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  • Two weeks ago,

    兩個星期前

  • I was sitting at the

    我和我的太太卡地亞 (Katya)

  • kitchen table with my wife Katya,

    坐在廚房的餐桌上

  • and we were talking about what I was gonna talk about today.

    討論我今天應該講的題目

  • We have an 11-year-old son; his name is Lincoln. He was sitting at the same table

    我們有一個11歲大的兒子,他的名字叫林肯(Lincoln)

  • doing his math homework.

    正在做數學作業。

  • And during a pause in my conversation

    當我和卡地亞的對話暫停之際

  • with Katya, I looked over at Lincoln

    我望一望林肯

  • and I was suddenly thunderstruck

    一下子像被雷打中一樣

  • by a recollection of a client of mine.

    我當時想起我曾經的一個客戶“

  • My client was a guy named Will.

    他名叫威廉

  • He was from North Texas.

    他家鄉在德州北部

  • He never knew his father very well, because his father left

    他對父親沒有清晰的印象,因為他父親

  • his mom while she was pregnant with him.

    在他母親懷著他的時候把兩人拋棄

  • And so, he was destined to be raised by a single mom,

    所以,他在命中注定了要由他的單親媽媽養大

  • which might have been all right

    原本,這個也並非甚麼大問題

  • except that this particular single mom

    可是這一個母親

  • was a paranoid schizophrenic,

    患有偏執型精神分裂症

  • and when Will was five years old she try to kill him with butcher's knife.

    當威廉還是五歲的時候,她就試圖以屠刀把他殺死

  • She was

    她最後

  • taken away by authorities and placed in a psychiatric hospital.

    被執法當局帶走並關在精神病院

  • and so for the next several years Will lived with his older brother.

    在往後的幾年間,小威廉一直跟他的哥哥同住

  • until he committed suicide by shooting himself through the heart.

    直至他哥哥一槍打進自己的心房自殺

  • And after that

    從此以後

  • Will bounced around from one family member to another.

    威廉像人球一樣被推到不同的親戚家中

  • until, by the time he was nine years old, he was essentially living on himself.

    直至他九歲那年以後,他就自己獨自生活

  • That morning that I was sitting with Catia and Lincoln, i looked at my son.

    那天早上,當我坐在卡地亞和林肯旁邊,我看著兒子林肯

  • and I realized that when my client, Will,

    我發覺當我的當時人威廉

  • was his age,

    和我兒子一樣大的時候

  • he'd been living by himself for two years.

    他已經獨個兒生活兩年了

  • Will eventually joined a gang

    威廉最後加入了黑社會

  • and committed

    亦犯下了

  • a number of very serious crimes,

    一連串的嚴重罪行

  • including, most seriously of all,

    包括,最嚴重的

  • a horrible, tragic murder.

    令人心寒的、兇殺悲劇

  • And Will was ultimately executed

    威廉最後被處決

  • as punishment for that crime.

    作為他犯罪的懲罰

  • But I don't want to

    但我今天並非

  • talk today

    要談論

  • about the morality of capital punishment. I certainly think that my client

    有關死刑的道德問題。我當然不認為

  • shouldn't have been executed, but what I would like to do today instead

    我的當時人應該受到死刑這制裁,但我今天想

  • is talk about the death penalty

    以一種我從未試過的方式

  • in a way I've never done before,

    去談論死刑

  • in a way

    我要探討的事

  • that is entirely noncontroversial.

    是完全沒有爭議的

  • I think that's possible,

    我認為這是可能的

  • because there is a corner

    因為這場死刑辯論當中

  • of the death penalty debate --

    有一個角落

  • maybe the most important corner --

    可能是最重要的角落

  • where everybody agrees,

    是所有人都認同的

  • where the most ardent death penalty supporters

    即使是那些對於保留死刑的忠實支持者

  • and the most vociferous abolitionists

    或是那些最暄嚷的、支持廢除死刑的人

  • are on exactly the same page.

    都會站在同一陣線

  • That's the corner I want to explore.

    這就是我要探討的角落

  • Before I do that, though, I want to spend a couple of minutes telling you how a death

    在這之前,我希望用幾分鐘的時間去告訴你們

  • penalty case unfolds,

    一個死刑的判決是怎樣開展的

  • and then I want to tell you two lessons that I have learned over the last 20 years

    接著我會告訴你,這二十年裏

  • as a death penalty lawyer,

    我作為死刑律師

  • from watching well more than a hundred cases unfold in this way.

    處理一百多個案件的其中兩課

  • You can think of a death penalty case as a story

    你可以把一個死刑的案件

  • that has four chapters.

