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  • This is Central Park.

    這裡是中央公園。

  • It's an iconic part of New York City.

    這是紐約市的一個標誌性的部分。

  • A piece of nature, tucked inside Manhattan.

    一片自然,藏在曼哈頓裡面。

  • If you've lived in New York, or even visited, you've probably been here.

    如果你在紐約住過,甚至來過,你可能來過這裡。

  • But, there's a part of this land's story that visitors will never see.

    但是,這塊土地上的故事,有一部分是遊客永遠也看不到的。

  • It's the story of what was here before the park.

    這是公園之前這裡的故事。

  • And the community that was destroyed to make way for it.

    而為了給它讓路而被破壞的社區。

  • In the 1820s,

    在19世紀20年代。

  • New York City looked like this.

    紐約市是這樣的。

  • Most people lived in this areaLower Manhattan.

    大多數人都住在這個地區--下曼哈頓。

  • Pretty much everything above it, was yet to be settled.

    差不多上面的一切,都有待解決。

  • In this map, you can see how different the geography was.

    在這張地圖上,你可以看到地理環境的不同。

  • These little lines illustrate what used to be hills in Manhattan.

    這些小線條說明了曼哈頓過去的山丘。

  • This was the countryside.

    這就是農村。

  • Downtown was the opposite.

    市區的情況正好相反。

  • Lower Manhattan was dense and crowded.

    曼哈頓下城密集而擁擠。

  • A few small neighborhoods were home to many of the city's poor whites, and immigrants.

    幾個小社區裡,住著許多城市裡的貧窮白人,和移民。

  • and also, to much of its black population.

    而且,對其大部分黑人來說,也是如此。

  • This document shows the number of slaves in New York State.

    該文件顯示了紐約州的奴隸數量。

  • You can see how it went down gradually,

    你可以看到它是如何逐漸下降的。

  • from 20,000 in 1800, to 10,000 in 1820,

    從1800年的2萬人,到1820年的1萬人。

  • and finally to just 75 in 1830.

    並最終在1830年降至只有75人。

  • That's because in New York, slavery wasn't abolished all at once.

    那是因為在紐約,奴隸制並沒有一下子被廢除。

  • Instead, it was ended gradually over about 30 years.

    而是在30年左右的時間裡逐漸結束。

  • And as more free black people joined the work force,

    而隨著更多的自由黑人加入到工作隊伍中。

  • racial tensions rose.

    種族緊張局勢加劇。

  • The people who were enslaved were now in competition with people coming over for jobs.

    現在被奴役的人都在和過來的人競爭工作。

  • That tension led to violenceand lower Manhattan became increasingly dangerous for free black people.

    這種緊張關係導致了暴力--曼哈頓下城對於自由的黑人來說變得越來越危險。

  • Then, in 1825, plots of land started to go up for sale here, uptown.

    然後,在1825年,這裡的上城區開始有地塊出售。

  • It was a way out.

    這是一條出路。

  • A black man named Andrew Williams decided to buy three lots.

    一個叫安德魯-威廉姆斯的黑人決定買三塊地。

  • You know word gets out, black people, seeing other black people and say oh there's a little bit of a community

    你知道消息傳出去,黑人,看到其他黑人,說哦,有一個小的社區。

  • developing here, maybe we can just fold into this community, so they start to move in.

    在這裡發展,也許我們可以只是摺疊到這個社區,所以他們開始移動。

  • After Williams, more lots filled up with black families and churches.

    威廉姆斯之後,更多的地段充斥著黑人家庭和教堂。

  • And it was here, between 82nd and 89th Street, that the community of Seneca Village was born.

    而就在這裡,82街和89街之間,誕生了塞內卡村的社區。

  • Moving up to Seneca Village offered black families, an affordable, safe place.

    搬到塞內卡村為黑人家庭提供了一個負擔得起的,安全的地方。

  • It also gave them the chance to vote.

    這也給了他們投票的機會。

  • Black men could only vote in New York if they owned property.

    黑人男子只有擁有財產才能在紐約投票。

  • Over the course of the next three decades, the community grew to nearly 300 residents.

