    「歸根究柢,撿垃圾的人

  • for if he doesn't do his job,

    和醫生一樣重要,

  • diseases are rampant.

    因為如果他不工作,

  • All labor has dignity."

    疾病就會蔓延。

  • Today's pandemic makes this clear.

    所有工作都有其尊嚴。」

  • It reveals how deeply we rely

    當今的疫情讓這個道理更清楚。

  • on workers we often overlook.

    這揭示了我們有多麼依賴

  • Delivery workers,

    那些經常被我們忽視的勞動者。

  • maintenance workers,

    送貨員、

  • grocery store clerks,

    維修工人、

  • warehouse workers,

    雜貨店員工、

  • truckers,

    倉庫工人、

  • nurse assistants,

    貨車司機、

  • childcare workers,

    護理師助理、

  • home health care providers.

    育兒員、

  • These are not the best-paid or most honored workers.

    居家照護業者。

  • But now, we see them as essential workers.

    這些並不是薪資最好 或是最光榮的工作者。

  • This is a moment for a public debate

    但現在,我們將他們視為 不可或缺的工作者。

  • about how to bring their pay and recognition

    這是一個開啟公共辯論的時刻,

  • into better alignment with the importance of their work.

    討論如何使他們的薪水 以及所獲得的認同

  • It is also time for a moral, even spiritual, turning,

    能夠與其工作的重要性保持一致。

  • questioning our meritocratic hubris.

    這也是一個道德與精神轉變的時刻,

  • Do I morally deserve the talents that enable me to flourish?

    質疑功績體制傲慢的時刻。

  • Is it my doing

    我在道德上應該得到 使我蓬勃發展的才能嗎?

  • that I live in a society that prizes the talents

    我的成就是否源自於

  • I happen to have?

    我活在一個獎勵才華的社會中,

  • Or is that my good luck?

    而這個才華是我正好所擁有的?

  • Insisting that my success is my due

    還是只因為我很幸運而已?

  • makes it hard to see myself in other people's shoes.

    堅信成功是因為自身的緣故,

  • Appreciating the role of luck in life

    讓我很難設身處地感受他人的困境。

  • can prompt a certain humility.

    意識到運氣在生活中扮演的角色

  • There but for the accident of birth, or the grace of God,

    會促使我們變得謙卑。

  • or the mystery of fate,

    或許是出於偶然的緣故, 或者神的恩典,

  • go I.

    或者命運的奧秘,

  • This spirit of humility

    所以我才能到達某個高度。

  • is the civic virtue we need now.

    這種謙卑的精神

  • It's the beginning of a way back

    是我們目前所需要的公民素養。

  • from the harsh ethic of success that drives us apart.

    這個契機讓我們可以

  • It points us beyond the tyranny of merit

    從分裂彼此的成功道德觀走回正軌,

  • to a less rancorous, more generous public life.

    引領我們超越獨裁的功績體制,

Here's a question we should all be asking:

譯者: LoHsien Huang 審譯者: Yi-Ping Cho (Marssi)

字幕與單字

單字即點即查 點擊單字可以查詢單字解釋

B2 中高級 中文 體制 成功 大學 尊嚴 平等 勞動

The tyranny of merit | Michael Sandel

  • 23 5
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 02 日
影片單字