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  • Last year, I was living with this indigenous family in India.

    Translator: 小文 谢 Reviewer: H.L. Au

  • One afternoon,

    舊年我住喺一個印度本地人屋企

  • the young son was eating,

    有一個晏晝

  • and at the sight of me, he quickly hid his curry behind his back.

    佢哋嘅細仔食緊飯

  • It took a lot of persuasion to get him to show me what he was eating.

    一見到我,就將佢嘅咖喱收喺背後

  • It turned out to be moth larvae,

    說服咗佢好耐先佢畀我睇佢食緊咩

  • a traditional delicacy with the Madia indigenous people.

    原來係蛾嘅幼蟲

  • I cried,

    一種馬迪亞當地人嘅傳統美食

  • "Oh my God, you're eating these!

    我喊住話:

  • I hope there's a little left for me!"

    「我呀,你食緊呢啲嘢!

  • I saw disbelief in the boy's eyes.

    希望你有剩返啲畀我食啦。」

  • "You ... eat these?"

    然後我見到個男仔難以置信嘅眼神

  • "I love these," I replied.

    「你…要食呢啲?」

  • I could see he did not trust me one bit.

    我答:「我超鍾意食。」

  • How could an urban, educated woman like the same food as him?

    我睇得出佢完全唔信我

  • Later, I broached the subject with his father,

    一個城市嚟又受過教育嘅女人

  • and it turned out to be a mighty touchy affair.

    點會同佢鍾意食同樣嘅嘢?

  • He said things like,

    後來,我同佢爸爸討論呢個話題

  • "Oh, only this son of mine likes to eat it.

    原來係一件極敏感嘅事嚟

  • We tell him, 'Give it up. It's bad.'

    佢講咗顃似嘅嘢:

  • He doesn't listen, you see.

    「哦。得呢個仔鍾意食蛾嘅幼蟲,

  • We gave up eating all this ages back."

    我哋同佢講咪再食啦,唔好㗎

  • "Why?" I asked.

    但你都見啦,佢唔聽我哋講

  • "This is your traditional food.

    我哋冇食好耐啦。」

  • It is available in your environment,

    我問佢哋:「點解呀?

  • it is nutritious,

    係你哋嘅傳統食物嚟。

  • and -- I can vouch for it -- delicious.

    喺你哋嘅生活環境搵到

  • Why is it wrong to eat it?"

    好有營養價值

  • The man fell silent.

    而且—我保證—好好食

  • I asked,

    食佢有咩問題?」

  • "Have you been told that your food is bad,

    然後佢爸爸冇出聲

  • that to eat it is backward,

    我問佢:

  • not civilized?"

    「係咪有人同你講過你啲食物唔好

  • He nodded silently.

    係退化嘅

  • This was one of the many, many times in my work with indigenous people in India

    冇文化嘅?」

  • that I witnessed shame around food,

    他沉默咁點頭

  • shame that the food you love to eat,

    呢次只係我同無數印度當地人做嘢時

  • the food that has been eaten for generations,

    見證到佢哋以食物為恥嘅其中一次

  • is somehow inferior,

    食你鍾意嘅食物

  • even subhuman.

    世世代代都一直食緊嘅食物

  • And this shame is not limited to out-of-the-way, icky foods

    係低級嘅

  • like insects or rats, maybe,

    甚至係低人一等嘅

  • but extends to regular foods:

    而且呢種羞恥感唔單止係講 一啲冷門、嘔心嘅食物

  • wild vegetables,

    可能係,例如昆蟲、老鼠

  • mushrooms, flowers --

    仲擴展到去正常食物:

  • basically, anything that is foraged rather than cultivated.

    白色蔬菜

  • In indigenous India, this shame is omnipresent.

    菌類,花—

  • Anything can trigger it.