    在接下來的30年裡,社區發展到近300戶居民。

  • Records from the census show that they were laborers, domestic workers, waiters, and shoemakers.

    人口普查的記錄顯示,他們是勞工、家政工人、服務員和鞋匠。

  • And they built dozens of homes, three churches, and a school for black students.

    而且他們還建了幾十棟房子,三座教堂,還有一所黑人學生的學校。

  • Later, when Irish and German immigrants started moving into Seneca Village,

    後來,當愛爾蘭和德國移民開始搬進塞內卡村。

  • it became unique for another reason.

    它成為獨特的另一個原因。

  • It was an integrated community.

    這是一個綜合社區。

  • It seems that people of all ethnicities were likely getting along based on the church records that were here.

    根據這裡的教會記錄看來,各族人民很可能相處融洽。

  • Among the documents, are evidence that some white and black families attended baptisms together,

    在這些文件中,有一些白人和黑人家庭一起參加洗禮的證據。

  • were buried next to each other in the same cemetery,

    挨著埋在同一個公墓裡。

  • and intermarried.

    並通婚。

  • The people who lived in this area were individuals who were trying to find a new way of life.

    住在這裡的人都是試圖尋找新生活方式的個人。

  • Over the next three decades, the population of New York City nearly quadrupled.

    在接下來的30年裡,紐約市的人口幾乎翻了兩番。

  • Lower Manhattan could no longer hold everyone.

    曼哈頓下城已經容不下所有人了。

  • The city's white elite were worried that the entire island would be consumed by development.

    城市的白人精英們擔心整個島嶼會被開發消耗掉。

  • They said it called for the necessity of a city park, togive lungs to the city”.

    他們說,這就呼喚了城市公園的必要性,要 "給城市以肺"。

  • This came out of the elite being able to start to travel to Europe

    這源於精英們可以開始去歐洲旅行了。

  • and they see the Champs Elysees and they see Kensington Park

    他們看到香榭麗舍大街,看到肯辛頓公園。

  • and they think that the city deserves to have a park of that stature.

    他們認為這個城市應該有一個這樣的公園。

  • On July 21, 1853, New York set aside 750 acres of land to create America's first major landscaped public park.

    1853年7月21日,紐約劃出750英畝的土地,建立了美國第一個大型景觀公共公園。

  • The Central Park.”

    "中央公園"

  • But the proposed area for the park included Seneca Village

    但公園的建議區域包括塞內卡村------。

  • along with thousands of other lots of land, home to about 1600 people.

    以及其他數千塊土地,約有1600人居住。

  • In order to facilitate the park's development, the city's newspapers started to downplay who really lived there.

    為了方便園區的發展,市裡的報紙開始輕描淡寫,到底誰住在那裡。

  • They really describe these people as living in shanties and shacks,

    他們真的把這些人描述成住在棚屋裡。

  • people of debased cultures were living off the land.

    墮落文化的人以土地為生。

  • But that wasn't true.

    但那不是真的。

  • In 2011, Cynthia and a team of archaeologists excavated in the former Seneca Village site.

    2011年,辛西婭和一個考古隊在塞內卡村舊址進行了挖掘。

  • They came away with 250 bags of objects to analyze, which now live here,

    他們帶著250袋物品走了出來,進行分析,這些物品現在住在這裡。

  • in New York City's Archaeological Repository.

    在紐約市的考古庫中。

  • These objects suggest that Seneca Village was wealthier than many assumed.

    這些物品表明,塞內卡村比許多人想象的要富裕。

  • When we compared the objects from the homes of the people in the village with artifacts

    當我們把村裡人家裡的物件與文物進行對比時

  • from Greenwich Village, an elite upper middle class neighborhood.

    來自格林威治村,一個上層中產階級的精英社區。

  • In some cases, they were using the same kind of ironstone plate in what was called the Gothic pattern.

    有的時候,他們使用的是同一種鐵石板,叫做哥特式圖案。

  • Quite a few pieces of porcelain in Seneca Village and porcelain was an expensive ware.

