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  • this video was made possible by curiosity stream.

    這個視頻是由好奇心流。

  • When you sign up with the link in the description, you'll also get access to Nebula.

    當你用描述中的鏈接註冊時,你還可以進入星雲。

  • The streaming video platform that real life floor is a part of Poland is not yet lost.

    現實生活地板是波蘭的一部分的流媒體視頻平臺還沒有失去。

  • So says the national anthem of Poland.

    波蘭的國歌也是這麼說的。

  • But Poland's geography doesn't help very much in keeping her safe.

    但波蘭的地理環境並不能很好地保護她的安全。

  • Just take a look at this world map and think to yourself.

    看看這張世界地圖,自己就會想到。

  • Where would the worst possible spawn points for my civilization?

    我的文明最差的產卵點會在哪裡?

  • Be at sure.

    是在肯定。

  • There's plenty of pretty awful locations, but one of the absolute worst is this general area in Europe, and it's terrible for a very long list of reasons.

    有很多非常糟糕的地點,但絕對最糟糕的一個是歐洲的這個一般地區,它很糟糕,原因有一長串。

  • It's flat in every direction and has no natural protection against outside Attackers safer the Baltic in the north or the Carpathian Mountains in the south.

    它的每個方向都是平坦的,沒有天然的保護,防止外部攻擊者在北方的波羅的海或南方的喀爾巴阡山更安全。

  • But it also has very limited natural resource is it's only access to the sea is in the Baltic, which means that in order to break out into the global ocean, you have to pass through these narrow straits, which presents two additional problems.

    但是它的自然資源也是非常有限的,就是它唯一的出海口是在波羅的海,這就意味著要想衝出全球的海洋,就必須通過這些狹窄的海峽,這就多了兩個問題。

  • A.

    A.

  • You're at the mercy of whoever is controlling them for trade flowing in and out and be all it takes to blockade you is a few ships blocking the way here.

    不管是誰控制了他們,你都要聽從他們的擺佈,以保證貿易的進出,而封鎖你所需要的只是幾艘船在這裡擋住了路。

  • Further, all of the surrounding lands give civilization starting their better opportunities for expansion.

    再者,周圍的土地都給文明起點他們更好的擴張機會。

  • Any civilization to the east can expand way far out into the sparsely populated lands of Asia, while civilizations to the west and the South will have an easier time getting access to better ocean trade routes in the North Sea or the Mediterranean.

    任何向東的文明都可以向人煙稀少的亞洲大地擴張,而向西和向南的文明則更容易獲得北海或地中海更好的海洋貿易路線。

  • Any civilization that started here would have a difficult history, and it just so happens that the civilization that did was Poland.

    任何一個文明在這裡發端,都會有一段艱難的歷史,而恰好發端的文明是波蘭。

  • So Poland's greatest geographic challenges to overcome have always been establishing a base on the coast and balancing the areas poorly defensible flat terrain against outside attacks from strong powers in every direction Swedes and Danes in the north, Russians in the east, Ottomans in the south and Germans in the West.

    所以波蘭要克服的最大的地理挑戰一直是在沿海建立基地,並平衡該地區防禦力差的平坦地形,抵禦來自四面八方的強國瑞典人和丹麥人、東邊的俄國人、南邊的奧斯曼人和西邊的德國人的外來攻擊。

  • The consequences of Poland's geography have led to the modern day state of Poland being a mere shadow of what it used to be.

    波蘭的地理環境造成的後果,導致現代波蘭的國家只是過去的影子。

  • For a time, Poland was ranked among one of the global great powers and occupied a truly massive amount of land that stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea and included all of modern day Lithuania, Latvia, Belarus and most of Ukraine, with a good chunk of Russia to that for a time, even included Moscow but neither the Baltic nor the black or great seas to have access to.

    波蘭一度躋身於全球大國之列,佔據了真正的大片土地,從波羅的海一直延伸到黑海,包括了現代立陶宛、拉脫維亞、白俄羅斯的全部和烏克蘭的大部分地區,俄羅斯也有好大一塊地方,甚至一度包括莫斯科,但既沒有波羅的海,也沒有黑海和大洋可以進入。

  • We already discussed the problems with the Baltic, but the Black Sea has a very similar problem, too, in order to break out into the Mediterranean and the World Ocean.