    基本上就係所有野生 而唔係農民種植嘅食物

  • One upper-caste vegetarian schoolmaster gets appointed in a school,

    呢種以食物為恥嘅現象 喺印度當地普遍存在

  • within weeks, children are telling their parents it's yucky to eat crabs

    任何因素都可能引起呢種羞恥感

  • or sinful to eat meat.

    指派上流社會嘅素食校長去一間學校

  • A government nutrition program serves fluffy white rice,

    啲學生唔洗幾個星期, 就同父母講食蟹好核突呀

  • now no one wants to eat red rice or millets.

    或者食肉會有罪惡感

  • A nonprofit reaches this village with an ideal diet chart for pregnant women.

    政府提供鬆軟白飯嘅營養計劃

  • There you go.

    就令到宜家冇人想食紅米或者小米

  • All the expectant mothers are feeling sad

    一個非貿利組織嚟到呢個小鎮 為孕婦能提供理想嘅膳食搭配

  • that they cannot afford apples and grapes.

    就係咁

  • And people just kind of forget the fruits

    全部孕婦都好傷心

  • that can be picked off the forest floor.

    因為佢哋買唔起蘋果同法式薄餅

  • Health workers,

    而大家似乎都唔記得咗

  • religious missionaries,

    啲水果其實係森林地下就執到

  • random government employees

    醫療人員

  • and even their own educated children

    傳教士

  • are literally shouting it down at the indigenous people

    政府官員

  • that their food is not good enough,

    或者係佢哋受過教育嘅子女

  • not civilized enough.

    都係大大聲同啲本地人講

  • And so food keeps disappearing,

    佢哋嘅食物唔夠好

  • a little bit at a time.

    唔夠文明

  • I'm wondering if you all have ever considered

    所以呢啲食物就一啲一啲咁

  • whether your communities would have a similar history around food.

    逐漸消失

  • If you were to talk to your 90-year-old grandmother,

    我好奇你哋有冇認真諗過

  • would she talk about foods that you have never seen or heard of?

    你社交圈子嘅人有冇類似嘅經歷

  • Are you aware how much of your community's food

    如果當你同 90 歲嘅婆婆傾計

  • is no longer available to you?

    佢會唔會講起啲 你從未見過或聽過嘅食物

  • Local experts tell me

    你有冇發現有幾多你哋食開嘅食物

  • that the South African food economy is now entirely based on imported foods.

    已經再搵唔返啦

  • Corn has become the staple,

    當地專家同我講

  • while the local sorghum, millets, bulbs and tubers are all gone.

    南非宜家嘅食物經濟鏈 完全依靠進口食物

  • So are the wild legumes and vegetables,

    栗米成為咗主食

  • while people eat potatoes and onions, cabbages and carrots.

    然而本土嘅高粱,小米, 球莖同塊莖類食物都消失哂

  • In my country,

    當大家食緊薯仔、洋葱、 椰菜同紅蘿蔔嘅時候

  • this loss of food is colossal.

    野生豆類同蔬菜都一樣消失哂

  • Modern India is stuck with rice, wheat

    喺我嘅國家

  • and diabetes.

    呢啲食物損失極為龐大

  • And we have totally forgotten foods like huge varieties of tubers,

    現代印度充住大米、小麥

  • tree saps, fish, shellfish,

    同糖尿病

  • oil seeds,

    而且我哋完全唔記得一啲食物 例如各式各樣嘅塊莖類

  • mollusks, mushrooms, insects,

    樹液、魚、貝類

  • small, nonendangered animal meats,

    油籽、

  • all of which used to be available right within our surroundings.

    蚌類、菌類、昆蟲

  • So where has this food gone?

    小型、未瀕危動物肉類

  • Why are our modern food baskets so narrow?

    呢一切曾經都係唾手可得

  • We could talk about the complex political economic and ecological reasons,

    到底宜家呢啲食物去哂邊?

  • but I am here to talk about this more human phenomenon of shame,

    點解現代社會食物種類咁少?

  • because shame is the crucial point

    我哋可以講吓 複雜嘅政治經濟同生態原因

  • at which food actually disappears off your plate.

