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  • You've probably heard by now

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Amanda Zhu

  • that economic inequality is historically high,

    或許你已經聽說,

  • that the wealthiest one-tenth of one percent in the United States

    經濟不平等到達了歷史上的新高,

  • have as much wealth as the bottom 90 percent combined,

    美國財富排名在前千分之一的有錢人

  • or that the wealthiest eight individuals in the world

    擁有的財富相當於 底層百分之九十的人的總財富。

  • have as much wealth

    或者,世界上財富排名前八名的有錢人

  • as the poorest 3.5 billion inhabitants of the planet.

    擁有的財富

  • But did you know that economic inequality is associated with shorter lifespans,

    等同於地球上最貧窮的 三十五億居民的總財富。

  • less happiness,

    但你知道經濟不平等

  • more crime

    與壽命縮短、快樂減少、

  • and more drug abuse?

    犯罪增加、

  • Those sound like problems of poverty,

    及更多藥物濫用都相關嗎?

  • but among wealthy, developed nations

    這些聽起來是貧窮的問題。

  • those health and social problems

    但在富有、已開發的國家中,

  • are actually more tightly linked to inequality between incomes

    那些健康和社會問題

  • than to absolute incomes.

    其實是和收入不平等有更密切的關係,

  • And because of that,

    而不是絕對收入。

  • the United States,

    正因如此,

  • the wealthiest and the most unequal of nations,

    美國這個最富有 且最不平等的國家中的人民

  • actually fares worse than all other developed countries.

    其實過得比所有其他 已開發國家都還要糟。

  • Surveys show that large majorities of Americans,

    調查顯示,大部分美國人,

  • both Democrats and Republicans,

    無論是民主黨或共和黨,

  • believe inequality is too high and want more equal pay.

    都相信不平等狀況太嚴重, 且希望能有更平等的薪水。

  • And yet as a society, we don't seem to be able to find the common ground,

    然而,整個社會似乎還未能找到共同點、

  • the consensus, the political will to do anything about it.

    共識、和政治意願去處理這個問題。

  • Because, as inequality has risen in recent decades,

    因為,這幾十年來, 隨著不平等的狀況越發嚴重,

  • political polarization has risen along with it.

    政治兩極化也隨之而起。

  • We see those who disagree with us as idiots or as immoral.

    我們把意見和我們不同的人 視為白痴或惡人。

  • Nearly half of Democrats and Republicans

    近一半的民主黨和共和黨

  • now think that the other side is not just mistaken

    現在都認為對方不僅是錯的,

  • but a threat to the nation.

    還是對國家的威脅。

  • And that animosity prevents us from finding the common ground

    那種憎惡讓我們無法找到交集

  • to change things.

    來改變現狀。

  • I'm a social psychology professor at the University of North Carolina,

    我是北卡羅萊納大學的 社會心理學教授,

  • and I study the effects of inequality on people's thinking and behavior.

    我研究不平等對於人的思想 與行為會有什麼影響。

  • I'm going to argue that it's not just an unfortunate coincidence

    我主張,不平等 與政治分裂會一起出現,

  • that inequality and political division have risen together.

    並非只是不幸的巧合。

  • There are good psychological reasons

    不平等會導致政治上的不和,

  • that inequality drives wedges in our politics.

    背後有充分的心理因素,

  • That means there are good psychological paths

    那這也意味著 ,

  • to improve both at once.

    可能有心理途徑能夠同時改善兩者。

  • To understand why inequality is so powerful,

    若要了解為什麼 不平等的力量如此強大,

  • you have to first understand that we are constantly comparing ourselves

    你首先得要了解,

  • to other people,

    我們經常會一直 把我們自己和他人做比較,

  • and when we do that,

    當我們這麼做時,

  • we really like to come out on top,

    我們會很希望在比較之下高人一等。

  • and we find it painful to be on the bottom.

    矮人一截,讓我們會感到很痛苦。

  • Psychologists call it the "better-than-average effect."

    心理學家稱之為「優於常人效應」。

  • Most people believe they're better than average

    大部分的人認為, 在他們在乎的事物上,

  • at just about anything they care about,

    他們都比平均值更優秀,

  • which isn't strictly possible, because that's just what average means.

    那是不可能的事, 因為平均值就是這樣。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But that's the way people feel.

    但人們總是會有這種感覺。

  • Most people think they're smarter than average,

    多數人認為自己的聰明、

  • harder working than average

    自己的努力、

  • and more socially skilled.

    社交技能都在平均之上。

  • Most people think they're better drivers than average.

    多數人也認為自己 開車技術優於常人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • That's true even if you do the study with a sample of people

    針對目前因為自己肇事 釀成車禍而躺在醫院的人所做的研究,

  • currently hospitalized for a car accident that they caused.

