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  • Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

    轉錄者TED Translators Admin Reviewer:Rhonda Jacobs

  • We have known for a long time that air pollution kills people.

    我們早就知道,空氣汙染會害死人。

  • We also know that a climate emergency is happening.

    我們還知道,氣候緊急情況正在發生。

  • These are hardly motivating facts to start a conversation,

    這些都很難成為引發談話的動機。

  • but I'm actually here to share good news.

    但其實我是來分享好消息的。

  • For the first time in our lifetimes,

    有生之年第一次。

  • a big detox of transportation is possible,

    可以對交通進行大排查。

  • despite the many problems we have,

    儘管我們有很多問題。

  • or perhaps because of them.

    或者也許是因為他們。

  • The lockdowns of 2020 have been tough,

    2020年的鎖定已經很艱難了。

  • but they also give us a glimpse of life

    但它們也讓我們看到了生活的曙光

  • without the usual noise, congestion and pollution,

    沒有一般的噪音、擁堵和汙染。

  • confronting us with questions about the way we live.

    面對我們生活方式的問題。

  • The tailpipe is a symbol of our worst habits --

    尾氣管是我們最壞習慣的象徵... ...

  • habits that we have normalized for too long:

    習慣,我們已經正常化太久了。

  • the burning of 100 million barrels of oil every 24 hours

    每24小時焚燒1億桶石油;

  • and the extraction behind that oil,

    以及該石油背後的開採。

  • the fumes choking our cities,

    煙霧使我們的城市窒息。

  • the greenhouse gases going up in the atmosphere

    溫室氣體在大氣中的上升

  • and overheating our planet.

    並使我們的地球過熱。

  • None of that is normal,

    這些都不正常。

  • nor is air pollution,

    也不是空氣汙染。

  • which can shorten life expectancy by up to 10 years,

    可使預期壽命縮短10年。

  • depending on where you live.

    取決於你住在哪裡。

  • This is also a matter of environmental justice

    這也是一個環境正義的問題

  • because air pollution hurts everyone,

    因為空氣汙染對每個人都有傷害。

  • but it hurts the poor and minorities disproportionately.

    但它對窮人和少數族裔的傷害過大。

  • The good news is that things are changing.

    好消息是,事情正在發生變化。

  • Take cities.

    以城市為例。

  • First, people around the world are demanding clean air

    首先,世界各地的人們都在要求清潔空氣。

  • and cities are responding

    和城市的響應

  • by banning petrol and diesel cars,

    通過禁止汽油和機油汽車。

  • mostly by 2030 and 2040;

    主要是到2030年和2040年。

  • over 30 cities and regions are already doing this.

    30多個城市和地區已經在這樣做。

  • Second, the city space is going through an overhaul.

    二是城市空間正在進行大修。

  • Too much space was given to cars,

    給汽車的空間太大。

  • and cities are reversing this by blocking traffic from certain streets,

    和城市正在通過封鎖某些街道的交通來扭轉這一局面。

  • by giving the streets back to pedestrians,

    通過把街道還給行人。

  • by making the streets greener and safer,

    通過使街道更加綠色和安全。

  • especially for children.

    特別是對兒童而言。

  • And third, cities are also prioritizing active mobility,

    第三,城市也在優先考慮主動流動。

  • such as biking and walking.

    如騎自行車和步行。

  • And the pandemic accelerated many of these decisions.

    而這場大流行加速了許多這樣的決定。

  • From Barcelona to Bogotá,

    從巴塞羅那到波哥大。

  • cities are opening spaces for bike lanes, for commuters.

    城市都在為自行車道開闢空間,為上班族。

  • Sales of bikes and e-bikes are booming in many places.

    在很多地方,自行車和電動自行車的銷售都很火爆。

  • Paris is pioneering the 15-minute city

    巴黎開創了15分鐘城市

  • to put essentials within a walk or a bike ride,

    把必需品放在步行或騎自行車的範圍內。

  • all within 15 minutes.

    都在15分鐘內。

  • I live in Amsterdam, where a profound transformation is underway.

    我住在阿姆斯特丹,那裡正在進行一場深刻的變革。

  • Amsterdam already promotes biking, public transit, walking.

    阿姆斯特丹已經在推廣自行車、公共交通、步行。

  • So you might be surprised to hear that even in Amsterdam

    所以你可能會驚訝地聽到,即使在阿姆斯特丹

  • there is a problem with air pollution because of road transportation.

    由於道路運輸,存在空氣汙染問題。

  • That is why the city of Amsterdam has a plan

    這就是為什麼阿姆斯特丹市有一個計劃

  • to go emissions-free by 2030.