    但我今日想講嘅係 呢種令人覺得羞恥嘅現象

  • What does shame do?

    因為羞恥先係

  • Shame makes you feel small,

    你碟上面食物消失嘅致命點

  • sad,

    羞恥會做啲咩?

  • not worthy,

    羞恥令你感到渺小

  • subhuman.

    失落

  • Shame creates a cognitive dissonance.

    冇價值

  • It distorts food stories.

    次人一等

  • Let us take this example.

    羞恥可以創造一種認知失調

  • How would you like to have

    可以歪曲食物故事

  • a wonderful, versatile staple

    我可以舉個例子

  • that is available abundantly in your environment?

    你想唔想要一種

  • All you have to do is gather it,

    奇妙又多功能嘅主食

  • dry it, store it,

    係喺你身邊隨處可見嘅?

  • and you have it for your whole year

    你只需要過去收集佢

  • to cook as many different kinds of dishes as you want with it.

    風乾,收好

  • India had just such a food, called "mahua,"

    然後你就可以成年都擁有啦

  • this flower over there.

    可以用佢嚟做無數道你鍾意嘅菜式

  • And I have been researching this food for the past three years now.

    印度就曾經有呢種食物叫做馬胡卡

  • It is known to be highly nutritious in indigenous tradition

    就係呢種花

  • and in scientific knowledge.

    過去三年我一直搵緊呢種食物

  • For the indigenous,

    係當地傳統同科學知識記載嘅

  • it used to be a staple for four to six months a year.

    富有極高營養價值嘅食物

  • In many ways, it is very similar to your local marula,

    佢以前係當地人

  • except that it is a flower, not a fruit.

    一年嘅四至六個月嘅主食

  • Where the forests are rich,

    佢好多方面 都似你哋嘅馬魯拉果(marula)

  • people can still get enough to eat for the whole year

    只係佢係花,而唔係水果

  • and enough spare to sell.

    喺豐盛嘅森林入面

  • I found 35 different dishes with mahua

    大家仍然可以收獲到成年嘅糧食

  • that no one cooks anymore.

    而且仲有淨可以拎去賣

  • This food is no longer even recognized as a food,

    我搵到 35 種唔同嘅馬胡卡菜式

  • but as raw material for liquor.

    宜家已經冇人會再煮

  • You could be arrested for having it in your house.

    佢甚至唔再比人視為食物

  • Reason? Shame.

    而只係一種釀酒原料

  • I talked to indigenous people all over India

    只係屋企藏有呢種食物 就已經可以拉你

  • about why mahua is no longer eaten.

    點解? 因為羞恥

  • And I got the exact same answer.

    我問過所有印度當地人

  • "Oh, we used to eat it when we were dirt-poor and starving.

    點解冇人再吃馬胡卡

  • Why should we eat it now?

    都係得到一模一樣嘅答案

  • We have rice or wheat."

    「哦,以前係因為又窮又餓先食啫

  • And almost in the same breath,

    宜家做乜要食?

  • people also tell me how nutritious mahua is.

    都有大米同小麥啦。」

  • There are always stories of elders who used to eat mahua.

    與此同時

  • "This grandmother of ours, she had 10 children,

    佢哋都話我知馬胡卡幾有營養價值

  • and still she used to work so hard, never tired, never sick."

    實會聽到老人家食馬胡卡嘅故事

  • The exact same dual narrative every single where.

    「我哋婆婆有 10 個細路

  • How come?

    佢以前做嘢好辛苦 但從未試過攰或者病。」

  • How does the same food

    周圍都聽到呢兩個一樣嘅故事

  • get to be seen as very nutritious and a poverty food,

    點解?

  • almost in the same sentence?

    點解同一樣食物

  • Same goes for other forest foods.

    喺差唔多同一句嘢到

  • I have heard story after heartrending story

    同時畀人認為富有營養價值 又象征住貧窮?

