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  • Rebecca Robbins: All right.

    Rebecca Robbins好的 All right.

  • "Many adults need five hours of sleep or less."

    "許多成年人需要5小時或更少的睡眠時間。"

  • Now, this is a myth.

    現在,這是一個神話。

  • "Loud snoring is annoying but mostly harmless."

    "響亮的鼾聲很煩人,但大多無害。"

  • David Rapoport: Loud snoring is actually a sign

    大衛-拉波波特。響亮的鼾聲實際上是一個標誌

  • that there is a blockage in your throat.

    你的喉嚨有堵塞。

  • Robbins: "Your brain and body

    羅賓斯:"你的大腦和身體

  • will adapt to less sleep."

    會適應少睡。"

  • This is a myth.

    這是一個神話。

  • I'm Dr. Rebecca Robbins.

    我是Rebecca Robbins博士。

  • I'm a postdoctoral research fellow

    我是一名博士後研究員

  • at the Brigham and Women's Hospital

    在布里格姆婦女醫院

  • and Harvard Medical School.

    和哈佛醫學院。

  • Rapoport: And I'm Dr. David Rapoport.

    拉波波特。我是大衛-拉波波特博士。

  • I'm a professor of medicine

    我是醫學教授

  • at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,

    在西奈山的伊坎醫學院。

  • and I run the research program in sleep.

    我負責睡眠方面的研究項目

  • Robbins: And we're here today to debunk

    羅賓斯而我們今天在這裡揭穿

  • some of the most common myths about our sleep.

    關於我們睡眠的一些最常見的神話。

  • "Watching TV in bed is a

    "在床上看電視是一種

  • good way to relax before sleep."

    睡前放鬆的好方法。"

  • Now, this is not something

    現在,這不是什麼

  • that we would necessarily recommend.

    我們一定會推薦的。

  • If you turn the television on and if it's close to you,

    如果你打開電視,如果它離你很近。

  • that's a source of bright-blue light.

    那是一個亮藍色的光源。

  • So, bright light is one of the strongest cues

    所以,亮光是最強烈的提示之一

  • to our circadian rhythm.

    我們的晝夜節律。

  • It kick-starts our body and our brain

    它啟動了我們的身體和大腦

  • to become awake and alert in the morning.

    以便在早晨變得清醒和警覺。

  • It's called a zeitgeber,

    這就是所謂的zeitgeber。

  • the strongest input to that circadian,

    該晝夜的最強輸入。

  • the awake phase of our rhythm.

    我們節奏的清醒階段。

  • Rapoport: "Drinking booze before bed

    拉波波特。"睡前飲酒

  • will improve your sleep."

    會改善你的睡眠。"

  • So, this is a very commonly used tactic

    所以,這是一個很常用的手段。

  • for people who have trouble sleeping,

    對於有睡眠障礙的人來說。

  • and they have a drink.

    他們有一個飲料。

  • It's a drug.

    這是一種藥物。

  • It's very much like a sleeping pill.

    這很像安眠藥。

  • And it is true that it will help you get to sleep,

    而且它確實能幫助你入睡。

  • as long as you don't drink too much.

    只要你不喝太多。

  • One or two drinks, perhaps.

    一兩杯,也許。

  • What you do, however, is it disrupts the normal sleep.

    然而,你的做法是,它擾亂了正常的睡眠。

  • It suppresses REM sleep,

    它抑制了REM睡眠。

  • which is a normal part of your sleep

    這是你睡眠的正常部分

  • that comes on a little while after you go to sleep,

    睡覺後一會兒就會出現。

  • typically 30 to 60 minutes later.

    一般30到60分鐘後。

  • And then, when it comes

    然後,當它來到

  • that the alcohol has gotten out of your system,

    酒精已經從你的身體裡出來了。

  • then the REM comes back perhaps at the wrong time,

    然後,REM也許在錯誤的時間回來了。

  • perhaps too strong, and it disrupts things.

    也許太強了,它擾亂了事情的發展。

  • And so basically it is not generally recommended

    所以基本上一般不建議

  • that alcohol be used as a sleeping pill.

    將酒精作為安眠藥;

  • "Lying in bed with your eyes closed

    "閉著眼睛躺在床上

  • is almost as good as sleeping."

    是幾乎和睡覺一樣好。"

  • I think that one's pretty definitely not correct.

    我覺得這個很肯定不對。

  • Sleep is a very specific process

    睡眠是一個非常特殊的過程

  • that your body goes through.

    你的身體所經歷的。

  • The most common myth, if you will,

    最常見的神話,如果你願意。

  • that we got rid of in the scientific field 50 years ago

    五十年前就被我們淘汰了的東西

  • is that sleep was like, you know, taking your car

    是,睡眠就像,你知道,把你的車。

  • and putting it in the garage and turning off the key

    並把它放在車庫裡,並關閉鑰匙。

  • and leaving it there,

    並把它留在那裡。

  • and then you come back the next morning

    然後你第二天早上回來

  • and it just is parked.

