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  • this video was made possible by brilliant start achieving your learning goals for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up at brilliant dot org's slash Real life floor wars always have long lasting consequences, and Europe in particular, has had more than its fair share in the past century.

    這個視頻是由輝煌開始實現你的學習目標20%的折扣,成為前200人之一,在輝煌點組織的斜線註冊現實生活中的地板戰爭總是有長期的持久的後果,和歐洲,特別是,在過去的一個世紀,已經有更多的公平份額。

  • Both of the world wars, along with more recent conflicts like the Yugoslav wars and the ongoing war and Donbass have littered the continent with millions of bombs, shells, landmines and grenades.

    兩次世界大戰,以及最近的衝突,如南斯拉夫戰爭和正在進行的戰爭和頓巴斯戰爭,給非洲大陸帶來了數百萬枚炸彈、炮彈、地雷和手榴彈。

  • And a lot of these explosives still remain undetonated where they were fired or dropped decades ago.

    而且很多這些爆炸物仍未被引爆,它們是幾十年前發射或投放的。

  • In this way, the echoes of these long, distant wars still roar across the continent from time to time and claimed new victims for old conflicts, a reminder that the price of war has aftershocks and consequences, the last well beyond the lifetimes of the people who fought in them.

    這樣一來,這些漫長而遙遠的戰爭的回聲仍不時在大陸上響起,併為舊的衝突奪取了新的受害者,這提醒人們,戰爭的代價是有餘震和後果的,其持續時間遠遠超過了參加戰爭的人的有生之年。

  • Wars affect generations of people after their fought, and here is how a century of conflict in Europe continues to violently affect the lives of people who live there Today.

    戰爭在打響後會影響一代又一代人,下面就來看看歐洲百年的衝突是如何繼續劇烈地影響著今天生活在那裡的人們的生活。

  • This is a map of Europe that shows where the highest concentrations of leftover unexploded ordinance, or UFOs, exist.

    這張歐洲地圖顯示了未爆彈藥或UFO最集中的地方。

  • The most heavily affected regions are Spain, from the Spanish civil War, the north east of France and Belgium from the First World War.

    受影響最嚴重的地區是西班牙內戰時期的西班牙、法國東北部和第一次世界大戰時期的比利時。

  • The area around London and southern England from the Blitz.

    倫敦周圍和英格蘭南部地區從閃電戰。

  • Germany and Italy from years of bombing and fighting in the Second World War.

    德國和意大利在第二次世界大戰中多年的轟炸和戰鬥。

  • Bosnia and Croatia from the Yugoslav wars and eastern Ukraine from the ongoing war and dawn pass.

    南斯拉夫戰爭中的波斯尼亞和克羅地亞,以及正在進行的戰爭和黎明通中的烏克蘭東部。

  • So let's begin with Spain.

    所以我們先從西班牙說起。

  • Since the 19 eighties, the Spanish authorities have recovered and disarmed over 750,000 pieces of explosives left over from the Spanish Civil War fought in the 19 thirties.

    自80年代以來,西班牙當局已收繳並解除了30年代西班牙內戰遺留的75萬多件爆炸物。

  • Even during the 20 tens, over 1000 pieces of leftover artillery shells, bombs or grenades were still discovered and destroyed across the country every year.

    即使在20年代,全國各地每年仍有1000多枚遺留的炮彈、炸彈或手榴彈被發現和銷燬。

  • But the situation in other countries is even more extreme.

    但其他國家的情況更加極端。

  • Let's take a look at France and specifically the northeastern part of the country.

    我們來看看法國,特別是法國的東北部地區。

  • During the first World War, the German empire invaded through Belgium and then moved on to invade and occupy a large part of northeastern France.

    第一次世界大戰期間,德意志帝國通過比利時入侵,然後繼續入侵併佔領了法國東北部的大部分地區。

  • The two sides fired millions of tons of shells that one another across the front line that developed here during the war, and approximately one in three of these shells never actually detonated.

