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  • Recognize this?

    認識這個嗎?

  • It's been used in hundreds of TV shows and films.

    它被用於數百部電視劇和電影中。

  • It's so famous that if you can't remember this, you can just googlethat famous cello

    它太有名了,如果你記不住,你可以用谷歌搜索 "那個著名的大提琴"。

  • songand it will invariably pop up.

    歌曲",總會彈出。

  • Yes, this prelude is well known, but perhaps what's most compelling about it is how incredibly

    是的,這首前奏曲是眾所周知的,但也許最令人信服的是它是如何令人難以置信的。

  • simple it is.

    簡單的是。

  • The whole thing takes up just two pages of music and it's composed for an instrument

    整首曲子只用了兩頁樂譜,而且是為樂器譜寫的。

  • that has just four strings.

    只有四根弦的。

  • Yet, it's considered a masterpiece that world class cellists and even everyday music

    然而,它卻被認為是世界級大提琴家甚至是日常音樂的傑作。

  • listeners have revered for years.

    聽眾多年來一直崇尚。

  • So, what makes this composition so memorable, timeless, and beautiful?

    那麼,是什麼讓這篇作文如此令人難忘、雋永、美麗呢?

  • Well that's what Alisa is going to help me deconstruct.

    這就是艾麗莎要幫我解構的東西。

  • My name is Alissa Weilerstein, and we are talking about the Prelude from Bach's first

    我的名字是Alissa Weilerstein 我們正在討論巴赫第一首曲子的前奏。

  • cello suite in G Major.

    G大調大提琴組曲。

  • This is Bach.

    這是巴赫。

  • And these are his six cello suites.

    而這是他的六首大提琴組曲。

  • Within each suite are various movements named for dances, and they each have very strict

    在每個套曲中,都有各種以舞蹈命名的動作,而且每個動作都有非常嚴格的要求。

  • structures.

    結構。

  • These movements are all masterpieces in music, and they get increasingly complex.

    這些樂章都是音樂中的傑作,而且越來越複雜。

  • But before these dances begin, there's always a Prelude.

    但在這些舞蹈開始之前,總有一個前奏。

  • In the Bach suites, it's a way to establish the key, to establish the motives, and it's

    在巴赫的套曲中,它是建立調式、建立動機的一種方式,它是

  • also a kind of improvisation.

    也是一種即興表演。

  • And this prelude in particular is revered because it achieves a lot with just a few

    而這首前奏曲之所以受到推崇,是因為它用短短的幾首曲子就實現了很多

  • very simple concepts.

    很簡單的概念。

  • To understand how, you first have to understand the very basics of the song.

    要想了解如何理解,首先要了解歌曲的最基本的內容。

  • There's two main chords and keys you need to remember here, G and D.

    這裡有兩個主要的和絃和調你需要記住,G和D。

  • Bach plays them off each other the entire prelude.

    巴赫在整個前奏曲中都在互相演奏。

  • G is the home key for this composition - it's called the tonic.

    G是這首曲子的主調--這叫調式。

  • And every tonic has a dominant - that's the note a fifth above it.

    而每個音都有一個主音--就是比它高五分之一的音。

  • If this is all going in one ear and out the next don't worry.

    如果這一切都在耳朵裡,下一個就出來了,不要擔心。

  • Just remember this, the tonic and dominant work really well together.

    只要記住這一點,補品和主品的配合真的很好。

  • Where the dominant represents tension, the tonic represents release.

    其中主音代表緊張,副音代表釋放。

  • And the cello is the perfect vessel to showcase this relationship.

    而大提琴是展示這種關係的最佳容器。

  • This is a cello.

    這是一個大提琴。

  • It's the closest in range and in ability to express to the human voice.

    它在音域和表達能力上最接近人聲。

  • You start from the very low range down here.

    你從這裡的很低的範圍開始。

  • You can imagine a really bass baritone type of sound to way up here.