    我們已經討論過波羅的海的問題,但黑海要想突圍到地中海和世界大洋,也有一個非常類似的問題。

  • From there you have to pass through this extremely narrow strait here, which at the time of Poland's Black Sea access, was controlled by the Ottomans, who were almost always ah, hostile state to Poland.

    從那裡你必須通過這裡這個極其狹窄的海峽,在波蘭進入黑海的時候,這裡被奧斯曼人控制,奧斯曼人幾乎一直是啊,對波蘭的敵對國家。

  • So see, access was always hard for Poland, and consequently, Poland never became a historically significant naval power.

    所以,你看,波蘭的交通總是很困難,是以,波蘭從來沒有成為歷史上重要的海軍強國。

  • And over time, the week physical geography of Poland led to almost constant attacks from strong outside powers who combined their forces to overwhelm Poland and her week natural defenses.

    而隨著時間的推移,波蘭一週的自然地理環境導致了外部強國幾乎不斷的攻擊,他們聯合起來的力量壓垮了波蘭和她一週的自然防禦。

  • At various times, the Swedes, Russians and Ottomans all took their turns, invading and seizing land before the disastrous year of 17 72 when the armies of Russia, Prussia and Austria all joined forces to attack Poland from every direction.

    在不同時期,瑞典人、俄國人和奧斯曼人都輪番上陣,在17 72年災難性的一年之前,俄國、普魯士和奧地利的軍隊都聯合起來,從各個方向進攻波蘭。

  • Poland's struggled to defend herself against superior enemy numbers, who attacked from three different fronts across mostly flat and hard to defend terrain.

    波蘭面對數量佔優的敵軍從三條不同的戰線進攻,在大部分平坦和難以防禦的地形上,波蘭竭力保護自己。

  • And so Poland lost and one third of her land and her population was annexed by the conquerors.

    於是波蘭失去了三分之一的土地和人口,被征服者吞併。

  • Over 20 years later and still crippled from the last war, Poland was invaded and attacked again from the west in the east by Prussia and Russia, and lost even more land and smelling the blood of a dying corpse.

    20多年後,波蘭還在上次戰爭中被打殘,又被普魯士和俄國從西面入侵,從東面進攻,失去了更多的土地,聞到了垂死的屍骨血腥味。

  • With easy to take food.

    帶著方便的食物。

  • Russia, Prussia and Austria joint forces again and took over the rest of Poland in 17 95 dividing the remaining land between themselves.

    俄羅斯、普魯士和奧地利再次聯合出兵,於1795年奪取波蘭的其餘部分,互相瓜分剩餘土地。

  • Poland's geography was simply overrun, without much to stop or slow down.

    波蘭的地理環境根本就是超前的,沒有太多的阻止和減緩。

  • The Attackers and Poland itself ceased to exist as an independent entity for the next 125 Ford years.

    在接下來的125福特年裡,攻擊者和波蘭本身都不再作為一個獨立的實體存在。

  • Poland only regained her full sovereignty from the conquerors in 1919 in the chaotic aftermath of all three conquering empires collapsing after World War One, and she immediately found herself in a new war with the Soviet Union.

    1919年,波蘭在一戰後三大征服帝國全部崩潰的混亂局面中才從征服者手中奪回了全部主權,她立刻發現自己正與蘇聯展開新的戰爭。

  • The Soviets wanted to use the flat land of Poland as a bridge to export the communist revolution to Germany, while the new Polish government wanted to reclaim the lost Polish lands from the 18th century partitions.

    蘇聯想以波蘭的平地為橋樑,向德國輸出共產主義革命,而波蘭新政府則想收回18世紀分治時失去的波蘭土地。

  • It kind of went both ways before both sides just agreed to a ceasefire in 1920 which largely established the first iteration of Poland in the 20th century.

    在1920年雙方剛剛達成停火協議之前,算是兩邊都有了,這也基本確立了波蘭在20世紀的第一次迭代。

  • But this Poland's geographic position was severely flawed.

    但這個波蘭的地理位置有嚴重的缺陷。

  • She had only this tiny strip of land to connect to the sea that was flanked on both sides by territory belonging to Germany.

    她只有這一小塊土地與大海相連,而這塊土地兩邊都是屬於德國的領土。

  • She shared too long land borders across hard to defend terrain with both Germany and Russia, who had both invaded and conquered Poland together before and would soon do it once again.

