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  • What's going on inside you when you're having a phobic reaction?

    當你有恐懼症反應的時候,你的內心是怎麼想的?

  • In your brain the amygdala recognises this is a danger situation.

    在你的大腦中,杏仁核識別出這是一個危險的情況。

  • The hypothalamus triggers your fight or flight response.

    下丘腦會觸發你的戰鬥或逃跑反應。

  • And the hippocampus takes note of your fear.

    而海馬體會注意到你的恐懼。

  • It will remind you next time.

    它會提醒你下次。

  • Your breathing gets quicker, your pulse speeds up,

    你的呼吸變快,脈搏加快。

  • you sweat, your muscles tense,

    你出汗,你的肌肉緊張。

  • there's more glucose in your blood, increasing your energy.

    血液中有更多的葡萄糖,增加你的能量。

  • For most people, the pre-frontal cortex,

    對於大多數人來說,前額葉皮層。

  • the rational, uniquely human part of the brain,

    大腦中理性的、人類獨有的部分。

  • can calm the amygdala down.

    可以使杏仁核平靜下來。

  • But if you have a phobia, that process doesn't quite work.

    但如果你有恐懼症,這個過程就不太行得通了。

  • Your brain's constantly stuck in tiger attack mode.

    你的大腦一直停留在老虎攻擊模式。

  • The first phobia in history belonged to a man who was absolutely terrified

    歷史上第一個恐懼症是屬於一個絕對恐懼的人的

  • of flute music, but only at night.

    的笛子音樂,但只在晚上。

  • This was described 2,500 years ago by the Greek father of medicine,

    這是2500年前希臘醫學之父所描述的。

  • but Hippocrates didn't use the word phobia,

    但希波克拉底並沒有使用恐懼症這個詞。

  • this came 500 years later when the Roman author Celsus

    這是在500年後,羅馬作家塞爾蘇斯

  • used it to describe a disease.

    用它來形容一種疾病。

  • ...which we now know as Rabies.

    ...也就是我們現在所知道的狂犬病。

  • Celsus took the word phobia from the Greek god Phobos,

    塞爾蘇斯把恐懼症這個詞取自希臘神菲比斯。

  • who was so terrifying that warriors would paint his face on their shields

    梟雄

  • to scare their enemies.

    來嚇唬他們的敵人。

  • One of Freud's most famous case studies was a boy called Little Hans

    弗洛伊德最著名的案例之一是一個叫小漢斯的男孩。

  • who developed a terror of horses

    恐馬症的人

  • after seeing one collapse in the street.

    在看到一個人倒在街上後。

  • Freud thought that this was really an unconscious fear of his father

    弗洛伊德認為,這其實是對父親的無意識恐懼

  • and related to sexual feelings for his mother.

    並與他對母親的性感情有關。

  • Modern psychoanalysts still believe that phobias can be caused

    現代精神分析學家仍然認為,恐懼症可以引起

  • by secret internal conflicts like this.

    由這樣的祕密內部矛盾。

  • Another theory is that at least some fears are innate.

    另一種理論是,至少有些恐懼是天生的。

  • One study showed young infants images of spiders and snakes

    一項研究向幼年嬰兒展示了蜘蛛和蛇的影像。

  • and found that their pupils dilated, a sign of fear.

    並發現他們的瞳孔放大,這是恐懼的表現。

  • Or intense focus.

    或強烈的專注。

  • The theory is that fear of spiders and snakes

    理論上說,害怕蜘蛛和蛇。

  • gave us an evolutionary edge.

    給了我們一個進化的優勢。

  • Around 5% of people have these phobias.

    大約有5%的人有這些恐懼症。

  • And perhaps the same mechanism left us with other common phobias,

    而或許同樣的機制也給我們留下了其他常見的恐懼症。

  • a fear of heights, darkness, confined spaces,

    恐高,黑暗,密閉空間。

  • all dangerous when we were evolving.

    都是危險的,當我們在進化的時候。

  • A huge number of phobias have been spotted and named since Little Hans.

    從小漢斯開始,大量的恐懼症被發現並命名。

  • There's...

    有...

  • ...the fear of doctors.

    ...對醫生的恐懼。

  • ...the fear of beards. And...

    ...對鬍鬚的恐懼。還有...

  • ...fear of dinner conversation.

    ...害怕晚餐的談話。

  • We may not know the root cause of phobias,

    我們可能不知道恐懼症的根本原因。

  • but we do know how they develop.

    但我們知道他們是如何發展的。

  • You can catch a phobia by seeing other people's fear.

    你可以通過看到別人的恐懼來感染恐懼症。

  • You can be taught a phobia,

    可以教你一個恐懼症。

  • learning about germs can lead to bacillophobia.

    學習細菌知識會導致恐菌症。

  • Or you can get a phobia by having a traumatic experience,

    或者你有過創傷性的經歷,就會得恐懼症。

  • especially in childhood.

    特別是在兒童時期。

  • Despite all that, common phobias are quite similar across cultures.

    儘管如此,不同文化中常見的恐懼症還是很相似的。

  • But one of the few that's culturally specific is taijin kyofusho,

    但是,少數幾個有文化特色的是太極拳法。

  • the Japanese phobia of embarrassing other people.

    日本人的恐懼症,害怕讓別人難堪。

  • All the phobias we've mentioned are classed as...

    我們提到的所有恐懼症都被歸類為...

  • Fear of specific things.

    對具體事物的恐懼。

  • But there are two complex phobias.

    但有兩種複雜的恐懼症。

  • Social phobia is triggered by being around people you don't know,

    社交恐懼症是由在不認識的人身邊引發的。

  • and agoraphobia by being away from home,

    和因離家而產生的恐曠症。

  • especially without escape routes.

    尤其是沒有逃學生通道。

  • Whilst these are serious conditions,

    雖然這些都是嚴重的情況。

  • they can be treated with therapy and medication.

    他們可以通過治療和藥物治療。

  • Simple phobias, despite the suffering they cause,

    簡單的恐懼症,儘管它們造成了痛苦。

  • are easier to treat.

    是比較容易治療的。

  • The NHS recommends Cognitive Behavioural Therapy,

    NHS推薦認知行為療法。

  • with a therapist helping you to gradually get used

    在治療師的幫助下,你會逐漸習慣。

  • to whatever it is you fear.

    不管你害怕什麼

  • So if a phobia's getting you down, why not pop in and see your doctor?

    所以,如果恐懼症讓你心煩意亂,為什麼不進來看看醫生呢?

  • Unless of course you're iatrophobic,

    當然,除非你有恐高症。

  • in which case, it's probably better to have a word with the nurse.

    在這種情況下,它可能是更好地有一個字與護士。

What's going on inside you when you're having a phobic reaction?

當你有恐懼症反應的時候,你的內心是怎麼想的?

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B2 中高級 中文 恐懼症 大腦 治療 蜘蛛 進化 弗洛伊德

恐懼症從何而來?| 恐懼症是怎麼來的? (Where do phobias come from? | BBC Ideas)

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    Summer 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 29 日
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