    到2030年實現無排放。

  • And the plan builds on the idea of an expanding zero-emission zone

    而這個計劃是建立在擴大零排放區的基礎上的。

  • going from the center outwards in three phases.

    由中心向外,分三個階段進行。

  • By 2022, all buses and coaches circulating in the city center must be emissions-free.

    到2022年,市中心流通的公車、旅遊車必須全部實現無排放。

  • By 2025, the zone expands

    到2025年,該區擴大

  • and all public and commercial traffic must be emissions-free.

    和所有公共和商業交通必須是無排放的。

  • Public buses, coaches, taxis, vans,

    公共汽車、長途汽車、計程車、貨車。

  • small, medium and large trucks.

    小型、中型和大型卡車。

  • That also includes mopeds, ferries and boats.

    這也包括輕便摩托車、渡輪和船隻。

  • By 2030, the zone expands further,

    到2030年,區域進一步擴大。

  • and by then all transportation must be emissions-free,

    而到那時,所有的交通工具都必須是無排放的。

  • including personal cars and motorcycles.

    包括個人汽車和摩托車。

  • No more tailpipes.

    不再有尾氣管。

  • And that is just nine years away.

    而這僅僅是九年的時間。

  • Living here and witnessing firsthand

    生活在這裡,親眼目睹

  • how Amsterdam becomes a front-runner of electric mobility

    阿姆斯特丹如何成為電動交通的領跑者?

  • is a powerful reminder

    是一個有力的提醒

  • that the big societal imperative of halving carbon emissions

    認識到將碳排放減半是社會的大勢所趨。

  • by 2030

    到2030年

  • goes beyond nudging people away from personal cars.

    超越了勸導人們遠離個人汽車。

  • The systemic change we need

    我們需要的系統性變革

  • requires that all modes of transportation go emissions-free

    要求所有交通方式實現無排放

  • powered by renewables,

    由可再生資源提供動力。

  • and we have to achieve that while making sure

    我們必須實現這一點,同時確保

  • that our needs are met as citizens and as business.

    我們作為公民和企業的需求得到滿足。

  • And to do this, we need to electrify pretty much everything.

    而要做到這一點,我們需要將幾乎所有的東西都電氣化。

  • Cities cannot do this alone,

    城市無法單獨做到這一點。

  • so we need national governments to play a fundamental role too.

    所以我們需要國家政府也發揮基礎性作用。

  • The European Union, for example,

    例如,歐洲聯盟。

  • has CO2 emission standards for vehicle manufacturers,

    為汽車製造商制定了二氧化碳排放標準。

  • and over a dozen of European countries have set up plans

    和十幾個歐洲國家都制定了計劃。

  • to phase out petrol and diesel cars --

    逐步淘汰汽油和柴油車----

  • France by 2040,

    到2040年,法國。

  • the United Kingdom by 2035.

    到2035年,聯合王國。

  • China and California have mandates

    中國和加州有規定

  • to accelerate the manufacturing of zero-emission models.

    以加快製造零排放車型。

  • California just passed a rule

    加州剛剛通過了一項規定

  • that requires that 50 percent of the sales of trucks in the state

    要求該州卡車銷量的50%。

  • are zero-emissions by 2035

    到2035年實現零排放

  • and all of them must be zero-emission by 2045.

    並且到2045年必須全部實現零排放。

  • This is a game changer for the trucking industry.

    這是卡車行業的遊戲規則。

  • Vehicle manufacturing is shifting towards electrification.

    車輛製造正在向電氣化轉變。

  • Look at some of the milestones,

    看看一些里程碑。

  • which were unthinkable a few years back.

    這在幾年前是不可想象的。

  • Volkswagen has converted a traditional plant

    大眾汽車對傳統工廠進行了改造

  • into one that will produce only electric vehicles.

    成只生產電動汽車的。

  • Daimler is halting all the development of internal combustion engines.

    戴姆勒正在停止所有內燃機的研發。

  • And Tesla is more valuable today than ExxonMobil.

    而特斯拉如今比埃克森美孚更有價值。

  • This year, public charging plugs hit the one million mark

    今年,公共充電插頭突破百萬大關

  • around the world.

    世界各地的。

  • Fleet owners are shifting towards zero-emission models.

    車隊車主正在向零排放車型轉變。

  • Amazon alone has ordered 100,000 electric delivery vans

    僅亞馬遜就訂購了10萬輛電動送貨車。

  • and nearly 90 global companies have joined EV100,

    並有近90家全球企業加入EV100。

  • an international initiative

    一項國際倡議

  • to electrify fleets by 2030 starting now.

