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  • On a December night in 1910, the exiled former leader of Honduras,

    1910年12月的一個夜晚,洪都拉斯流亡的前領導人。

  • Manuel Bonilla, boarded a borrowed yacht in New Orleans.

    曼努埃爾-博尼利亞,在新奧爾良登上了一艘借來的遊艇。

  • With a group of heavily armed accomplices,

    帶著一幫全副武裝的同夥。

  • he set sail for Honduras in hopes of reclaiming power

    他啟程前往洪都拉斯,希望能奪回權力。

  • by whatever means necessary.

    不擇手段

  • Bonilla had a powerful backer,

    博尼利亞有一個強大的靠山。

  • the future leader of a notorious organization

    梟雄

  • known throughout Latin America as El Pulpo, or "the Octopus,"

    八達通

  • for its long reach.

    因其覆蓋面較廣。

  • The infamous El Pulpo was a U.S. corporation

    臭名昭著的El Pulpo是一家美國公司。

  • trafficking in, of all things, bananas.

    販運,其中包括香蕉;

  • It was officially known as United Fruit Company

    它的正式名稱是聯合水果公司-

  • or Chiquita Brands International today.

    或 Chiquita Brands International 今天。

  • First cultivated in Southeast Asia thousands of years ago,

    幾千年前最早在東南亞栽培。

  • bananas reached the Americas in the early 1500s,

    香蕉在15世紀初傳入美洲。

  • where enslaved Africans cultivated them in plots alongside sugar plantations.

    在那裡,被奴役的非洲人在甘蔗種植園旁的地塊上種植它們。

  • There were many different bananas,

    有很多不同的香蕉。

  • most of which looked nothing like the bananas in supermarket aisles today.

    其中大部分看起來和今天超市貨架上的香蕉完全不一樣。

  • In the 1800s, captains from New Orleans and New England

    在19世紀,來自新奧爾良和新英格蘭的船長們。

  • ventured to the Caribbean in search of coconuts and other goods.

    冒險到加勒比地區尋找椰子和其他商品。

  • They began to experiment with bananas, purchasing one kind,

    他們開始嘗試吃香蕉,購買一種。

  • called Gros Michel, from Afro-Caribbean farmers in Jamaica, Cuba, and Honduras.

    稱為Gros Michel,來自牙買加、古巴和洪都拉斯的非洲裔加勒比農民。

  • Gros Michel bananas produced large bunches of relatively thick-skinned fruit

    Gros Michel 香蕉結出了一大串相對較厚的果實------。

  • ideal for shipping.

    是運輸的理想選擇。

  • By the end of the 1800s, bananas were a hit in the US.

    到19世紀末,香蕉在美國大受歡迎。

  • They were affordable, available year-round,

    他們價格實惠,一年四季都有。

  • and endorsed by medical doctors.

    並得到醫生的認可。

  • As bananas became big business,

    隨著香蕉成為大生意。

  • U.S. fruit companies wanted to grow their own bananas.

    美國水果公司想自己種植香蕉。

  • In order to secure access to land,

    為了保證土地的使用權。

  • banana moguls lobbied and bribed government officials in Central America,

    香蕉大亨在中美洲遊說和賄賂政府官員。

  • and even funded coups to ensure they had allies in power.

    甚至資助政變以確保他們有盟友掌權。

  • In Honduras, Manuel Bonilla repaid the banana man

    在洪都拉斯,曼努埃爾-博尼利亞償還了香蕉人。

  • who had financed his return to power with land concessions.

    他用土地特許權資助他重新上臺。

  • By the 1930s, one company dominated the region: United Fruit,

    到了20世紀30年代,有一家公司主導了該地區。聯合水果公司

  • who owned over 40% of Guatemala's arable land at one point.

    他一度擁有瓜地馬拉40%以上的可耕地。

  • They cleared rainforest in Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras,

    他們在哥斯達黎加、哥倫比亞、瓜地馬拉、洪都拉斯清理雨林。

  • and Panama to build plantations,

    和巴拿馬建立種植園。

  • along with railroads, ports, and towns to house workers.

    與鐵路、港口、城鎮一起安置工人。

  • Lured by relatively high-paying jobs, people migrated to banana zones.

    在相對高薪工作的誘惑下,人們向香蕉區移民。

  • From Guatemala to Colombia,

    從瓜地馬拉到哥倫比亞。

  • United Fruit's plantations grew exclusively Gros Michel bananas.

    聯合水果公司的種植園只種植Gros Michel香蕉。

  • These densely packed farms had little biological diversity,

    這些密密麻麻的農場幾乎沒有生物多樣性。

  • making them ripe for disease epidemics.

