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  • Water is deadlier than wind when it comes to hurricanes.

    在颶風面前,水比風更致命。

  • In fact, it causes 90% of the loss of lives

    事實上,90%的生命損失是由它造成的。

  • related to powerful storms.

    與強風暴有關。

  • But when meteorologists talk about a Category 3 system

    但當氣象學家談論三類系統時

  • headed their way, that classification

    駛向他們的方向,該分類

  • just takes wind speed into account.

    只是把風速考慮在內。

  • There's no single scale to indicate

    沒有一個單一的尺度來表示

  • both how strong and how wet the systems are.

    無論是系統的強度還是溼潤程度。

  • In general, we tell people in the meteorological community

    一般情況下,我們告訴氣象界的人們

  • to hide from the wind, but run from the water.

    躲避風頭,卻要逃避水面。

  • But if we know water can actually cause more damage,

    但是如果我們知道水其實會造成更大的傷害。

  • why haven't we updated the way we measure hurricanes?

    為什麼我們沒有更新我們測量颶風的方式?

  • Let's take a look back.

    讓我們來回顧一下。

  • The Saffir-Simpson scale, going from 1 to 5,

    Saffir-Simpson量表,從1到5。

  • measures the speed of sustained winds of a hurricane.

    測量颶風的持續風速。

  • It was developed in the 1970s to calculate

    它是在20世紀70年代開發的,用於計算

  • how much wind can impact property.

    風對財產的影響有多大。

  • A storm becomes a Category 1 hurricane

    風暴成為一級颶風

  • when winds reach 74 miles per hour.

    當風速達到每小時74英里時。

  • This kind of speed can damage roofs,

    這種速度會損壞屋頂。

  • sidings, and knock large branches out of trees.

    邊,並將大樹枝打掉。

  • Major hurricanes start at Category 3

    主要颶風從3級開始

  • once winds increase to 111 miles per hour.

    一旦風速增加到每小時111英里。

  • They can cause devastating destruction

    它們會造成毀滅性的破壞

  • to well-constructed buildings.

    到建造良好的建築物。

  • And there's a high chance of injury or death.

    而且很有可能受傷或死亡。

  • Category 5 hurricanes have winds over 157 miles per hour,

    5級颶風的風速超過每小時157英里。

  • and are the top of the scale.

    並且是最頂級的。

  • These systems can devastate large areas,

    這些系統可以破壞大片區域。

  • leaving them uninhabitable for months.

    讓他們幾個月都無法居住。

  • But again, this is just from the winds.

    但這又只是從風。

  • It doesn't take into consideration

    它沒有考慮到

  • the impacts of storm surge and rain.

    風暴潮和雨水的影響。

  • Storm surge happens when winds push water from the sea

    風暴潮發生時,風把水從海里推上來。

  • onto the land, flooding large areas.

    到土地上,淹沒了大片土地。

  • It's fast, powerful, and can send 10 to 20 feet of water

    它速度快,威力大,可以送10到20英尺的水。

  • several miles inland from the coast.

    距離海岸幾英里的內陸。

  • Hurricane Katrina was one of the deadliest storms

    颶風卡特里娜是最致命的風暴之一。

  • to ever hit the mainland United States.

    襲擊美國本土的。

  • But its 127 miles per hour winds

    但它的風速是127英里/小時

  • meant it was only classified as a Category 3

    意味著它只被列為第三類

  • when it made landfall in Louisiana.

    當它在路易斯安那州登陸時。

  • The water broke the levies protecting New Orleans.

    水流衝破了保護新奧爾良的堤壩。

  • And within a day, about 80% of the city was underwater.

    而在一天之內,約有80%的城市被淹沒。

  • With Hurricane Katrina in 2005,

    隨著2005年卡特里娜颶風。

  • we really didn't, we didn't have in the collective

    我們真的沒有,我們沒有在集體中的

  • public mindset the difference between a really large

    公眾心態與真正的大公司之間的區別

  • powerful storm and a compact powerful storm.

    強大的風暴和緊湊的強大風暴。

  • The pictures and the memories of Katrina

    卡特里娜的照片和回憶

  • aren't really about the wind damage.

    並不是真正的風災。

  • It's mostly about the storm surge,

    這主要是關於風暴潮。

  • the levies failing in New Orleans, things like that.

    新奧爾良的徵收失敗,這樣的事情。

  • And even smaller Category 1 systems

    甚至更小的第1類系統

  • like Hurricane Dolly, which slammed South Texas in 2008,

    如2008年襲擊南德克薩斯的颶風 "多莉"。

  • can leave behind death and destruction for the same reason.

    可以留下死亡和毀滅的原因是一樣的。

  • For a while, the Saffir-Simpson Scale

    有一段時間,薩菲爾-辛普森量表。

  • also categorized storm surge,

    也歸類為風暴潮。

  • but it became difficult to communicate

    但卻難以溝通

  • the specific dangers of each storm to the public

    每場風暴對公眾的具體危險性

  • since the threats from water and wind can be so different.

    因為來自水和風的威脅可能是如此不同。

  • So in 2017, NOAA's National Hurricane Center

    所以在2017年,NOAA的國家颶風中心。

  • started issuing official storm surge watches and warnings.