    從現在開始,到2030年實現車隊電氣化。

  • These are still small steps

    這些仍然是小步驟

  • compared to the scale of our oil addiction,

    與我們的石油上癮規模相比。

  • but they signal a new direction of travel.

    但它們預示著一個新的發展方向。

  • What's really exciting

    什麼是真正令人興奮的

  • is that the technologies we need for this transformation are here today,

    是我們這種轉型所需要的技術今天就在這裡。

  • commercially available,

    商業上的。

  • getting cheaper and getting better.

    越來越便宜,越來越好。

  • Look at batteries.

    看看電池。

  • Their cost went down 90 percent in 10 years,

    他們的成本在10年內下降了90%。

  • and there are new opportunities to repurpose these batteries

    並且有新的機會來重新利用這些電池。

  • for energy storage

    儲能

  • or to recycle them once they wear down.

    或在它們磨損後進行回收。

  • The race to zero needs capital.

    零的競賽需要資本。

  • So we need more urgency and directionality

    所以我們需要更多的緊迫性和方向性

  • in the financial industry

    在金融業

  • because it is heavily invested in fossil fuels.

    因為它大量投資於化石燃料。

  • To reach scale and speed,

    要達到規模和速度。

  • we will need clever combinations of finance and policy.

    我們將需要金融和政策的巧妙結合。

  • Look at what's going on with electric buses.

    看看電動公車是怎麼回事。

  • China has a fleet

    中國有一支艦隊

  • of 420,000 electric buses

    420 000輛電動巴士

  • compared to 600 in the entire United States.

    相比之下,全美國有600。

  • To put that into perspective,

    為了讓大家明白這一點。

  • Santiago de Chile alone has 455 electric buses, and growing,

    僅智利聖地亞哥就有455輛電動巴士,而且還在不斷增加。

  • thanks to an ingenious financial arrangement.

    由於巧妙的財務安排。

  • Africa now has its first manufacturing plant of electric buses.

    非洲現在有了第一家電動客車製造廠。

  • And P4G, a global initiative,

    而P4G,是一個全球性的倡議。

  • is working with emerging economies

    正在與新興經濟體合作

  • that want to scale up the electrification of buses.

    希望擴大公車電動化規模的。

  • Colombia is first in line,

    哥倫比亞排在第一位。

  • designing a fund of 2.2 billion dollars

    設計一個22億美元的基金

  • to electrify 6,000 buses over time.

    逐步實現6000輛公車的電氣化。

  • There is, and there will be, resistance to change.

    變革的阻力是存在的,也會有的。

  • There is even an inability to imagine that change is possible.

    甚至無法想象改變是可能的。

  • In reality, change happens exponentially.

    在現實中,變化是以指數形式發生的。

  • Look at what happened to solar energy.

    看看太陽能的情況。

  • Exponential change can bring turmoil

    指數級的變化會帶來動盪

  • if the decline of old industries is not managed.

    如果不治理老工業的衰退。

  • It can bring economic dislocation and job disruption.

    它可能會帶來經濟失調和工作中斷。

  • So wouldn't it be wiser to prepare

    所以,準備一下不是更明智嗎?

  • and design just transitions now rather than later?

    並設計只是現在的過渡而不是以後?

  • Here's the bottom line.

    這是底線。

  • The end of internal combustion engine is within sight.

    內燃機的末日就在眼前。

  • The question is no longer whether this will happen,

    問題不再是是否會發生這種情況。

  • but when.

    但當。

  • Ten years?

    10年?

  • Twenty years?

    20年?

  • It depends on us and the choices that we make this decade.

    這取決於我們和我們在這十年中做出的選擇。

  • So now is the time to go bigger and faster

    所以現在是做大做快的時候了。

  • towards a future without a tailpipe,

    走向沒有尾氣的未來。

  • a future where we can meet our transportation needs

    在未來,我們可以滿足我們的交通需求

  • and have people-friendly streets,

    並有便民街道。

  • a future with a thriving economy and clean air,

    一個經濟繁榮、空氣清新的未來。

  • a future we choose for the climate and for our health.

    我們為氣候和健康選擇的未來。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝你了

Transcriber: TED Translators Admin Reviewer: Rhonda Jacobs

轉錄者TED Translators Admin Reviewer:Rhonda Jacobs

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B1 中級 中文 排放 交通 城市 實現 汙染 阿姆斯特丹

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