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  • If you know one thing about the fall of the Berlin Wall, it might be this.

    如果你知道一件關於柏林牆倒塌的事,那可能就是這個。

  • REAGAN: Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.

    戈爾巴喬夫先生,拆掉這堵牆吧。

  • Or this.

    或者這個。

  • Or maybe...

    也許...

  • HASSELHOFF: I've been looking for freedom!

    我一直在尋找自由!

  • These moments were huge in unifying Berlin and undermining the physical symbol of a divided

    這些時刻對統一柏林和破壞一個分裂的物理象徵是巨大的。

  • Europe during the Cold War.

    冷戰期間,歐洲。

  • But they don't top this one. The last few minutes of an otherwise uneventful press conference

    但他們並沒有頂上這個。一場原本平淡無奇的新聞發佈會的最後幾分鐘裡

  • on November 9th, 1989:

    於1989年11月9日。

  • It might not look like it, but this is the moment the Berlin Wall became obsoletecompletely

    它可能看起來不像,但這是柏林牆變得過時的那一刻--徹底的

  • by mistake.

    誤。

  • After the allied powers defeated Nazi Germany in World War II, they divided the country

    盟國在二戰中打敗納粹德國後,對德國進行了瓜分。

  • into four parts, each controlled by a separate power.

    分為四個部分,每個部分由一個獨立的電源控制。

  • These formed into two new countries in 1949.

    這些國家在1949年組成了兩個新的國家。

  • Democratic West Germany and Soviet-controlled communist East Germany, officially named the

    民主的西德和蘇聯控制的共產主義東德,正式命名為。

  • German Democratic Republic, or GDR.

    德意志民主共和國

  • Through the 1950s, West Germany prospered as a free society and industrious member of

    在20世紀50年代,西德作為一個自由社會和勤勞的成員,繁榮發展。

  • Europe, and hundreds of thousands of East Germans began emigrating west, in search of

    歐洲,幾十萬東德人開始向西移民,以尋找新的生活方式。

  • new opportunities.

    新的機會。

  • To stem the tide, the GDR erected a barrier along the Inner German Border.

    為了阻止這股潮流,東德在內德邊境建立了一道屏障。

  • Separating the two countries with barbed wire, guarded checkpoints, and, in many places,

    用鐵絲網、守衛檢查站將兩國隔離開來,而且,在許多地方。

  • defensive measures like land mines.

    地雷等防禦措施;

  • But there was a loopholein Berlin.

    但有一個漏洞--在柏林。

  • And it goes back to when the 4 allied powers controlled Germany.

    而這要追溯到四國聯軍控制德國的時候。

  • See, even though the German capital was well inside the Soviet zone, the allies divided

    你看,儘管德國首都在蘇區內部,但盟軍卻劃分了

  • control of it equally to match the rest of the country.

    對它的控制權同樣要與國家其他地區相匹配。

  • And when East and West Germany formed, so did East and West Berlin.

    而當東德和西德形成後,東柏林和西柏林也形成了。

  • Even as the Inner German Border fortified, Berlin had no physical barrier dividing it.

    即使是內德邊境設防,柏林也沒有物理屏障將其隔開。

  • East Germans could simply walk or take public transportation to the Western part of the

    東德人只需步行或乘坐公共交通工具就可以到達西德。

  • city and travel freely from there.

    城市,並從那裡自由出行。

  • ARCHIVE: The island of West Berlin had become the staging point for the free road to the

    檔案:西柏林島已成為通往自由之路的中轉站。

  • West.

    西部。

  • Thisbrain draintook a huge toll on East Germany's labor force.

    這種 "人才外流 "給東德的勞動力造成了巨大的損失。

  • By 1961, more than 3.5 million East Germans, approximately 20% of the population, had fled

    到1961年,超過350萬東德人,約佔人口的20%,已經逃離了

  • to the Westthe majority of which were young and well-educated.

    到西方--其中大部分是年輕的、受過良好教育的人。

  • But the Berlin loophole closed on Aug 13th, 1961, when the city woke up to East German

    但柏林的漏洞在1961年8月13日關閉了,當這座城市被東德喚醒的時候

  • soldiers standing shoulder-to-shoulder along the invisible line dividing East and West

    戎馬倥傯

  • Berlin.

    柏林:

  • Unannounced, they began unrolling kilometers of barbed wire through the middle of the city.

    在沒有通知的情況下,他們開始在城市中間展開數公里的鐵絲網。

  • They were building the Berlin Wall.