    她與德國和俄國共享太長的陸地邊界,跨越難以防守的地形,德國和俄國以前都曾一起入侵和征服過波蘭,很快就會再次入侵和征服波蘭。

  • After the Nazis took power in Germany and annexed off Austria, the Sudetenland and then occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia, Poland's geographic position became even more tenuous when the Germans invaded Poland in 1939 after only 19 years of peace and Poland, they could do so from three different directions.

    納粹在德國上臺後,吞併掉了奧地利、蘇臺德地區,然後又佔領了捷克斯洛伐克的其他地區,1939年,德國人僅在和平了19年後就入侵了波蘭,波蘭的地理位置變得更加脆弱,他們可以從三個不同的方向入侵波蘭。

  • The West from mainland Germany, the South from occupied Czechoslovakia and the northeast from German East Prussia.

    西起德國本土,南起被佔領的捷克斯洛伐克,東北起德國東普魯士。

  • And they could quickly cut off Poland's tiny access to the sea from the two flanks.

    而且他們可以迅速從兩翼切斷波蘭小小的出海通道。

  • Poland bravely managed to hang on for a while until the Soviet Union also invaded from the east, and Poland found herself fighting enemies on all sides across hard to defend terrain.

    波蘭勇敢地堅持了一段時間,直到蘇聯也從東面入侵,波蘭發現自己在難以防禦的地形上與四面八方的敵人作戰。

  • Like a repeat of the 18th century, Poland was conquered and occupied by the Germans and Russians again for another six years before Poland was finally reestablished as effectively a satellite puppet state of the Soviet Union.

    就像18世紀的重演一樣,波蘭又被德國人和俄國人征服和佔領了6年,最後波蘭終於重新建立了一個實際上是蘇聯的衛星傀儡國。

  • In 1947 Poland didn't recover true self rule or sovereignty that was separated from the Soviet Union again until 1990 after another 51 years of effective occupation.

    1947年,波蘭並沒有恢復真正的自治,也沒有恢復與蘇聯再次分離的主權,直到1990年又被有效佔領51年後才恢復。

  • In short, out of the past 225 years of history, Poland has been occupied or ruled by a foreign power in some fashion for 175 of those years, or 77% of the time.

    簡而言之,在過去225年的歷史中,波蘭有175年被外國勢力以某種方式佔領或統治,佔77%。

  • The aftermath of the Second World War in the Soviet occupation gave Poland a new geographic reality.

    蘇聯佔領下的第二次世界大戰後,波蘭有了新的地理現實。

  • However, that's maybe only marginally better than what it used to be Before, after the war, a significant portion of eastern Poland was annexed directly into the Soviet Union, and the ethnic Polish residents were expelled in compensation for this.

    不過,這也許只是比以前稍微好一點 之前,戰後,波蘭東部有相當一部分地區直接被併入蘇聯,波蘭族居民是以被驅逐,作為補償。

  • Poland was given all of these formerly German lands that the Soviets had conquered and forced them to give up.

    波蘭被蘇維埃征服並迫使他們放棄的這些原為德國的土地都給了他們。

  • The ethnic German populations here were expelled, and most of the expelled Polish population from the east ended up coming and resettling in these new lands.

    這裡的德裔人口被驅逐,東部被驅逐的波蘭人口最後大多來到這些新的土地上定居。

  • Because of this, the modern Polish state has achieved a significant coastline on the Baltic, with two natural harbors in the cities of guidance and direction.

    正因為如此,現代波蘭國家在波羅的海上實現了重要的海岸線,在指導和方向城市有兩個天然的港口。

  • And after the collapse of the Eastern bloc and communism after 1989 Poland has sought to distance herself from Russia and integrate further with the West.

    而1989年後東方集團和共產主義崩潰後,波蘭一直試圖與俄羅斯保持距離,並進一步融入西方。

  • The new reality meant that Poland, on Lee, shares a tiny border with her former occupier, Russia, here in the Kaliningrad enclave, which is separated from the rest of Russia by the now independent Baltic states and Valorous.

    新的現實意味著,波蘭在利,與她的前佔領者俄羅斯共享一個小小的邊界,這裡的加里寧格勒飛地,與俄羅斯其他地區隔著現在獨立的波羅的海國家和英勇。

  • But Poland's geography is still mostly flat and difficult to defend safer a portion of the Carpathian Mountain range in the south.

    但波蘭的地理環境仍多為平坦,難以防禦安全的南部喀爾巴阡山脈的一部分。

  • And so Poland joined NATO in 1990 joined the European Union in 2000 and four, effectively securing her geography with friendly states in almost every direction safer, potentially the east, arguably for the first time since 17 72 Poland's geographic position and independence became relatively secure and safe again after centuries of uncertainty in 1999 when she joined the NATO alliance.