    當作有四個章節的故事

  • The first chapter of every case is exactly the same,

    每個案件的第一章都是一樣

  • and it is tragic.

    悲哀的

  • It begins with the murder

    它從一宗

  • of an innocent human being,

    無辜受害者被殺的事件開始

  • and it's followed by a trial

    接著是審訊

  • where the murderer is convicted and sent to death row,

    殺人犯被定罪並被判死刑

  • and that death sentence is ultimately

    之後死刑的判決

  • upheld by the state appellate court.

    州的上訴法院維持原判

  • The second chapter consists of a complicated legal proceeding known as..

    第二章是一個複雜的司法程序

  • a state habeas corpus appeal.

    叫做州人身保護令上訴

  • The third chapter is an even more complicated legal proceeding known as a

    第三章是一個更為繁複的司法程序

  • federal habeas corpus proceeding.

    叫做聯邦人身保護令審裁

  • And the fourth chapter

    之後的第四章中

  • is one where a variety of things can happen. The lawyers might file a clemency petition,

    一系列的事情可以發生。律師們可能會可能會提出特赦申請

  • they might initiate even more complex litigation.

    他們可能會啟動更繁複的訴訟

  • or they might not do anything at all.

    又或者他們甚麼都不再做

  • But that fourth chapter always ends

    但第四章很多時都會

  • with an execution.

    以執行死刑為終結

  • When I started representing death row inmates more than twenty years ago

    二十多年前,當我開始作死囚代表律師的時候

  • people on death row did not have a right to a lawyer and even the second

    被判死刑的人在第二或第四章的時候

  • or the fourth chapter of this story.

    並沒有聘請律師作辯護的權利

  • They were on their own.

    他們需要獨自面對審判

  • In fact, it wasn't until the late 1980s that they acquired a

    實際上,一九八零年代以前

  • right to a lawyer during the third chapter

    他們在故事的第三章裏

  • of the story.

    都沒有聘請代表律師的權利

  • So what all of these death row inmates had to do

    所以這些被判死刑的人

  • was rely on volunteer lawyers

    只能夠依靠義務律師

  • to handle their legal proceedings.

    去處理他們的司法程序

  • The problem is that there were way more

    問題是,那些被判死刑的人的數目

  • than there were lawyers who had both the interest and the expertise to work on these cases.

    遠遠多於那些既願意幫助死囚,又有具備專門知識的律師的數目

  • And so inevitably,

    無可避免地

  • lawyers drifted to cases that were already in chapter 4.

    律師們都會先處理已經到了第四章的死囚案件

  • that makes sense, of course. Those are the cases in the most urgent.

    這不難埋解,因為這些案件都比較趕急

  • those are the guys who are closest to being executed.

    這些死囚都在被處決的最邊緣

  • Some of these lawyers were successful; they managed to get new trials for their clients.

    有一些律師成功了;他們為當時人爭取新的審訊

  • Others of them managed to extend life for their clients sometimes by...

    其他律師就爭取了延長他們當時人的生命

  • years, sometimes by months.

    有時幾年,有時幾個月

  • But the one thing that didn't happen

    但有一種事並沒有發生

  • was that there was never a serious and sustained decline in the number of

    那就是德州的行刑數目,以年計

  • annual executions in Texas.

    一直沒有重大而持久的下降趨勢

  • In fact, as you can see from this graph, from the time that Texas access execution.

    實際上,看看這個圖表,德州在一九九零年代

  • apparatus got efficient in the mid-to-late 1990s.

    添置了足夠的行刑工具後

  • there've only been a couple of years where the number of annual executions dip..

    只有少數年份,行刑數子以年計

  • below 20.

    在二十以下

  • In a typical year in Texas,

    在一個普通的年份

  • we're averaging about

    德州每個月處決

  • two people a month.

    兩個人

  • In some years in Texas, we've executed close the forty people and this number..

    在某些年份,德州每年處決近四十人

  • has never significantly declined over the last fifteen years.

    這個數字在過去的十五年間一直沒有顯著的下降

  • And yet, at the same time that we continue to execute

    但是,在我們每年繼續處決

  • about the same number of people every

    相當數量的死囚的同時

  • the number of people who we're sentencing to death

    實際上我們的法庭

  • on an annual basis

    以年計大幅減少了

  • has dropped rather steeply.

    作出死刑的裁決

  • So we have this paradox,

    現在我們有這個矛盾

  • which is that the number of annual executions remained high.

    一方面被行刑的數字一直居高不下

  • but the number of new death sentences has going down.

    另一方面新增的死刑裁決一直下降

  • Why is that?