    他們在修建柏林牆。

  • ARCHIVE: Brick by brick, until no contact but a friendly wave.

    檔案:一磚一瓦,直到沒有接觸,只有友好的揮手。

  • Travel out of East Berlin became strictly regulated.

    出東柏林的旅行變得嚴格管制。

  • No one could leave unless they met strict requirements.

    除非符合嚴格的要求,否則任何人都不能離開。

  • And those who didn't faced a nearly impassable barrier, complete with floodlights and guard

    而那些沒能通過的人,則面臨著幾乎無法通過的障礙,並配有泛光燈和警衛

  • towers.

    塔。

  • Where armed border guards patrolled day and night, with orders to shoot and kill anyone

    武裝的邊防衛兵日夜巡邏,命令他們開槍射殺任何人。

  • trying to cross illegally.

    試圖非法穿越。

  • And that's how it remained for 28 years.

    就這樣保持了28年。

  • But change came in late 1989.

    但變化出現在1989年底。

  • Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev had introduced social reforms meant to relax oppressive practices

    蘇聯領導人米哈伊爾-戈爾巴喬夫實行了社會改革,旨在放鬆壓迫性的做法。

  • and open up discourse between people and government.

    並打開人民與政府之間的話語權。

  • These changes sparked massive peaceful uprisings throughout Eastern Bloc countries, including

    這些變化引發了整個東歐集團國家的大規模和平起義,包括

  • East Germany.

    東德。

  • BAUMBACH: Things had kind of heated up all summer.

    鮑姆巴赫:整個夏天事情都有點升溫了。

  • In 1989, Catherine Baumbach was a young translator working for the East German news agency.

    1989年,凱瑟琳-鮑姆巴赫是一名為東德通訊社工作的年輕翻譯。

  • BAUMBACH: And there were the famous Monday demonstrations in Leipzig, actually my college

    在萊比錫有著名的週一示威遊行,實際上是在我的大學裡。

  • town. Initially thousands, then tens of thousands, then hundreds of thousands.

    鎮。最初是幾千人,後來是幾萬人,再後來是幾十萬人。

  • Freedom of expression and freedom to travel were key demands.

    言論自由和旅行自由是關鍵要求。

  • And pressure on the GDR to loosen travel restrictions only grew as neighboring countries, particularly

    而東德面臨的放鬆旅行限制的壓力也在不斷增加,因為周邊國家,特別是東德,都在不斷地放鬆旅行限制。

  • Hungary and Czechoslovakia, relaxed their border laws, prompting a mass southward exodus

    匈牙利和捷克斯洛伐克放寬了邊境法,促使了大規模的南遷。

  • of East Germans.

    東德人的。

  • By early November 1989, more than 40,000 East German refugees had arrived at the West German

    到1989年11月初,已有4萬多名東德難民抵達西德的 "東德"。

  • embassy in Prague, hoping to travel to the West.

    布拉格的大使館,希望能到西方。

  • The GDR was facing a crisis.

    民主德國正面臨著危機。

  • BAUMBACH: There were forces in the government that realized something had to be done. This

    政府中有一些力量意識到必須要做一些事情。這個

  • was not sustainable. So lifting the travel ban was one way that they thought they could

    是不可持續的。所以解除旅行禁令是他們認為可以的一種方式。

  • quell the protests and make people happy.

    平息抗議,讓人民滿意。

  • On November 8th, 1989, GDR official Gerhard Lauter was tasked with drafting looser travel

    1989年11月8日,東德官員格哈德-勞特受命起草更寬鬆的旅行。

  • regulations, meant to be a temporary pressure release.

    規定,意在暫時釋放壓力。

  • The new rules were finalized less than a day later, and read:

    新規定稿不到一天,就讀。

  • Private trips abroad can be applied for without conditions. Permits are issued on

    "私人出國旅遊可以無條件申請。許可證的發放時間是

  • short notice.”

    短暫的通知。"

  • Without conditions.” That's the key phrase here.

    "無條件"。這是這裡的關鍵詞。

  • This meant the strict application requirements were eliminated, and anyone who wanted could

    這意味著取消了嚴格的申請要求,任何人都可以申請。

  • leave East Germany and come back.

    離開東德再回來。

  • That afternoon, the updated regulations were handed to government spokesmannter Schabowski,

    當天下午,更新後的法規交給了政府發言人Günter Schabowski。

  • just as he was about to begin a routine press conference.