    使其成為疾病流行的成熟期。

  • The infrastructure connecting these vulnerable farms

    連接這些脆弱農場的基礎設施

  • could quickly spread disease:

    可以迅速傳播疾病。

  • pathogens could hitch a ride from one farm to another on workers' boots,

    病原體可以通過工人的靴子從一個農場搭到另一個農場。

  • railroad cars, and steamships.

    鐵路車輛和汽船。

  • That's exactly what happened in the 1910s,

    這正是1910年代發生的事情。

  • when a fungus began to level Gros Michel banana plantations,

    當一種真菌開始使格羅斯-米歇爾香蕉種植園夷為平地時。

  • first in Panama, and later throughout Central America,

    先是在巴拿馬,後來在整個中美洲。

  • spreading quickly via the same system that had enabled big profits and cheap bananas.

    通過同樣的系統迅速蔓延,使大利潤和廉價香蕉得以實現。

  • In a race againstPanama Disease,”

    在與 "巴拿馬病 "的賽跑中

  • banana companies abandoned infected plantations

    香蕉公司放棄受感染的種植園

  • in Costa Rica, Honduras, and Guatemala,

    在哥斯達黎加、洪都拉斯和瓜地馬拉。

  • leaving thousands of farmers and workers jobless.

    使成千上萬的農民和工人失業。

  • The companies then felled extensive tracts of rainforests

    這些公司隨後砍伐了大片雨林

  • in order to establish new plantations.

    以便建立新的種植園。

  • After World War II,

    二戰後。

  • the dictatorships with which United Fruit had partnered in Guatemala and Honduras

    與聯合水果公司在瓜地馬拉和洪都拉斯合作的獨裁政權的情況

  • yielded to democratically elected governments that called for land reform.

    屈服於要求進行土地改革的民選政府。

  • In Guatemala, President Jacobo Arbenz tried to buy back land from United Fruit

    在瓜地馬拉,總統雅各布-阿本茨試圖從聯合水果公司買回土地。

  • and redistribute it to landless farmers.

    並將其重新分配給無地農民。

  • The Arbenz government offered to pay a price based on tax records

    阿本茨政府提出根據稅收記錄支付價格--。

  • where United Fruit had underreported the value of the land.

    聯合水果公司少報土地價值的地方。

  • El Pulpo was not happy.

    El Pulpo不高興了。

  • The company launched propaganda campaigns against Arbenz

    該公司開展了反對Arbenz的宣傳活動。

  • and called on its deep connections in the US Government for help.

    並呼籲其在美國政府中的深厚關係尋求幫助。

  • Citing fears of communism, the CIA orchestrated the overthrow

    中情局以對共產主義的恐懼為由,策劃推翻了

  • of the democratically elected Arbenz in 1954.

    1954年民選的阿本茨的。

  • That same year in Honduras, thousands of United Fruit workers went on strike

    同年,在洪都拉斯,數千名聯合水果公司的工人舉行了罷工。

  • until the company agreed to recognize a new labor union.

    直到公司同意承認一個新的工會。

  • With the political and economic costs of running from Panama Disease escalating,

    隨著逃離巴拿馬病的政治和經濟成本不斷攀升。

  • United Fruit finally switched from Gros Michel

    聯合水果公司終於從Gros Michel換成了

  • to Panama disease-resistant Cavendish bananas in the early 1960s.

    20世紀60年代初,對巴拿馬抗病的卡文迪許香蕉。

  • Today, bananas are no longer as economically vital in Central America,

    如今,香蕉在中美洲已不再具有重要的經濟意義。

  • and United Fruit Company, rechristened Chiquita,

    和聯合水果公司,重新命名為Chiquita。

  • has lost its stranglehold on Latin American politics.

    已經失去了對拉美政治的扼制。

  • But the modern banana industry isn't without problems.

    但現代香蕉產業也不是沒有問題。

  • Cavendish bananas require frequent applications of pesticides

    卡文迪什香蕉需要經常施用殺蟲劑。

  • that create hazards for farmworkers and ecosystems.

    對農民工和生態系統造成危害的。

  • And though they're resistant to the particular pathogen

    雖然它們對特殊的病原體有抵抗力。

  • that affected Gros Michel bananas,

    影響格羅斯-米歇爾香蕉的。

  • Cavendish farms also lack biological diversity,

    卡文迪許農場也缺乏生物多樣性。

  • leaving the banana trade ripe for another pandemic.

    使香蕉貿易成為另一種流行病的成熟期。

On a December night in 1910, the exiled former leader of Honduras,

1910年12月的一個夜晚,洪都拉斯流亡的前領導人。

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B2 中高級 中文 香蕉 水果 公司 瓜地馬拉 農場 土地

香蕉的黑暗歷史--約翰-索魯裡。 (The dark history of bananas - John Soluri)

  • 14 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 11 月 02 日
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