    還是會發現同樣的結果。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • So we really want to see ourselves as better than average,

    所以我們真的很想看見自己優於平均,

  • and if we find out otherwise,

    若發現實情並非如此,

  • it's a painful experience that we have to cope with.

    我們就得處理這種痛苦的感受。

  • And we cope with it by shifting how we see the world.

    而我們處理的方式就是 轉換我們看世界的角度。

  • To understand how this works,

    為了了解這背後的機制, 我和同事做了一項實驗。

  • my collaborators and I ran an experiment.

    我們請受試者做決策性的工作來賺錢,

  • We asked participants to complete a decision-making task to earn some money,

    事實上,每個人賺到的錢都一樣多。

  • and in reality, everyone earned the same amount of money.

    但我們將他們隨機分為兩組,

  • But we randomly divided them into two groups,

    我們告訴一組,他們做得比平均好,

  • and we told one group that they had done better than average,

    告訴另一組,他們做得比平均差,

  • and we told the other group they had done worse than average.

    現在,有一組覺得自己比較有錢,

  • So now we have one group that feels richer and one group that feels poorer,

    另一組覺得自己比較窮,

  • but for no objective reason.

    但都是主觀認定,無客觀理由。

  • And then we asked them some questions.

    接著我們問他們一些問題。

  • When we asked them, "How good are you at making decisions?"

    當我們問他們: 「你有多擅長做決策?」

  • the better-than-average group said that they were more competent

    相對於比自覺貧窮的那組,

  • than the below-average group.

    自覺有錢的那組 更會認為自己有能力。

  • The better-than-average group said that their success

    自覺有錢的那組說他們的成功

  • was a fair outcome of a meritocracy.

    是英才制度的公平結果。

  • The below-average group thought the system was rigged,

    自覺貧窮的那組認為 體制遭到不正當操縱,

  • and in this case, of course, they were right.

    在這個實驗裡的確是有操縱。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Even though the two groups had the same amount of money,

    即使這兩組人擁有的錢一樣多,

  • the group that felt richer said we should cut taxes on the wealthy,

    覺得自己有錢的那組認為 我們應該對有錢人減少收稅,

  • cut benefits to the poor.

    減少給窮人的福利。

  • Let them work hard and be responsible for themselves, they said.

    他們的說法是讓窮人自己 去努力,為自己負責。

  • These are attitudes that we normally assume are rooted in deeply held values

    我們通常會假設這些態度

  • and a lifetime of experience,

    根源於穩固的價值觀及畢生的經歷中,

  • but a 10-minute exercise

    但僅僅十分鐘的操作,

  • that made people feel richer or poorer

    只是讓受試者感覺比較富裕或貧窮,

  • was enough to change those views.

    就足以改變這些觀點。

  • This difference between being rich or poor and feeling rich or poor is important,

    「真正」富裕或貧窮 與「覺得自己」富裕或貧窮

  • because the two don't always line up very well.

    之間的差異很重要,

  • You often hear people say with nostalgia,

    因為這兩者不見得一定一致。

  • "We were poor, but we didn't know it."

    你常會聽到有人懷舊地說:

  • That was the case for me growing up,

    「我們很貧窮,但我們當時不知道。」

  • until one day,

    我成長過程就是這種狀況,

  • in the fourth-grade lunch line,

    直到有一天,四年級午餐排隊時,

  • we had a new cashier who didn't know the ropes,

    有一名狀況外的新出納員,

  • and she asked me for 1.25 dollars.

    她跟我要 1.25 美金。

  • I was taken aback, because I had never been asked to pay for my lunch before.

    我吃了一驚,因為以前 從來沒有人跟我要午餐錢。

  • I didn't know what to say, because I didn't have any money.

    我不知道該說什麼, 因為我身上沒有錢。

  • And suddenly, I realized for the first time

    突然間,我第一次了解到,

  • that we free lunch kids were the poor ones.

    我們這種吃免費午餐的孩子是窮孩子。

  • That awkward moment in the school lunch line

    在學校排隊領午餐的尷尬時刻

  • changed so much for me,

    為我帶來了很大的改變,

  • because for the first time, I felt poor.

    因為那是我第一次感到貧窮。

  • We didn't have any less money than the day before,

    我們那天的錢並沒有比前一天少,

  • but for the first time,

    但我人生中第一次

  • I started noticing things differently.

    我注意事情的方式開始改變了。

  • It changed the way I saw the world.

    我看世界的角度改變了。

  • I started noticing how the kids who paid for their lunch

    我開始注意到那些付錢吃午餐的孩子

  • seemed to dress better than the free lunch kids.