    開始發佈官方的風暴潮預警和警告。

  • What's different about the storm surge warning

    風暴潮預警有什麼不同

  • is what's different about the storm surge.

    是風暴潮的不同之處。

  • It can occur in somewhat different locations

    它可能發生在一些不同的地方

  • than the strongest wind, and at different times.

    比最強的風,而且在不同的時間。

  • These advisories are key to helping people prepare,

    這些建議是幫助人們做好準備的關鍵。

  • even if they're not directly in the path of a storm.

    即使他們不直接在風暴的路徑。

  • But they still leave out potential flooding

    但他們仍然忽略了潛在的洪水

  • that could be caused by rainfall,

    可能是由降雨引起的。

  • which is a whole other advisory from NOAA.

    這是一個完整的其他諮詢 從諾阿。

  • You need to know if your location's going to be

    你需要知道你的位置是否會被。

  • impacted by storm surge, or potentially freshwater flooding

    受風暴潮影響,或潛在的淡水氾濫。

  • that occurs from incredible rainfall amounts.

    這是由不可思議的降雨量所產生的。

  • Because the time to evacuate, or whatever,

    因為到了撤離的時間,或者是什麼。

  • isn't when the water is rising into your home,

    是不是當水漲到你家的時候。

  • or business. It's beforehand.

    或業務。這是事先。

  • The Saffir-Simpson scale's historical popularity

    薩菲爾-辛普森量表的歷史知名度

  • and basic 1-to-5 format

    和1對5的基本格式

  • means it's unlikely to go away anytime soon.

    意味著它不可能很快消失。

  • But there are a few alternatives out there,

    但也有一些替代品。

  • like the Hurricane Severity Index, owned by StormGeo,

    如StormGeo所擁有的颶風嚴重程度指數。

  • a private weather intelligence company.

    一傢俬營氣象情報公司。

  • It uses a 50-point scale that measures

    它採用50分制,衡量

  • the size of a hurricane and the intensity of its winds.

    颶風的大小和風的強度;

  • Each component gets 25 points, to be more precise.

    準確的說,每個部件都能得到25分。

  • Size is very important because it matters

    尺寸是非常重要的,因為它很重要

  • for the aerial extent of the impact,

    為空中影響範圍。

  • how much time a hurricane's going to hit you.

    颶風會在多長時間內襲擊你。

  • Things like storm surge, wave heights,

    比如風暴潮、波浪高度。

  • rain amounts are greater.

    雨量較大。

  • The HSI can also help people compare storms

    恆指還可以幫助人們比較風暴

  • they might have already experienced

    他們可能已經經歷了

  • to get an idea of what to expect.

    以獲得一個預期的想法。

  • The index would have placed Katrina's damage potential

    該指數會將卡特里娜颶風的潛在破壞性放在首位

  • in line with a Category 5.

    符合5類。

  • While its intensity was only 13 out of 25,

    雖然其強度只有25分之13。

  • its size was a 23 out of 25.

    其規模為23分(25分)。

  • But media outlets rarely use the index as a tool,

    但媒體很少將指數作為工具。

  • relying mostly on the Saffir-Simpson scale.

    主要依靠薩菲爾-辛普森量表。

  • Most journalists include NOAA's storm surge advisories

    大多數記者都將NOAA的風暴潮諮詢納入其中。

  • in their reports as well.

    在他們的報告中也有。

  • But most of the attention around a storm

    但大部分的注意力都圍繞著一場風暴

  • still seems to center on the category it falls under.

    似乎還是集中在它所屬的類別上。

  • Atlantic hurricane season goes from

    大西洋颶風季節從

  • June 1 to November 30.

    6月1日至11月30日。

  • And 2020 has been a particularly active one.

    而2020年是一個特別活躍的年份。

  • With things like climate change and a warming world,

    隨著氣候變化和世界變暖等事情。

  • hurricanes are more, there's going to be

    颶風多了,就會有。

  • more intense hurricanes making landfall.

    更強烈的颶風登陸。

  • NOAA predicted 19 to 25 named storms.

    NOAA預測19到25個命名的風暴。

  • And as of September 21, we've already had 23.

    而截止到9月21日,我們已經有23個。

  • That's already beaten last year's 18 named storms,

    這已經打敗了去年的18次命名風暴。

  • which was also above average.

    這也是高於平均水平的。

  • And even as weather forecasting has been

    而即使天氣預報已經

  • refined and improved, experts say there's no substitute

    精益求精,專家稱無可替代。

  • for always being ready for a storm to hit.

    因為時刻準備著迎接暴風雨的襲擊。

  • We have to make sure everybody understands

    我們必須確保每個人都明白

  • that the forecasts aren't perfect.

    預測並不完美。

  • And sometimes the storm does something

    有時候,暴風雪會做一些事情

  • not quite what we forecast,

    和我們預測的不太一樣。

  • and you really need to be prepared.

    而你真的需要做好準備。

  • Most importantly, follow the advice

    最重要的是,按照建議

  • of your local emergency management officials.

    你當地的應急管理官員。

Water is deadlier than wind when it comes to hurricanes.

在颶風面前,水比風更致命。

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B1 中級 中文 風暴 量表 辛普森 襲擊 指數 強度

我們衡量颶風強度的方式有什麼問題? (What’s Wrong With The Way We Measure Hurricane Intensity)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 23 日
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