    而它只是停在那裡。

  • Sleep is not like that at all.

    睡眠根本不是這樣的。

  • Sleep is a very active process.

    睡眠是一個非常活躍的過程。

  • When you go to sleep, you enter one stage.

    當你睡覺的時候,你就進入了一個階段。

  • A little while later, you enter another stage.

    一會兒,你又進入另一個階段。

  • It gets progressively deeper.

    逐漸深入。

  • You then have the REM sleep,

    你就會有REM睡眠。

  • and then you wake up momentarily,

    然後你就會瞬間清醒過來。

  • and that whole cycle takes an hour

    而整個週期需要一個小時

  • to an hour and a half, and then it starts again,

    到一個半小時,然後又開始。

  • and it happens three to five times in a night.

    而且一晚上發生三到五次。

  • And if you disrupt any of that,

    如果你擾亂了其中的任何一個環節。

  • something happens, and the next morning you feel it.

    有些事情發生了,第二天早上你就會感覺到。

  • You don't feel rested.

    你感覺不到休息。

  • Now, we don't understand how that actually happens

    現在,我們不明白這到底是怎麼發生的。

  • or why that happens, but we do know it does happen.

    或為什麼會發生,但我們知道它確實發生了。

  • So when you're lying in bed, none of that is happening.

    所以當你躺在床上的時候,這些都不會發生。

  • If your eyes are closed and you're not asleep,

    如果你閉著眼睛不睡覺。

  • it just doesn't count.

    它只是不計。

  • Robbins: Next.

    羅賓斯下一個

  • Rapoport: "If you can't sleep, you should stay in bed

    拉波波特。"如果你睡不著,你就應該呆在床上

  • and try to fall back asleep."

    並試圖重新入睡。"

  • If you don't fall asleep,

    如果你沒有睡著。

  • we generally recommend that you not stretch it out

    我們一般建議你不要把它拉長

  • and stress yourself out by just trying.

    並給自己施加壓力,只是嘗試。

  • And there's probably nothing

    而且可能沒有什麼

  • that can prevent sleep

    可以防止睡眠的

  • as well as, "I've gotta go to sleep."

    以及,"我得去睡覺。"

  • [Robbins laughs] "I've gotta go to sleep."

    "我得去睡覺了"

  • "I've gotta go to sleep." Robbins: "I need to!"

    "我得去睡覺了。"羅賓斯:"我需要!"

  • Rapoport: You can feel your pulse

    拉波波特。你能感覺到你的脈搏

  • and your blood pressure going up.

    和你的血壓上升。

  • So what we try and do when

    所以,當我們嘗試和做

  • we work with somebody

    我們的合作對象

  • who has this problem with insomnia

    誰有這個問題與失眠

  • is exactly the opposite of that.

    正好與此相反。

  • We try and tell them, relax, don't worry about it.

    我們試著告訴他們,放鬆,不要擔心。

  • Stay in bed for a little while and see what happens.

    在床上呆一會兒,看看會發生什麼。

  • But don't try to go to sleep, just relax.

    但不要試圖去睡覺,只要放鬆。

  • And if you can't relax and if you don't go to sleep,

    如果你不能放鬆,如果你不去睡覺。

  • it's probably better to get up

    不如起身

  • so that you don't associate the bed

    以免你聯想到床

  • with a stressful situation.

    與緊張的局面。

  • Robbins: All right. "Many adults need

    羅賓斯。羅賓斯: 好的"許多成年人需要

  • five hours of sleep or less."

    五小時或更少的睡眠時間。"

  • Now, this is a myth.

    現在,這是一個神話。

  • We have scores of epidemiological data

    我們有幾十份流行病學數據。

  • and data from the sleep lab to show

    和睡眠實驗室的數據來顯示

  • that five hours is not enough

    五小時不夠

  • for the vast majority of adults.

    對於絕大多數成年人來說,。

  • There may be some individuals

    可能有一些人

  • that maybe do OK on six hours,

    也許六小時就能搞定。

  • but much less than that really is a myth.

    但比這少得多的真的是一個神話。

  • Now, you might hear people brag about this,

    現在,你可能會聽到人們吹噓這個。

  • saying, "Oh I get five, I'm just fine."

    說,"哦,我得到五個,我就好了。"

  • But by and large, we do see those people

    但大體上,我們確實看到這些人。

  • likely making up for lost sleep on the weekends

    週末補覺吧

  • or in power naps, for instance.

    或在動力小睡中,例如。

  • So, for the vast majority of us,

    所以,對於我們絕大多數人來說。

  • the recommendation really is seven to eight hours.