    雙方發射了數百萬噸的炮彈 在戰爭期間在這裡發展的前線上,大約三分之一的這些炮彈從未真正引爆。

  • In the EAP salient alone, it's believed that 300 million projectiles the British and Germans fired at one another were duds, and most of them have never been recovered.

    僅在EAP突出部,據信英國人和德國人互相發射的3億枚炮彈都是啞彈,而且大部分都沒有被回收。

  • The bombs and shells were buried when they hit the ground or swallowed up by the mud, and they occasionally come back up to the surface over time.

    炸彈和炮彈落地後被掩埋或被泥土吞噬,隨著時間的推移,它們偶爾會重新浮出水面。

  • So because of the millions of tons of unexploded bombs still lurking about, the French government established this zone in the north east of the country after the end of the war, and the red area in particular here became known as Zone Rouge, the area of France that was the most severely destroyed and ravaged by the conflict with the highest concentrations of unexploded shells.

    所以因為還有數百萬噸的未爆彈潛伏在這裡,所以法國政府在戰爭結束後,在法國東北部設立了這一區域,特別是這裡的紅色區域被稱為紅區,是法國在衝突中被破壞和蹂躪最嚴重,未爆彈最集中的地區。

  • Human settlement, habitation and trespassing in the zone were forbidden, and the area was left alone to return back to nature.

    禁止人類在該區域定居、居住和闖入,讓該區域獨自迴歸自然。

  • What's crazy, though, is that there are still some areas within the zone rouge that are off limits to humans.

    不過,最瘋狂的是,在區域胭脂內,還有一些區域是禁止人類進入的。

  • Even today in 2020 and in some of these areas, the concentration of unexploded shells are as high as 300 per 10,000 square meters in just the top 15 centimeters of soil, which is about the same size as just a single city block.

    即使是在2020年的今天,在其中的一些地區,僅在土壤的最上層15釐米處,未爆炸彈的濃度就高達每萬平米300枚,其大小僅相當於一個城市街區。

  • 99% of all plant life continues to die in these areas even today, because of the vast amounts of lead, mercury, arsenic and other poisons that have contaminated the soil.

    由於大量的鉛、汞、砷和其他毒物汙染了土壤,即使在今天,99%的植物生命仍然在這些地區死亡。

  • The French authorities continue to remove around 900 tons of shells from the area every year.

    法國當局每年繼續從該地區清除約900噸炮彈。

  • And ever since the end of the war in 1918 630 French and over 20 Belgian clearers have lost their lives, trying their best to heal the scar and return the land to its original beauty.

    而自1918年戰爭結束後,630名法國人和20多名比利時清掃工就失去了生命,他們竭力撫平傷疤,讓這片土地恢復原貌。

  • It may take 300 MAWR years before the last of the zone rouge is successfully cleared back to normal.

    可能需要300MAWR年的時間才能成功清除最後的區域胭脂恢復正常。

  • And so it remains an ugly scar across France that reminds us of darker times.

    所以,它仍然是橫亙在法國的一道醜陋的傷疤,讓我們想起了更黑暗的時代。

  • But Europe has even more scars on her face that came from conflicts after the first World War.

    但歐洲臉上的傷疤更多,這些傷疤來自於第一次世界大戰後的衝突。

  • Let's take southern England, for example, between 1940 1944 the German Reich dropped 30,000 tons of bombs across the United Kingdom during the blitz.

    以英格蘭南部為例,1940年至1944年間,德意志帝國在閃電戰期間在英國各地投下了3萬噸炸彈。

  • Most of these landed across London and southern England, and many of them never exploded and remain hidden across the area today, like old sleeping Nazi sentinels just waiting to claim even more victims in our modern age.

    其中大部分落在倫敦和英格蘭南部,其中許多從未爆炸,至今仍隱藏在這一地區,就像沉睡的納粹老哨兵,等待著在我們這個現代社會中奪取更多的受害者。

  • In 2007 a bomb was discovered in Plymouth that required the evacuation of 1000 people.