    於是波蘭在1990年加入了北約2000年加入了歐盟,四,有效地保證了她的地理位置與友好國家幾乎每一個方向的安全,可能是東部,可以說是自17 72年波蘭加入北約聯盟後的第一次,波蘭的地理位置和獨立性在經歷了幾個世紀的不確定之後,又變得相對安全,安全。

  • But recent events in the East, like what's been happening in Crimea between Ukraine and Russia, has made Poland weary and uneasy from her history.

    但最近在東方發生的事件,比如烏克蘭和俄羅斯之間在克里米亞發生的事情,讓波蘭從歷史中感到疲憊和不安。

  • Poland joined the defense network of NATO to secure stronger allies that could compensate for her indefensible terrain, and she joined the European Union to help further those aims.

    波蘭加入了北約的防禦網絡,以確保更強大的盟友能夠彌補其無法防禦的地形,而她加入歐盟是為了幫助推進這些目標。

  • Any attack by Russia or by anybody else on Poland would be considered an attack on every other NATO and EU member state, which would be almost suicidal for anybody to attempt.

    俄羅斯或其他任何人對波蘭的任何攻擊都將被視為對其他所有北約和歐盟成員國的攻擊,這對任何人來說幾乎是自殺式的嘗試。

  • After centuries of struggling to simply exist, Poland may have finally discovered the secret to staying alive.

    經過幾個世紀的掙扎,波蘭可能終於發現了生存的祕密。

  • When your country's geography is terrible, have a lot of strong friends.

    當你的國家地理環境很糟糕的時候,要有很多強大的朋友。

  • After all, Holland is not yet lost.

    畢竟,荷蘭還沒有失去。

  • Geography, however, is just one of many aspects about our planet that influences one civilization, success and another one's hardships.

    然而,地理只是我們這個星球眾多方面中的一個,它影響著一個文明、成功和另一個文明的艱難。

  • I could tell you all about how geology, physics, biology, psychology and even chemistry also all have major critical roles in civilization successes.

    我可以告訴你,地質學、物理學、生物學、心理學甚至化學也都對文明的成功有重大的關鍵作用。

  • Or you could just watch the great documentary Siri's.

    或者你可以直接看偉大的紀錄片Siri的。

  • That'll explain all of that in much more detail called deep time history, which is available right now on curiosity stream Curiosity Stream is the streaming platform with thousands of top quality documentaries toe watch from people like David Edinburgh, Chris Hadfield, Stephen Hawking, Jane Goodall and so many more.

    這將更詳細地解釋所有這些,叫做深層時間歷史,現在可以在好奇心流好奇心流是流媒體平臺,有數千部頂級品質的紀錄片toe觀看,如大衛-愛丁堡,克里斯-哈德菲爾德,斯蒂芬-霍金,簡-古道爾等人。

  • And it's only $20 a year for a subscription.

    而且訂閱一年才20元。

  • It's not $20 per month.

    這不是每月20元。

  • It's just $20 for a whole year.

    一整年才20元。

  • Plus, when you sign up for an annual subscription to Curiosity, stream with the link in the description or by going to curiosity stream dot com slash real life floor.

    另外,當你註冊了好奇心的年費後,用描述中的鏈接進行流轉,或者到好奇心流轉點com斜線真人樓。

  • You'll also get access to Nebula, the streaming platform made by myself and a bunch of your other favorite YouTube creators, which is filled with ad free versions of all of our videos, plus a bunch of awesome original content like the world's Most Useful Airport documentary by the guy behind Wendover Productions, as well as my Car review show Grant Test Auto hosted by Myself and J T.

    你還將獲得訪問星雲,由我自己和其他一群你最喜歡的YouTube創作者製作的流媒體平臺,其中充滿了我們所有視頻的免費廣告版本,再加上一堆令人敬畏的原創內容,如世界上最有用的機場紀錄片背後的傢伙Wendover製作,以及我的汽車評論節目格蘭特測試汽車由我自己和J T主持。

this video was made possible by curiosity stream.

這個視頻是由好奇心流。

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B1 中級 中文 波蘭 地理 波羅的海 文明 土地 佔領

為什麼波蘭的地理環境是最差的? (Why Poland's Geography is the Worst)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 23 日
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