    塞內卡村的瓷器不少,瓷器是一種昂貴的器物。

  • They also found other objectslike a comb, a smoking pipe, roasting pan, and part oftoothbrush,

    他們還發現了其他物品--比如一把梳子、一個煙筒、烤盤和部分牙刷。

  • that probably didn't belong to poor people.

    那可能不屬於窮人。

  • Toothbrushes were not common among the working class as well as the middle class until around 1920.

    直到1920年左右,牙刷才在工人階級以及中產階級中普及。

  • And the artifacts themselves were only one part of their analysis.

    而文物本身只是他們分析的一部分。

  • For example, from the census records from 1855, we know that there was a very high level of education.

    例如,從1855年的人口普查記錄中,我們知道當時的教育水準非常高。

  • Getting a high school education was clearly an important factor in the community

    接受高中教育顯然是社會的一個重要因素。

  • and that's very much a part of middle class identity.

    而這正是中產階級身份的一部分。

  • The findings indicate that Seneca Village wasn't a shantytown.

    調查結果表明,塞內卡村並不是一個棚戶區。

  • It was a working and middle class community, a growing neighborhood of black property owners,

    這是一個工薪階層和中產階級的社區,一個黑人業主不斷增長的社區。

  • and an experiment in integration.

    和一體化的實驗。

  • But to the white New York elite of 1856, it wasn't worth saving.

    但對於1856年的紐約白人精英來說,這並不值得拯救。

  • A July 1856 article in the New York Times referred to it with a slur.

    1856年7月《紐約時報》的一篇文章以汙衊的口吻提到了它。

  • The Ebon inhabitants, after whom the village is called...have been notified to remove by the first of August.”

    "已通知以其名字命名的埃邦族居民.在8月1日之前撤離"。

  • Many residents fought to keep their land by filing objections to their forced removal.

    許多居民為保住自己的土地,提出反對意見,要求強制拆遷。

  • But Seneca Villagealong with the other settlements on the land for Central Park -- was seized and destroyed.

    但塞內卡村--連同中央公園土地上的其他定居點--被沒收和摧毀。

  • In their place, the city made pathways, built bridges and arches, and planted thousands of trees.

    在他們的位置上,城市制造了道路,建造了橋樑和拱門,並種植了成千上萬的樹木。

  • Central Park was done,

    中央公園已經完成了。

  • and Seneca Village

    和塞內卡村

  • was gone forever.

    是永遠消失了。

  • We can't imagine New York City without Central Park.

    我們無法想象沒有中央公園的紐約市。

  • But I'm finally grateful that the recognition of the pre-park history has emerged.

    但我終於慶幸,對公園前期歷史的認識出現了。

  • Today, New York is starting to reckon with this part of its history.

    今天,紐約開始正視這段歷史。

  • An exhibition with information about Seneca Village is temporarily up in the park.

    在公園裡臨時舉辦了一個關於Seneca村的資訊展覽。

  • But the real legacy of Seneca Village is a story that's repeated itself

    但塞內卡村的真正遺產是一個重複的故事。

  • again and again, in cities everywhere.

    一遍又一遍,在各地城市。

  • Land, property ownership,

    土地、財產所有權;

  • That's how you get wealth and you pass wealth on from generation to generation.

    這樣才能獲得財富,才能把財富一代代傳下去。

  • But you're getting a bulldozer that comes through because a new highway has to come through

    但你得到一個推土機來通過 因為新的高速公路必須通過。

  • or a new hospital or development site has to come in.

    或新的醫院或發展用地必須進來。

  • Seneca Village was no different.

    塞內卡村也不例外。

  • It's time that we own it and we come to recognize that there are these great stories that live beneath the surface of the park.

    現在是我們擁有它的時候了,我們要認識到,在公園的表面下,還有這些偉大的故事。

  • It's not just African-American history.

    這不僅僅是非裔美國人的歷史。

  • It's just American history.

    這只是美國的歷史。

This is Central Park.

這裡是中央公園。

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紐約中央公園下的失落街區。 (The lost neighborhood under New York's Central Park)

  • 15 1
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 09 月 04 日
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