  • of famine and starvation,

    森林嘅食物都一樣

  • of people surviving on trash foraged out of the forest,

    我聽過一個又一個

  • because there was no food.

    關於饑荒同挨餓令人心碎嘅故事

  • If I dig a little deeper,

    大家要靠食森林搵到嘅垃圾為生

  • it turns out the lack was not of food per se

    因為冇嘢食

  • but of something respectable like rice.

    如果我再深究少少

  • I asked them,

    原來唔係冇食物

  • "How did you learn that your so-called trash is edible?

    而係冇好似米一樣咁體面嘅食物

  • Who told you that certain bitter tubers can be sweetened

    我問佢哋

  • by leaving them in a stream overnight?

    你哋點知道 呢啲所謂嘅垃圾係食得?

  • Or how to take the meat out of a snail shell?

    邊個同你講呢啲咁苦嘅塊莖

  • Or how to set a trap for a wild rat?"

    放喺溪入面一晚就會變甜?

  • That is when they start scratching their heads,

    或者點識拎蝸牛殼入面嘅肉?

  • and they realize that they learned it from their own elders,

    又點識設置陷阱捉老鼠?」

  • that their ancestors had lived and thrived on these foods for centuries

    呢個時候佢哋就開始抓頭

  • before rice came their way,

    然後就意識到係長輩教過佢哋

  • and were way healthier than their own generation.

    佢哋嘅祖先係食米之前

  • So this is how food works,

    呢啲嘢食已經興盛咗幾個世紀

  • how shame works:

    而佢哋仲健康過宜家呢個世代好多

  • making food and food traditions disappear from people's lives and memories

    呢啲就係食物嘅作用

  • without their even realizing it.

    呢啲就係羞恥嘅作用:

  • So how do we undo this trend?

    令食物同食物傳統 係大家嘅生活同記憶中消失

  • How do we reclaim our beautiful and complex systems of natural food,

    甚至佢哋都唔覺嘅情況下

  • food given to us lovingly by Mother Earth according to her own rhythm,

    咁我哋點逆轉呢種趨勢呢?

  • food prepared by our foremothers with joy

    點樣重拾返我哋 美麗又複雜嘅自然食物系統

  • and are eaten by our forefathers with gratitude,

    呢啲食物係地球媽媽有愛咁 用佢自己嘅節奏咁賜予我哋

  • food that is healthy, local, natural,

    由我哋先祖媽媽用喜悅準備嘅

  • varied, delicious,

    再由我哋先祖爸爸滿懷感激咁食

  • not requiring cultivation,

    又健康、土生土長、自然、

  • not damaging our ecology,

    多樣、好味、

  • not costing a thing?

    唔需要耕種

  • We all need this food,

    唔會破壞我哋生態系統

  • and I don't think I have to tell you why.

    唔需要任何代價嘅食物

  • I don't have to tell you about the global health crisis,

    我哋都需要呢啲食物

  • climate change, water crisis,

    我諗唔洗講你哋都知點解

  • soil fatigue,

    我唔需要同你哋講健康危機、

  • collapsing agricultural systems,

    氣候變化、水源危機、

  • all that.

    土壤退化、

  • But for me, equally important reasons why we need these foods

    農業系統崩潰、

  • are the deeply felt ones,

    所有呢啲危機

  • because food is so many things, you see.

    但對我嚟講同樣咁重要嘅原因

  • Food is nourishment, comfort,

    係我身同感受嘅原因

  • creativity, community,

    因為食物代表好多嘢

  • pleasure, safety, identity

    食物係營養、舒適感

  • and so much more.

    創造力、凝聚力、

  • How we connect with our food

    愉悅、安全、身份

  • defines so much in our lives.

    仲有更多更多

  • It defines how we connect with our bodies,

    咁我哋點同食物連繫

  • because our bodies are ultimately food.

    定義咗我哋嘅生命好多面

  • It defines our basic sense of connection

    定義咗我哋點同身體連繫

  • with our existence.