    你可以想象一下,這裡的聲音真的是低音男中音的類型。

  • This is really a violin range.

    這真是一個小提琴的範圍。

  • Because the prelude is written in G major, it allows for a lot of open strings on the

    因為前奏曲是以G大調寫成的,所以它允許在

  • cello, which gives the song a very natural resonance.

    大提琴,使歌曲產生了非常自然的共鳴。

  • An open string means I don't stop it with a finger.

    開弦的意思是我不用手指去阻止它。

  • So if I do nothing with my left hand, this sounds a G.

    所以如果我左手什麼都不做,這聽起來就是個G。

  • With a G major chord, two out of the three notes are open.

    G大調和絃,三個音中有兩個音是開放的。

  • This natural sounding quality is what defines the G major prelude, and it's exactly what

    這種自然的音質是G大調前奏曲的特點,而這正是

  • Bach exploits starting with its first few measures.

    巴赫利用從其前幾項措施開始。

  • During the first half of the composition Bach is constantly arpeggiating chords.

    在作品的前半部分,巴赫不斷地對和絃進行琶音。

  • It's a simple technique that enriches the harmony.

    這是一個簡單的技術,豐富了和諧的內容。

  • So this will be a G major chord.

    所以這將是一個G大調和絃。

  • And then arpeggiated.

    然後再進行琶音處理。

  • There's a separation between the notes.

    音符之間是有隔閡的。

  • And then you go on.

    然後你繼續。

  • But he also does something else.

    但他還會做一些別的事情。

  • For me, one of the most profound aspects of this is the pedal point.

    對我來說,最深刻的一個方面就是踩點。

  • Which means that the bass note remains constant even while the harmony is changing.

    也就是說,即使在和聲變化的時候,低音音符也保持不變。

  • The bass note through the first four measures is that very natural open G - its job is to

    前四小節的低音音符是非常自然的開放G音--它的作用是

  • keep you rooted in the key of the song.

    讓你紮根在歌曲的關鍵。

  • With the bass.

    與貝斯。

  • So then you have that gravitas in there, even while the harmony is moving around.

    所以,你就有了那種氣質在裡面,即使是在和諧的情況下,也在移動。

  • After these four measures though, things start to shift.

    不過在這四項措施之後,事情就開始轉變了。

  • Bach starts to pull the song away from the tonic to the dominant.

    巴赫開始把歌曲從調性拉到主調。

  • Then we loose the pedal.

    然後我們就會鬆開踏板。

  • So this is the first shift, right?

    所以這是第一更,對嗎?

  • And then here we land in D major, the dominant.

    然後我們在這裡降落在D大調,主音。

  • You have a diminished chord here.

    你這裡有一個減音的和絃。

  • Kind of cloud in the sky.

    天空中的那種雲。

  • A minor.

    一個未成年人。

  • Then we climb again from here.

    然後我們再從這裡爬上去。

  • Just like that, we're back to that familiar G pedal point.

    就這樣,我們又回到了那個熟悉的G踏板點。

  • Listen for the bottom G.

    聽聽底層的G。

  • Home again.

    又回家了。

  • Near the end of the first half, Bach again drifts away from G major and reaches even

    在上半場接近尾聲時,巴赫又從G大調漸行漸遠,甚至達到?

  • deeper into the cello's bass range with a low C. Listen to this.

    用低沉的C調深入到大提琴的低音區,聽聽這個。

  • The chord is [plays chord] with a D. Here.

    和絃是[彈奏和絃]的D,這裡。

  • But he flips it on its head.

    但他把它翻了個底朝天。

  • With a C on the bottom.

    底部有一個C。

  • By the end of the first half Bach has pulled us completely into D major.

    上半場結束時,巴赫已經把我們完全拉進了D大調。

  • He's warming our ears up for the second half of the composition which is all about

    他在為我們的耳朵熱身,作文的後半部分,是關於

  • exploring that dominant key.