    穿的衣服似乎比 免費午餐的孩子更好。

  • I started noticing the big yellow blocks of government cheese

    我開始注意到我們家門口 總會出現政府配給的大塊黃色起士,

  • that showed up at our door

    也注意到我母親在雜貨店 會拿出政府發的食物券。

  • and the food stamps my mother would pull out at the grocery store.

    我向來是害羞的孩子,

  • I was always a shy kid,

    但在那件事之後, 我在學校幾乎不說話了。

  • but I hardly talked at all after that at school.

    我算什麼?哪能大聲發言?

  • Who was I to speak up?

    數十年來,社會科學家 都在尋找證據證明

  • For decades, social scientists looked for evidence

    自覺和其他人相比之下比較貧困的人

  • that feeling deprived compared to other people

    會有動機採取政治行動。

  • would motivate political action.

    他們認為這種感受會驅動抗爭、

  • They thought it would mobilize protests, strikes,

    罷工,甚至連革命都有可能。

  • maybe even revolutions.

    但他們的發現卻總是: 這種感受會讓人氣餒,

  • But again and again what they found was that it paralyzed people,

    因為,事實是,

  • because the truth is,

    自覺劣於他人,會帶來羞恥感。

  • feeling less than other people

    這種感覺會讓人轉身不去面對問題,

  • brings shame.

    對體制感到作噁。

  • It makes people turn away,

    但自覺優於他人…… 那才會變成動力。

  • disgusted with the system.

    這種感受會驅使我們 去守護優越的地位,

  • Feeling better than other people, though --

    對我們的政治會造成影響。

  • now that is motivating.

    若要了解為什麼, 讓我們思考一下另一個實驗。

  • It motivates us to protect that position,

    同樣的,我們也請受試者 做決策來賺取金錢,

  • and it has important consequences for our politics.

    我們告訴一組, 他們做得比平均更好,

  • To see why, consider another experiment.

    告訴另一組,他們做得比平均更差。

  • Again, we asked participants to make decisions to earn some money,

    同樣的,比平均更好的那一組 說這是公平的英才制度,

  • and we told one group that they had done better than average

    減少對有錢人收稅,

  • and the other group that they had done worse than average.

    減少給窮人的福利。

  • And again, the better-than-average group said it's a fair meritocracy,

    但這次,我們也問他們,

  • cut taxes on the wealthy,

    對於在這些議題上 和他們意見相左的受試者

  • cut benefits on the poor.

    有什麼看法。

  • But this time, we also asked them what did they think

    這些人是聰明,還是無能?

  • about other participants who disagree with them

    他們是理性的,還是有偏見?

  • on those issues.

    比平均好的那一組說, 和他們意見相左的人

  • Are they smart or incompetent?

    都一定很無能、有偏見、

  • Are they reasonable or are they biased?

    被自我利益所蒙蔽。

  • The better-than-average group said anybody who disagrees with them

    比平均差的那一組 對於對手不會抱持這種假設。

  • must be incompetent, biased,

    有許多心理學研究

  • blinded by self-interest.

    證明當別人認同我們時, 我們會覺得他們很出色,

  • The below-average group

    當別人和我們意見相左, 我們可能會認為他們是白痴。

  • didn't assume that about their opponents.

    (笑聲)

  • Now, there are lots of psychology studies

    但我們的新發現是, 這種現象完全只會發生在

  • showing that when people agree with us,

    自覺比平均好的那一組身上,

  • we think they're brilliant,

    他們自覺有資格可以屏棄 和他們不同的意見。

  • and when people disagree with us,

    想想看,隨著富人 和窮人的差距越來越大,

  • we tend to think they're idiots.

    這種現象對我們的政治會有什麼影響。

  • (Laughter)

    是的,很多人都認為 另一邊的人是白痴,

  • But this is new because we found it was driven entirely by the group

    但對政治有足夠的關注,

  • that felt better than average,

    而會為了政治彼此爭吵的人

  • who felt entitled to dismiss those people who disagree with them.

    多半是富人。

  • So think about what this is doing to our politics,

    事實上,

  • as the haves and have-nots spread further and further apart.

    隨著這數十年來不平等越來越明顯,

  • Yes, a lot of us think that people on the other side are idiots,

    窮人對政治的興趣及參與度都大減。

  • but the people politically engaged enough to be yelling at each other about politics

    同樣的,我們發現, 覺得自己被遺棄的人

  • are actually mostly the well-off.

    並不會走上街頭抗議 或者發動投票登記活動。

  • In fact, as inequality has grown in recent decades,

    通常,他們甚至不會去投票。

  • political interest and participation among the poor has plummeted.

    反之,他們轉過身,選擇退出。

  • Again, we see that people who feel left behind

    對於極端不平等, 如果我們想要做點什麼,