    建議真的是七到八個小時。

  • Rapoport: This is a real problem

    拉波波特。這是一個真正的問題

  • that the sleep field has been trying to address,

    睡眠領域一直試圖解決的問題。

  • and that is that not sleeping has been perceived

    那就是,不睡覺已經被認為是

  • as a macho thing.

    作為一個大男子主義的東西。

  • It proves how great you are,

    這證明了你有多偉大。

  • it proves how manly you are in some cases.

    這證明了你在某些情況下是多麼的有男子氣概。

  • Sleeping is actually good,

    睡覺其實是好事。

  • and you should sort of be proud of the fact

    你應該有點自豪的事實,

  • that you sleep to your need.

    你睡覺的時候,你需要。

  • Robbins: "Your brain and body will adapt to less sleep."

    羅賓斯:"你的大腦和身體會適應較少的睡眠。"

  • Rapoport: That sounds like yours.

    拉波波特。這聽起來像你的。

  • Robbins: No.

    羅賓斯羅賓斯:

  • This is a myth.

    這是一個神話。

  • We see that, just like good nutrition

    我們看到,就像良好的營養

  • or a great, healthy diet is so important,

    或一個偉大的,健康的飲食是如此重要。

  • we similarly have a diet that we need

    我們同樣有需要的飲食

  • our brains and our bodies to be at their best.

    我們的大腦和身體都處於最佳狀態。

  • Rapoport: There are actual, formal studies

    拉波波特。有實際的,正式的研究

  • that have tested

    經測試

  • how people perform with lack of sleep

    睡眠不足時的表現

  • and how they think they are performing.

    以及他們認為自己的表現如何。

  • And it turns out that we basically are really lousy

    而事實證明,我們基本上是真的很糟糕。

  • at saying how sleepy we are.

    在說我們有多困。

  • So you know you feel bad

    所以你知道你感覺很不好

  • when you haven't had enough sleep,

    當你沒有足夠的睡眠。

  • but you have no idea how bad you are,

    但你不知道你有多壞。

  • and your performance keeps deteriorating

    而你的表現卻每況愈下

  • the more you don't sleep

    越是不睡覺

  • or restrict your sleep over multiple days,

    或限制你多天的睡眠。

  • and you think, "Oh, I've settled in.

    你會想,"哦,我已經安頓好了"。

  • I have a little headache, and it doesn't really bother me.

    我有點頭疼,也不怎麼在意。

  • I'm doing just great."

    我做得很好。"

  • And what is actually happening is

    而實際發生的情況是

  • you're performing less and less well

    你的表現越來越差

  • on the various things that we can test,

    在我們可以測試的各種事物上。

  • including driving simulators.

    包括駕駛模擬器。

  • You're falling asleep for three or four seconds

    你睡了三四秒就睡著了。

  • continuously, without knowing it.

    不斷地,在不知不覺中。

  • Robbins: All right. "It doesn't matter

    羅賓斯。羅賓斯: 好的。"這並不重要

  • what time of day you sleep."

    你每天什麼時候睡覺。"

  • Rapoport: If you look at our biology,

    拉波波特。如果你看看我們的生物學,

  • we have, inside our brain, a clock.

    我們有,在我們的大腦,一個時鐘。

  • That clock is set to say,

    那座鐘被設定為說。

  • "This is a good time to sleep."

    "現在是睡覺的好時機。"

  • And then at another time it says,

    然後在另一個時間,它說。

  • "This is a good time to be out."

    "這是個很好的出場時間。"

  • Sleep is timed.

    睡眠是定時的。

  • It doesn't just happen.

    它不只是發生。

  • And even if you don't sleep for the whole night,

    而且就算你整晚不睡覺。

  • you'll be more and more sleepy all night long.

    你會整夜越發的睏倦。

  • But in the morning, you'll get a second wind,

    但到了早上,你會得到第二次風。

  • and that's because the clock says, "Up, time to be up."

    那是因為時鐘說:"起床了,該起床了。"

  • It doesn't matter that you didn't sleep,

    你沒睡不要緊。

  • it's time to be up.

    該起床了

  • As Rebecca said, we've gained an incredible ability

    正如瑞貝卡所說,我們已經獲得了一種不可思議的能力。

  • to not abide by that rhythm.

    不遵守這種節奏。

  • And the problem is that people think

    而問題是,人們認為

  • that they can get away with things

    逍遙法外

  • that our biology just won't let us do.

    我們的生理機能不允許我們這樣做。

  • Nurses have been most studied for this,

    護士對此研究得最多。

  • and firefighters and emergency workers

    以及消防人員和應急人員

  • and people who live on ships.

    和住在船上的人。

  • They all pay a price, epidemiologically.

    他們都要付出代價,流行病學。

  • We've shown higher heart disease,

    我們已經顯示出較高的心臟疾病。

  • more tendency to gain weight,

    更傾向於增加體重。

  • and a variety of malfunctions and difficulties

    以及各種故障和困難。

  • as time goes on.