    就在他準備開始例行新聞發佈會的時候。

  • BAUMBACH: And as we all know, something kind of didn't go quite right there.

    我們都知道,有些事情並不完全正確。

  • He had no time to review them before sitting in front of cameras.

    在坐在攝影機前,他沒有時間審查它們。

  • And as you can see from his handwrittenroadmapof the press conference, he scribbled in a

    而從他手寫的新聞發佈會 "路線圖 "中可以看到,他潦草地用

  • reminder to announce them at the very end.

    提醒在最後宣佈他們。

  • And on live TV at 6:53 PM on November 9th, he read the relaxed travel laws, for the first

    而在11月9日下午6點53分的電視直播中,他宣讀了放寬後的旅遊法,第一次。

  • time, out loud.

    時間,大聲。

  • BAUMBACH: It seemed totally unreal. But it was Schabowski saying it and it was broadcast

    這似乎完全不真實。但這是沙博斯基說的,而且還被播了出來

  • on official television so it had to be true. There were people around me, older colleagues,

    在官方電視上,所以必須是真的。我身邊有一些人,年長的同事。

  • who immediately said, “this is the beginning of the end.”

    他馬上說:"這是結束的開始。"

  • Watch a confused Schabowski shuffle his papers when a journalist asks a simple follow-up

    當記者問及一個簡單的後續問題時,看一個困惑的沙博斯基在洗文件。

  • question.

    疑問。

  • The thing is, if Schabowski had had time to read the new rules, he might have seen this

    問題是,如果沙博夫斯基有時間閱讀新規則,他可能會看到這個

  • on the final page:

    在最後一頁。

  • The new regulations were meant to go into effect the following day, in an orderly manner,

    新規本來是要在第二天有序生效的。

  • when the passport offices were open.

    當護照辦公室開放時;

  • What happened next can only be described as a chain reaction.

    接下來發生的事情只能說是連鎖反應。

  • By 7:05 PM, the AP wire had already gone out: GDR opens borders.

    晚上七點零五分,美聯社的電報已經發出去了。東德開放邊境

  • And both East and West German nightly news reports announced the stunning policy reversal.

    而東德和西德晚間新聞報道都宣佈了這一驚人的政策逆轉。

  • East Berliners began gathering at the wall, and security officers tried to let them through

    東柏林人開始聚集在牆邊,安全人員試圖讓他們通過。

  • slowly.

    慢慢地。

  • But the final nail in the coffin came at 10:42 pm, when this broadcast triggered a mass rush:

    但最後的釘子是在晚上10點42分,這個廣播引發了民眾的搶購。

  • They actually weren't yet. But by this point, there was no going back.

    他們其實還沒有。但到了這個時候,已經沒有退路了。

  • Tens of thousands of Berliners stormed the Wall, saying they heard on the news that they

    數以萬計的柏林人衝進了圍牆,他們說在新聞中聽到他們

  • could cross.

    可以穿越。

  • The outnumbered East German border guards were completely overwhelmed.

    寡不敵眾的東德邊防軍完全被淹沒了。

  • BAUMBACH: Somehow they hadn't gotten the message, or they didn't know what to do,

    不知何故,他們沒有得到這個消息,或者他們不知道該怎麼做。

  • or they were afraid, who knows. But they basically opened the border and thousands of people

    或者他們害怕,誰知道。但他們基本上開放了邊境,成千上萬的人。

  • streamed into West Berlin.

    流入西柏林。

  • Over its 28-year history, at least 140 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall.

    在其28年的歷史中,至少有140人在試圖穿越柏林牆時死亡。

  • BAUMBACH: November 9th, plus unification a year later, was the most decisive event in

    鮑姆巴赫:11月9日,再加上一年後的統一,這是最具有決定性的事件。

  • my life. I basically went from one political system to another, and changes happened very

    我的生活。我基本上是從一個政治體系到另一個, 和變化發生了非常。

  • quickly.

    迅速。

  • And it happened unintentionally.

    而且是無意中發生的。

  • The result of a rushed plan and a botched announcement, delivered in a small room at

    匆忙的計劃和拙劣的公告的結果,在一個小房間裡宣佈。

  • the end of a boring press conference.

    一場無聊的新聞發佈會結束了。

If you know one thing about the fall of the Berlin Wall, it might be this.

如果你知道一件關於柏林牆倒塌的事,那可能就是這個。

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推翻柏林牆的錯誤 (The mistake that toppled the Berlin Wall)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 10 月 16 日
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