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  • On Aug 4th, this warehouse in Beirut, Lebanon, caught fire.

    8月4日,黎巴嫩貝魯特的這個倉庫起火。

  • When the fire spread through the building, this happened.

    當火勢在樓內蔓延時,就發生了這種情況。

  • The fire detonated about 2700 metric tons of ammonium nitrate; a highly explosive material

    大火引爆了約2 700公噸硝酸銨,這是一種高爆炸性材料。

  • that was stored here in the Port of Beirut.

    儲存在貝魯特港這裡的。

  • The explosion leveled the port and left a zone of destruction 6 miles wide, killing

    爆炸將港口夷為平地,並留下了一個6英里寬的破壞區,造成死亡。

  • nearly 200 people, and wounding thousands.

    近200人,傷數千人。

  • Long before the explosion, Lebanon's economy was in a deep crisis.

    早在爆炸之前,黎巴嫩的經濟就陷入了深深的危機。

  • Unemployment and poverty were on the rise.

    失業率和貧困率都在上升。

  • And people flooded the streets in outrage over and over again.

    而人們一次又一次地湧上街頭,憤憤不平。

  • For many, the explosion was the last straw.

    對許多人來說,爆炸是最後一根稻草。

  • So, how did Lebanon fall so farand what can be done to fix it?

    那麼,黎巴嫩怎麼會淪落到如此地步.又該如何補救呢?

  • The first thing to understand is the make up of Lebanon's population.

    首先要了解的是黎巴嫩人口的構成。

  • For centuries, it's been home to both Christians and Muslims.

    幾個世紀以來,這裡一直是基督徒和穆斯林的家園。

  • Both communities are further divided into religious subgroups or sects; the largest

    這兩個社區又被進一步劃分為宗教小團體或教派;最大的是

  • being Maronite Christians and Sunni and Shia Muslims.

    是馬龍派基督徒和遜尼派及什葉派穆斯林;

  • In the mid-20th century, these three sects shared power, but there was tension between

    20世紀中葉,這三個教派共同執掌權力,但彼此之間的關係緊張。

  • them.

    他們。

  • In 1975, Maronite and Muslim militias sparked a civil war.

    1975年,馬龍派和穆斯林民兵引發內戰。

  • In Lebanon, a country now torn in two by the vicious battle for supremacy

    在黎巴嫩,這個國家現在被爭奪霸權的惡戰撕成兩半。

  • between Christians and Muslims.

    基督徒和穆斯林之間。

  • Two dozen ceasefires have been agreed and broken.

    已有二十幾項停火協議被達成,並被打破。

  • Soon other sects formed militias and joined the conflict.

    不久,其他教派組成民兵,加入衝突。

  • In 1976, Syria invaded and in 1982 Israel followed, fueling more violence.

    1976年,敘利亞入侵,1982年以色列跟進,加劇了更多的暴力。

  • Fighting was particularly brutal in Beirut, which was divided among

    在貝魯特,戰鬥尤其殘酷。

  • the militias.

    民兵。

  • The Muslims control West Beirut.

    穆斯林控制了西貝魯特。

  • The Christians are entrenched in the east.

    基督徒在東方根深蒂固。

  • The toll of human life is horrifying.

    人類生命的代價是可怕的。

  • Over the course of 15 years, more than 120,000 people died.

    在15年的時間裡,有12萬多人死亡。

  • Finally, in 1989, representatives of Lebanon's sects came together with other international

    最後,1989年,黎巴嫩各教派的代表與其他國際組織的代表走到了一起。

  • leaders to end the war.

    領導人結束戰爭。

  • They signed the Taif Agreement which divided the government among the sects.

    他們簽署了《塔伊夫協議》,在各教派之間劃分政府。

  • In parliament, each group received a set number of seats and specific positions.

    在議會中,每個集團都獲得一定數量的席位和具體職位。

  • The President would be a Maronite, the Prime Minister a Sunni, and the Speaker of the Parliament

    總統為馬龍派,總理為遜尼派,議長為議會。

  • a Shia.

    a Shia。

  • Shortly after signing the agreement, most of the militias disbanded but many of their

    簽署協議後不久,大多數民兵解散,但他們中的許多人都是 "不服輸 "的。

  • leaders found a place in government.

    領導人在政府中找到了一席之地。

  • In this system, political parties were formed along religious lines and each sect claimed

    在這一制度下,政黨是按照宗教路線組成的,每個教派都宣稱自己是 "教主"。

  • different government ministries.

    政府各部委。

  • But this system wasn't designed to be permanent.

    但這個系統並不是設計成永久性的。

  • Instead, the politicians separated their portions of the government and turned them into fiefdoms.

    相反,政客們把他們在政府中的部分分離出來,變成了封地。

  • Using them to enrich themselves and their sects.