    隨著時間的推移。

  • You can do it, but it's gonna cost you.

    你可以做,但要花錢的。

  • Robbins: "Exercising within four hours of bedtime

    羅賓斯:"睡前四小時內運動。

  • will disturb your sleep."

    會打擾你的睡眠。"

  • Rapoport: What we give as advice is that

    拉波波特。我們給出的建議是

  • about an hour before sleep,

    睡覺前一小時左右。

  • you wanna try and avoid active kind of things,

    你要儘量避免積極的事情。

  • and exercise certainly is one of them.

    而運動當然是其中之一。

  • On the other hand, there are people who exercise

    另一方面,也有一些人在行使

  • close to sleep and do very well.

    接近睡眠,做得很好。

  • So I don't think we should say, you know,

    所以我覺得我們不應該說,你知道的。

  • if you're somebody who

    如果你是一個人誰

  • exercises regularly in the evening

    晚間定時練習

  • and you sleep beautifully

    而你卻睡得很香

  • and you feel rested the next morning,

    而你在第二天早上就會感到休息。

  • that you should give up exercise,

    你應該放棄運動。

  • 'cause I think that would be a bad bit of advice.

    因為我認為這將是一個糟糕的建議。

  • You'll gain weight,

    你會變胖的。

  • you'll lose the toning that you've gotten,

    你會失去你所得到的調理。

  • so on and so forth.

    諸如此類。

  • On the other hand, if you haven't been doing it,

    另一方面,如果你一直沒有做。

  • I probably wouldn't start exercising at night.

    我可能不會在晚上開始運動。

  • And if you're having trouble with sleep,

    如果你有睡眠問題。

  • that's one of the first things we look at,

    那是我們首先要看的東西之一。

  • after drugs like caffeine, to try and get rid of.

    咖啡因等藥物後,試圖擺脫。

  • Robbins: All right. "Remembering your dreams

    羅賓斯。羅賓斯: 好的。"記住你的夢想

  • is a sign of a good night's sleep."

    是睡得好的標誌。"

  • Rapoport: I think that there is a huge variation

    拉波波特。我認為有一個巨大的變化

  • in how much people remember their dreams.

    在人們對自己的夢想有多少記憶。

  • Some of it has to do with when you wake up.

    有些是和你醒來的時間有關。

  • If you wake up during REM sleep,

    如果你在REM睡眠中醒來。

  • you almost always will remember a dream.

    你幾乎總是會記得一個夢。

  • Some of us don't remember anything

    我們有些人什麼都不記得了

  • at all about our dreams,

    在所有關於我們的夢想。

  • and it doesn't seem to harm them.

    而且似乎也不會傷害到他們。

  • But it's not a true thing

    但這不是一件真實的事情

  • that just because you don't remember your dreams,

    就因為你不記得你的夢了,

  • that you're not having good sleep.

    你沒有睡好覺。

  • What tells you you're having good sleep

    什麼告訴你你有好的睡眠

  • is how you feel the next day.

    是你第二天的感覺。

  • Robbins: Now, if you're waking up with nightmares,

    羅賓斯現在,如果你醒了 與噩夢,

  • that could be a simple sign

    不外乎是一個信號

  • that maybe your bedroom is too hot

    也許你的臥室太熱了

  • and you need to turn down the temperature.

    而你需要把溫度調低。

  • 'Cause a hot bedroom environment unfortunately

    "因為熱的臥室環境很不幸

  • can create fragmented sleep

    會造成零碎的睡眠

  • and cause you to wake up often from nightmares.

    並導致你經常被噩夢驚醒。

  • Now, "Eating cheese (or other food) before bed

    現在,"睡前吃奶酪(或其他食物)"。

  • causes nightmares."

    導致噩夢。"

  • Rapoport: I don't think I'm aware of any particular food

    拉波波特。我不認為我意識到 任何特殊的食物。

  • that will do that to everybody,

    那會對每個人都有影響。

  • but it's very clear that being uncomfortable

    但很明顯,不舒服的時候

  • will precipitate both bad sleep and waking up

    會導致睡不好,醒不過來

  • and maybe even nightmares.

    甚至可能是噩夢。

  • So, imagine somebody with irritable bowel syndrome

    所以,想象一下,有人患有腸易激綜合徵

  • who knows that whenever they eat, whatever,

    誰知道他們什麼時候吃飯,什麼。

  • gluten or some specific food, spicy foods,

    麩質或某些特定食物、辛辣食物。

  • it upsets their stomach when they're awake.

    當他們醒著的時候,它讓他們的胃不舒服。

  • Well, guess what?

    你猜怎麼著?

  • If they eat it before they go to sleep,

    如果他們在睡覺前吃了它。

  • it'll upset their sleep,

    會影響他們的睡眠。