    2007年,在普利茅斯發現了一枚炸彈,需要疏散1000人。

  • And in 2018 another big German bomb was discovered underwater in the Thames, which forced London city airports to cancel all of their flights while it was defused.

    而在2018年,又有一顆德國大炸彈在泰晤士河水下被發現,倫敦城市機場被迫取消了所有班機,同時拆除了炸彈。

  • Every so often, the discovery of old bomb somewhere in England triggers the evacuation of thousands.

    每隔一段時間,英國某處發現的舊炸彈就會引發成千上萬人的撤離。

  • But the discovery of old bombs in Germany will sometimes trigger the evacuation of tens of thousands, while Germany only managed to drop 30,000 tons of bombs on the UK, the Allies managed to in turn drop 1.35 million tons of bombs on Germany, and around 10% of these never exploded.

    但在德國發現舊炸彈有時會引發數萬人的撤離,而德國只在英國投下了3萬噸炸彈,盟軍又在德國投下了135萬噸炸彈,其中約10%的炸彈從未爆炸。

  • So that's 13,500 tons of bombs that continued to exist in Germany following their surrender in 1945 which makes German bomb diffusers the busiest in the entire world because they discover in disarm one roughly every two weeks in the country.

    所以這就是德國在1945年投降後繼續存在的13500噸炸彈,這使得德國的炸彈擴散器成為全世界最繁忙的,因為他們在國內大概每兩個星期就會發現一枚拆彈。

  • On average.

    平均而言。

  • Some notable recent discoveries include a 1.8 ton R A F bomb found in Copeland's in 2011 that caused 45,000 people to be evacuated.

    最近的一些值得注意的發現包括2011年在Copeland's發現的一枚重達1.8噸的R A F炸彈,導致45000人被疏散。

  • Ah, £500 American bomb found in Munich in 2012 that was blown up on site, which you can watch in the spectacular video here on YouTube.

    啊,2012年在慕尼黑髮現的500英鎊的美國炸彈,被現場炸燬,你可以在YouTube上觀看這裡的壯觀視頻。

  • Another 1.8 tons R A F bomb found in Ox Berg in 2016 that caused the evacuation of 54,000 people and another really big British bomb found in downtown Frankfurt during construction work in 2019.

    2016年又在奧克斯伯格發現了1.8噸R A F炸彈,造成5.4萬人疏散,2019年又在法蘭克福市中心建築工程中發現了一枚真正的英國大炸彈。

  • That prompted the evacuation of 75 1000 people from the area, the largest evacuation in Germany's entire history.

    這促使該地區75 1000人撤離,這是德國整個歷史上最大規模的撤離。

  • Post World War Two.

    第二次世界大戰後。

  • Smaller bomb discoveries and evacuations happen every year in cities all across Germany, just another lasting consequence of a war fought 80 years ago that affects the lives of people still living there today.

    在德國各地的城市中,每年都會發生小型炸彈的發現和撤離,這只是80年前的一場戰爭所造成的另一個持久的後果,它影響著至今仍生活在那裡的人們的生活。

  • But the hardest hit area of Europe suffers the consequences of USOs from a much more recent conflict, Bosnia and Croatia.

    但是,歐洲受打擊最嚴重的地區,即波斯尼亞和克羅地亞,卻遭受到了最近一場衝突所帶來的USO後果。

  • Between 1991 and 2001 the former Yugoslavia descended into civil war and chaos that tore the country apart and paved the weight independence for many of the nationalities that lived there In Bosnia, particularly all three competing factions within the country during the wars collectively deployed over two million landmines to protect their defensive lines.