    利用他們來充實自己和門派。

  • While using public money for personal gain, the politicians neglected to spend money on

    政客們在用公款謀取私利的同時,卻忽略了用錢在

  • the services they were supposed to provide, like garbage collection.

    他們應該提供的服務,比如垃圾收集。

  • A report found that Lebanon was paying about $420 million a year for waste management.

    一份報告發現,黎巴嫩每年為廢物管理支付約4.2億美元。

  • Despite that, in 2015, garbage piled up around the country while politicians argued over

    儘管如此,2015年,全國各地的垃圾堆積如山,而政客們卻爭論不休。

  • a new contract.

    新合同;

  • It was the same story across the government.

    整個政府都是同樣的故事。

  • It spent $1 billion a year on electricity, a sector controlled by the Maronites, but

    它每年在電力上花費10億美元,這是一個由馬龍派控制的部門,但。

  • there were blackouts multiple times a day.

    每天都有多次停電。

  • Every household paid a fee for public water, but much of it was undrinkable.

    每家每戶都交了公共用水的費用,但很多水是不能喝的。

  • By 2015, discontent against government corruption was on the rise.

    到了2015年,人們對政府腐敗的不滿情緒不斷上升。

  • But nothing changed.

    但沒有任何改變。

  • And that meant the same people stayed in power.

    而這意味著同樣的人繼續掌權。

  • So government corruption continued to go unchecked.

    於是,政府的腐敗繼續不受制約。

  • Over time, the government racked up dangerous amounts of debt.

    隨著時間的推移,政府積累了大量危險的債務。

  • By 2015, it owed nearly $70 billion.

    到2015年,其欠款近700億元。

  • More than the country's entire GDP.

    超過了國家的全部GDP。

  • But instead of trying to fix the problem, the government turned its attention to Lebanon's

    但政府並沒有試圖解決這個問題,而是將注意力轉向了黎巴嫩的。

  • most important industry.

    最重要的產業。

  • Lebanon's businesses pay for imports with US dollars, which they get through the banks.

    黎巴嫩的企業用美元支付進口貨款,他們通過銀行獲得美元。

  • And Lebanon's banks famously offer high interest rates, which attract deposits from

    而黎巴嫩的銀行以高利率著稱,吸引了來自世界各地的存款。

  • clients all over the world.

    世界各地的客戶。

  • Making it the most important sector in Lebanon.

    使其成為黎巴嫩最重要的部門。

  • Most of the banks are owned by or have ties to the sectarian politicians. And together,

    大多數銀行都是宗派政客所擁有的,或者與他們有關係。而一起。

  • they created a scheme to bring more money into the government.

    他們創造了一個計劃,使更多的錢進入政府。

  • It started with the central bank, which funds the government, offering very high interest

    它開始於為政府提供資金的中央銀行,提供非常高的利息。

  • rates as an incentive to commercial banks.

    率作為對商業銀行的激勵。

  • So the banks deposited money there and made a huge profit from this interest.

    於是,銀行把錢存到那裡,從這個利息中獲得了巨大的利潤。

  • In turn, the banks hiked their own interest rates even higher to attract deposits from

    反過來,銀行為了吸引存款,將自己的利率提高得更高。

  • around the world.

    世界各地的。

  • And then poured that money into the central bank.

    然後把這些錢投入到央行。

  • But this was unsustainable, neither the banks nor the government could really cover all

    但這是不可持續的,無論是銀行還是政府,都無法真正覆蓋所有的

  • this interest.

    這種興趣。

  • "It's quite accepted that it's a bit of a Ponzi scheme."

    "這有點像龐氏騙局,這是公認的。"

  • The only thing keeping this scheme together was the banks ability to attract more and

    唯一能讓這個計劃維持下去的是銀行吸引更多和更多資金的能力。

  • more money.

    更多的錢。

  • And that started to crack in 2011 when Lebanon's neighbor, Syria, collapsed into civil war.

    而這種情況在2011年黎巴嫩的鄰國敘利亞陷入內戰時開始出現裂痕。

  • Worried about putting their money so close to the conflict, investors started pulling

    擔心把資金投入到如此接近衝突的地方,投資人開始撤走

  • out of Lebanon's banks.

    從黎巴嫩的銀行中取出。

  • But the scheme didn't fully unravel until 2017, when Lebanon's Prime minister disappeared.

    但這個計劃直到2017年黎巴嫩總理失蹤後才完全解開。

  • I hereby announce my resignation as Prime Minister from Lebanon's government.

    我在此宣佈辭去黎巴嫩政府總理職務。

  • Knowing that the will of the Lebanese is stronger and their determination is steadfast..

    知道黎巴嫩人的意志更堅定,決心更堅定,

  • The Sunni Prime Minister, Saad Harari, resigned via a televised statement

    遜尼派總理薩阿德-哈拉里通過電視聲明辭職。

  • from Saudi Arabia.