    探討這個主導的關鍵。

  • At the beginning of the second half of the movement, right after the fermata which means

    在樂章後半段的開頭,緊接著是 "發酵塔",這意味著

  • to hold on the note, then you have a very improvisatory section coming up.

    保持在音符上,那麼你有一個非常即興的部分來了。

  • And this is actually I think my favorite moment of it with this E flat.

    而這其實是我覺得我最喜歡它與這個E平的時刻。

  • This dissonance.

    這種不和諧。

  • And all of that just to get to D major.

    而這一切只是為了達到D大調。

  • We know that we have to get back to G major somehow.

    我們知道,我們必須以某種方式回到G大調。

  • How are we going to do it?

    我們要怎麼做呢?

  • Now we start to kind of climb down.

    現在我們開始種爬下來。

  • C

    C

  • B

    B

  • A

    A

  • Still in D major

    還是D大調

  • Bach pushes us more firmly into the world of D major with a technique called bariolage.

    巴赫用一種叫做 "bariolage "的技巧將我們更堅定地推向D大調的世界。

  • It's when you're making string crossings and it's actually supposed to kind of create

    這是當你在做字符串交叉,它實際上應該種創建

  • this kind of feeling of disorder.

    這種感覺很紊亂。

  • We have a constant open A string.

    我們有一個常開的A串。

  • Which is this.

    這是什麼?

  • It's only one note that we're just repeating over and over again.

    只有一個音符,我們只是在不斷地重複。

  • And this is what causes all this mayhem, right?

    這就是造成這一切混亂的原因,對嗎?

  • All these attempts to get out of D major and he can't do it.

    所有這些嘗試都是為了擺脫D大調,但他做不到。

  • Now we're in G major!

    現在我們是在G大調!

  • If you didn't catch that, something really quite perfect happened.

    如果你沒聽懂,那就真的發生了很完美的事情。

  • Let's play it again.

    我們再玩一次吧。

  • You just wound up exactly where you started, D major.

    你剛剛結束了你開始的地方,D大調。

  • And then you have a chromatic scale up.

    然後你有一個半音階了。

  • And you land on this high G here.

    而你落在這個高G的地方。

  • And that's when we feel this kind of ecstatic feeling.

    而這時我們就會感覺到這種欣喜若狂的感覺。

  • Leading up to G major's big reveal, Bach brings back that familiar pedal point from

    在G大調的大揭祕之前,巴赫又將那個熟悉的踏板點從

  • the intro, but instead of using the G as the bass note, he flips the chord and uses the

    前奏,但他沒有使用G作為低音,而是翻轉了和絃,使用了

  • dominant D.

    占主導地位 D.

  • The bass note remains constant.

    低音音符保持不變。

  • Even as we're going up the chromatic scale.

    即使我們在上半音階的時候。

  • Listen, I'll do it slow.

    聽著,我會慢慢來的。

  • OK, now I know where I'm going.

    好了,現在我知道我要去哪裡了。

  • And we're so happy about it that we have to just keep kind of wandering around it.

    而我們對它是如此的滿意,以至於我們只能一直種在它周圍徘徊。

  • And, going back to one.

    而且,回到一。

  • Cellist all over the world wrestle with this prelude and the cello suites as a whole every

    世界各地的大提琴家每天都在與這首前奏曲和整個大提琴組曲搏鬥。

  • single day.

    單日。

  • We cellist, we always feel sort of unworthy of it.

    我們大提琴家,總覺得有點不值得。

  • The music is so pure, so sublime, so emotional, so intellectual.

    音樂是如此的純粹,如此的崇高,如此的情感,如此的智慧。

  • They must be played, and yet we feel like we can't we can't really ever do them justice.

    他們必須被玩弄於股掌之間,但我們卻覺得我們不能... ...我們真的永遠無法為他們伸張正義。

Recognize this?

認識這個嗎?

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 巴赫 大提琴 低音 音符 曲子

那首著名的大提琴前奏曲,被解構了。 (That famous cello prelude, deconstructed)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 10 日
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