    1991年至2001年間,前南斯拉夫陷入內戰和混亂,使國家四分五裂,併為生活在那裡的許多民族鋪設了獨立的砝碼在波斯尼亞,特別是戰爭期間國內所有三個競爭的派別集體部署了200多萬顆地雷,以保護他們的防線。

  • Bosnia and Hercegovina is not a big country, and that war wasn't a long time ago and as a result, Bosnia has the worst land mine contamination problem of any country in the world today.

    波斯尼亞和黑塞哥維那並不是一個大國,而且那場戰爭發生的時間並不長,是以,波斯尼亞的地雷汙染問題是當今世界上所有國家中最嚴重的。

  • This is a map of all 28,699 locations of landmines remaining in the country.

    這張圖上標明瞭該國所有28,699個剩餘地雷的位置。

  • As of 2013 2.4% of all Bosnia's land is contaminated by mines.

    截至2013年,波斯尼亞2.4%的土地受到地雷汙染。

  • So for the sake of comparison, if 2.4% of America's land was the same, it would be as if the entire state of Michigan was one gigantic active minefield.

    所以為了方便比較,如果美國2.4%的土地是一樣的,那就好像整個密歇根州是一個巨大的活雷區一樣。

  • Over 80,000 individual active land mines are believed to still exist across these areas of Bosnia, and they continue to hurt people all the time.

    據信,在波斯尼亞的這些地區仍然存在著8萬多枚現役地雷,它們繼續不斷地傷害著人們。

  • During the actual war in Bosnia, landmines killed 3399 people in the country.

    在波斯尼亞的實際戰爭中,地雷造成該國3399人死亡。

  • But since the war ended, the land mines have continued to kill an additional 1750 people, all of whom had toe violently die completely needlessly after the piece was already signed and agreed to.

    但自戰爭結束後,地雷又繼續殺死了1750人,這些人都是在片子已經簽字同意後,趾以暴斃,完全沒有必要。

  • Land mines kill indiscriminately and without mercy, and the majority of victims are always Children and civilians.

    地雷不分青紅皁白,毫不留情地殺人,而大多數受害者總是兒童和平民。

  • Bosnia and Hercegovina is actively trying their best to clear the country of these ugly scars.

    波斯尼亞和黑塞哥維那正在積極盡力清除該國的這些醜陋傷疤。

  • But without a source of serious funding, that goal is nowhere close on the horizon, and nearby Croatia to is a country that continues to be plagued by the scourge of landmines.

    但是,如果沒有認真的資金來源,這一目標就遙遙無期,而附近的克羅地亞是一個繼續受到地雷禍害困擾的國家。

  • Just like in Bosnia.

    就像在波斯尼亞一樣。

  • Every side in the Croatian war of Independence used landmines extensively to the point where 1.5 million were deployed across the country as of 2013.

    克羅地亞獨立戰爭中的每一方都廣泛使用地雷,截至2013年,全國共部署了150萬枚地雷。

  • This is a map of the location for all of the minefields that continue to exist here.

    這是一張地圖,上面標明瞭這裡繼續存在的所有雷場的位置。

  • 31,000 total mines marked by over 12,000 warning signs that places one out of every five Croatians within close proximity to an active landmine.

    31,000枚地雷,有12,000多個警告標誌,使每五名克羅地亞人中就有一人靠近正在使用的地雷。

  • Since the end of the war in Croatia, leftover land mines have killed over 500 people and severely injured 1500 more by causing life changing injuries like the loss of a leg the landmine situation in both Croatia and Bosnia Hercegovina, our national tragedies that continue to claim victims every single year from wars that ended decades ago.

    自克羅地亞戰爭結束以來,遺留的地雷已造成500多人死亡,另有1 500多人嚴重受傷,造成諸如失去一條腿等改變生活的傷害,克羅地亞和波斯尼亞-黑塞哥維那的地雷情況是我們的國家悲劇,每年繼續有受害者從幾十年前結束的戰爭中死去。

  • Landmines are simply evil and should never be used during any war because of how indiscriminately they kill, regardless of age, regardless of profession and regardless of even time, wars always have lasting consequences.