    來自沙特阿拉伯的。

  • Then reports claimed the Saudis forced him to resign and were keeping him there.

    然後有報道稱沙特逼迫他辭職,並將他留在那裡。

  • Nothing has justified the apparent detention of Hariri by Saudi Arabia.

    沙特阿拉伯對哈里里的明顯拘留是毫無道理的。

  • Saad Hariri and his family are hostages in the Kingdom.

    薩阿德-哈里里及其家人在沙特王國被扣為人質。

  • After ten days the Prime Minister returned to Lebanon and took back his office but the

    十天後,總理返回黎巴嫩,並收回了他的辦公室,但他的妻子和兒子卻沒有回來。

  • damage was done.

    損壞了。

  • This time international investors lost faith in Lebanon and deposits plummeted.

    這一次,國際投資者對黎巴嫩失去了信心,存款驟減。

  • Even Lebanese residents rushed to pull their money out of the banks.

    就連黎巴嫩居民也趕緊把錢從銀行取出來。

  • Without new deposits, government and bank debt skyrocketed.

    沒有了新的存款,政府和銀行的債務急劇上升。

  • In 2019, the banks ran out of money and froze accounts, limiting what people could withdraw.

    2019年,銀行沒錢了,凍結了賬戶,限制了人們的提款。

  • Leaving Lebanon's people with a catastrophic problem.

    給黎巴嫩人民留下了一個災難性的問題。

  • To cover its debt, the government announced a new tax, sparking a revolution.

    為了彌補債務,政府宣佈徵收新稅,引發了一場革命。

  • Lebanon is in the grip of unprecedented protest.

    黎巴嫩正處於前所未有的抗議之中。

  • The anger was sparked by a government's announcement of a daily tax of 20 cents a

    政府宣佈每天徵收2角錢的稅款,引發了人們的憤怒。

  • day on messaging apps such as WhatsApp.

    日在WhatsApp等消息應用上。

  • To many, it was evidence that the whole system was corrupt.

    對許多人來說,這是整個系統腐敗的證據。

  • And people from all sects flooded the streets in some of the biggest protests Lebanon had

    所有教派的人都湧上街頭,這是黎巴嫩最大規模的抗議活動。

  • seen in decades.

    數十年來所見。

  • It was enough to force Prime Minister Hariri to finally step down, but the political parties

    這足以迫使哈里里總理最終下臺,但各政黨

  • stayed in power.

    留下來的權力。

  • Meanwhile, other countries and international organizations offered economic aid to Lebanon

    同時,其他國家和國際組織向黎巴嫩提供經濟援助。

  • if the government could reform itself.

    如果政府能夠自我改革。

  • But the politicians couldn't agree and the economy kept falling apart.

    但政客們無法達成一致,經濟不斷崩潰。

  • In one year, Lebanon's currency lost more than 80% of its value.

    一年內,黎巴嫩貨幣貶值超過80%。

  • And unemployment has reportedly surged.

    而據報道,失業率也急劇上升。

  • This was the state of the country when an explosion rocked Beirut.

    這就是貝魯特發生爆炸時的國情。

  • While at first the explosion appeared to be an accident, it turned out to be the result

    雖然最初的爆炸似乎是一個意外,但它原來是一個結果。

  • of this dysfunctional system.

    這個不健全的系統的。

  • According to reports, the ammonium nitrate sat in the port for seven years while government

    據報道,這些硝酸銨在港口靜置了7年,而政府的

  • officials bickered over who was responsible for it.

    官員們為誰負責而爭吵不休。

  • It's criminal negligence at best.

    這頂多是刑事過失。

  • Prime minister Hassan Diab and several ministry leaders resigned, but the power-sharing agreement

    哈桑-迪亞卜總理和幾位部級領導人辭職,但權力分享協議已經達成。

  • remains intact.

    依然完好無損。

  • It's why many in Lebanon feel the country can't recover until this system is abolished.

    這也是為什麼黎巴嫩的許多人認為,在這個制度被廢除之前,國家無法恢復的原因。

  • To make matters worse, there's been a spike in coronavirus cases since the blast.

    更糟糕的是,自從爆炸發生後,冠狀病毒病例激增。

  • And now with its only major port destroyed in the explosion, Lebanon is struggling to

    現在,由於其唯一的主要港口在爆炸中被毀,黎巴嫩正在努力尋找新的機會。

  • import what its people need to survive.

    進口其人民生存所需的東西。

  • It's left the Lebanese people to simultaneously demand for change and pick up the pieces.

    這讓黎巴嫩人民不得不同時要求變革和收拾殘局。

On Aug 4th, this warehouse in Beirut, Lebanon, caught fire.

8月4日,黎巴嫩貝魯特的這個倉庫起火。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 黎巴嫩 政府 銀行 教派 總理

貝魯特爆炸事件如何成為政府的失敗? (How the Beirut explosion was a government failure)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 18 日
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