    因為我哋身體終究都係由食物組成

  • We need these foods most today

    定義咗我哋存在嘅基本連繫感知

  • to be able to redefine our space as humans

    今日係我哋最需要呢啲食物嘅時候

  • within the natural scheme of things.

    先可以定義到我哋人類

  • And are we needing such a redefinition today?

    喺大自然結構中嘅位置

  • For me, the only real answer is love,

    咁我哋需要咁重新定義咩?

  • because love is the only thing that counters shame.

    對我嚟講,唯一嘅真正答案係愛

  • And how do we bring more of this love into our connections with our food?

    因為只有愛可以對抗羞恥

  • For me, love is, in a big way,

    咁點樣帶到更多嘅愛 去我哋同食物嘅連繫呢?

  • about the willingness to slow down,

    對我嚟講,愛,好大程度上

  • to take the time to feel,

    就係甘願去放慢

  • sense, listen, inquire.

    用時間去感受、

  • It could be listening to our own bodies.

    感應、傾聽、發問

  • What do they need beneath our food habits, beliefs

    可以係傾聽我哋嘅身體

  • and addictions?

    飲食習慣、信仰、嗜好之下

  • It could be taking time out to examine those beliefs.

    我哋嘅身體需要啲咩?

  • Where did they come from?

    愛可以用時間嚟研究呢啲信仰

  • It could be going back into our childhood.

    佢哋嚟自邊到?

  • What foods did we love then,

    可以追溯到我哋童年

  • and what has changed?

    細個嘅時候鍾意食咩

  • It could be spending a quiet evening with an elder,

    又咩唔同咗

  • listening to their food memories,

    可以用個靜謐嘅夜晚同長輩傾偈

  • maybe even helping them cook something they love

    聽吓佢哋對食物嘅回憶

  • and sharing a meal.

    或者幫佢哋手煮啲佢哋鍾意食嘅嘢

  • Love could be about remembering

    然後一齊食

  • that humanity is vast

    愛可以係銘記

  • and food choices differ.

    人性係豐富嘅

  • It could be about showing respect and curiosity

    而食物選擇係多樣嘅

  • instead of censure

    愛可以係向人展示出尊重同好奇

  • when we see somebody enjoying a really unfamiliar food.

    而唔係譴責

  • Love could be taking the time to inquire,

    當見到人享受緊一種好陌生嘅食物

  • to dig up information,

    愛可以係用時間嚟發問、

  • reach out for connections.

    發掘更多資訊

  • It could even be a quiet walk in the fynbos

    主動去連繫

  • to see if a certain plant speaks up to you.

    愛甚至可以靜靜咁喺弗因博斯散步

  • That happens.

    睇吓有冇特定嘅一種植物同你講嘢

  • They speak to me all the time.

    會㗎

  • And most of all,

    佢哋成日都同我講嘢

  • love is to trust that these little exploratory steps

    最重要係

  • have the potential to lead us to something larger,

    愛係相信呢啲小小嘅探索腳步

  • sometimes to really surprising answers.

    都有可能帶領到我哋搵到更大

  • An indigenous medicine woman once told me

    有時仲有係好令人驚喜嘅答案

  • that love is to walk on Mother Earth

    有個當地賣藥嘅女人同我講過

  • as her most beloved child,

    愛就係以地球媽媽最愛之子嘅身份

  • to trust that she values an honest intention

    喺佢身上行走

  • and knows how to guide our steps.

    並且堅信佢重視真誠之心

  • I hope I have inspired you

    知道佢會點樣指導我哋嘅每一步

  • to start reconnecting with the food of your ancestors.

    我希望今日有啟發到各位

  • Thank you for listening.

    開始重新同你哋祖先嘅食物連繫

  • (Applause)

    多謝你哋傾聽

Last year, I was living with this indigenous family in India.

Translator: 小文 谢 Reviewer: H.L. Au