    地雷是邪惡的,在任何戰爭中都不應該使用,因為它們不分年齡、不分職業、甚至不分時間地濫殺無辜,戰爭總是有持久的後果。

  • And they sometimes stretch out into the future like ghosts to claim fresh victims, sometimes born generations after their intended targets were.

    它們有時會像鬼魂一樣延伸到未來,要求新的受害者,有時是在預定目標出生後的幾代人。

  • Now I know that ending was a pretty depressing way toe.

    現在我知道這個結局是一個很壓抑的方式。

  • Leave this video off.

    把這個視頻關掉。

  • So let me breathe back A bit of optimism here.

    所以,讓我在這裡喘口氣,樂觀一點。

  • While scientific thinking to fight wars in the 20th century created some evils, like mass strategic bombing landmines or rocket attacks, they also created some good out of the ashes, like jet aircraft that allowed for the revolution in global transportation and rocket technology that eventually got humans into space and the moon.

    20世紀用科學思維來打仗,雖然製造了一些惡果,比如大規模戰略轟炸地雷或火箭攻擊,但也從灰燼中創造了一些善果,比如噴氣式飛機讓全球交通革命和火箭技術最終讓人類進入太空和月球。

  • Good things, which you can learn all about how to do yourself and mawr right now in the classical mechanics course that's offered over at brilliance.

    好的東西,你可以學習所有關於如何做自己和毛爾現在在經典力學課程,提供在輝煌。

  • It's never too early or too late in life to learn something new and What makes brilliant so special is that they help you learn the kinds of things that you were forced to and maybe struggled with when you were a kid.

    在生活中,學習新的東西永遠不會太早或太晚,而輝煌的特別之處就在於,他們幫助你學習那些你小時候被迫的、也許是掙扎的東西。

  • Physics, calculus, computer science, algebra and more.

    物理、微積分、計算機科學、代數等。

  • But they actually make it all fun and approachable.

    但實際上他們讓這一切變得有趣而又平易近人。

  • The feeling of achievement when you finally understand something inconceivably complicated is amazing.

    當你終於理解了一些難以想象的複雜事物時,那種成就感是很奇妙的。

  • And brilliance.

    和輝煌。

  • Teaching style of breaking down big scary concepts into their smaller, more intuitive chunks makes that possible to experience for everyone, including you.

    將大的可怕的概念分解成更小的、更直觀的塊狀的教學風格,讓包括你在內的所有人都有可能體驗到。

  • You can even do this on the go with their app.

    你甚至可以通過他們的應用程序在旅途中進行。

  • And if you're the type of person without a lot of free time but who still wants to learn new things, you can set a goal to do each of their daily challenges in those small, free moments whenever you get them.

    而如果你是那種沒有很多空閒時間,但仍想學習新東西的人,你可以設定一個目標,只要你有時間,就在那些小的、空閒的時間裡完成他們每天的每一個挑戰。

  • And best of all, if you are one of the 1st 200 people to sign up at brilliant orc slash real Life floor or by clicking the link down in the description, you'll even get 20% off.

    最重要的是,如果你是前200名在輝煌獸人斜線真人樓報名的人之一,或者通過點擊描述中的鏈接,你甚至可以獲得20%的折扣。

this video was made possible by brilliant start achieving your learning goals for 20% off by being one of the 1st 200 people to sign up at brilliant dot org's slash Real life floor wars always have long lasting consequences, and Europe in particular, has had more than its fair share in the past century.

這個視頻是由輝煌開始實現你的學習目標20%的折扣,成為前200人之一,在輝煌點組織的斜線註冊現實生活中的地板戰爭總是有長期的持久的後果,和歐洲,特別是,在過去的一個世紀,已經有更多的公平份額。

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B1 中級 中文 地雷 炸彈 戰爭 炮彈 德國 地區

歐洲的未爆彈問題 (Europe's Unexploded Bomb Problem)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 29 日
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