    為甚麼會這樣呢

  • It can't be attributed to a decline in the murder rate,

    謀殺案罪案率下降並不能解釋這個現象

  • because the murder rate has not declined

    因為罪案率在這幾年間並沒有

  • nearly so steeply as the red line on that graph is going down.

    像圖表中的紅線下降得一樣厲害

  • What has happened instead is

    真正的原因是

  • that juries have started to sentence more and more people to prison.

    仲裁員傾向將犯人判以

  • for the rest of their lives without the possibility of parole.

    沒有假釋機會的終身監禁

  • rather than sending them to the execution chamber.

    多於送他們到行刑室

  • Why has that happened?

    為甚麼會這樣呢

  • it hasn't happened because of a dissolution of popular supports.

    這個情況發生並不是因為公眾對死刑的支持已經瓦解

  • for the death penalty. Death penalty opponents take great solace in the fact

    反對死刑的人因為德州對死刑的支持度

  • that death penalty support in Texas is at the all-time low.

    跌至新低而得到慰藉

  • Do you know what all-time low in Texas means?

    你知道“新低”的意思嗎?

  • It means that it's in the low 60 percent.

    這是指稍為多於百分之六十

  • Now that's really good compared to the mid-1980s when they was in

    相對上世紀八十年代

  • excess of 80 percent,

    多於百分之八十的支持度,這已是很好了

  • but we can't explain the decline in death sentence and the afinity for

    但我們不能以民眾對死刑的支持度減少

  • life without the possibility of parole by an erotion of support for the death

    去解釋死刑減少與無期徒刑增加的倩況

  • penalty, because people still support the death penalty.

    因為大部分的民眾還是支持死刑

  • What's happened to cause this phenomenon?

    那甚麼促使這個情況發生呢?

  • What's happened is

    這個由於

  • that lawyers

    那些代表死囚的律師

  • who represent death row inmates have shifted their focus

    將他們的焦點移到

  • to earlier and earlier chapters of the death penalty story

    死刑故事較早、較早的章節

  • So 25 years ago, they focused on chapter four

    二十五年前,他們聚焦在第四章

  • And they went from chapter four 25 years ago to chapter three

    大概二十五年前,即是八十年代後期

  • in the late 1980s.

    他們改為聚焦在第三章

  • And they went from chapter three in the late 1980s to chapter two

    到九十年代中期,他們從第三章改為聚焦在第二章

  • in the mid-1990s. And beginning in the mid-to-late 1990s

    直到九十年代中至後期

  • they began to focus on chapter one of the story

    他們將焦點放在故事的第一章

  • Now you might think that this decline in death sentences and the increases in the

    現在,你或許會對死刑數目減少和

  • number of life sentences is a good thing or a bad thing

    無期徒刑的增長有正面或負面的看法

  • I don't want to have a conversation about that today.

    我今天不想觸及這個問題

  • All that I want to tell you is that the reasons of these was happened

    我想說的,是這個情況發生的原因

  • is because death penalty lawyers have understood

    死囚代表律師明白到

  • that the earlier you intervene in a case

    你愈早介入一個案件

  • the greater the likelihood that you're going to save your client's life.

    你更加容易保住你當時人的性命

  • That's the first thing I've learned.

    這是我學到的第一件事

  • Here's the second thing I learned:

    第二件事我學到的:

  • My client Will

    我的當時人威廉

  • was not the exception to the rule;

    他的故事不是一個例外

  • he was the rule.

    他本身就是一個典型的例子

  • I sometimes say, if you tell me the name of a death row inmate

    我有時會說-如果你給我一個死囚的名字

  • doesn't matter what state he's in, doesn't matter if I've ever met him before --

    不論他在哪一個州,不論我跟他有沒有相遇過

  • I'll write his biography for you.

    我都可以替他寫一篇傳記

  • And eight out of 10 times,

    十次裏面有八次

  • the details of that biography

    傳記的細節

  • will be more or less accurate.

    多多少少都是準確的

  • And the reason for that is that 80 percent of the people on death row are

    這是因為百分之八十的死囚

  • people who came from the same sort of dysfunctional family that will did.

    都像威廉一樣來自一些無法起效的家庭

  • Eighty percent of the people on death row

    百分之八十的死囚

  • are people who had exposure

    都曾經接觸過

  • to the juvenile justice system.

    少年司法制度

  • That's the second lesson

    這是我學到的

  • that I've learned.

    第二課

  • Now we're right on the cusp of that corner

    現在,我們應該達到了

  • where everybody's going to agree.

    一個大家都認同的共識

  • People in this room might disagree

    這個演講廳裏的人可能不同意

  • about whether Will should have been executed

    威廉應否被處以死刑

  • but I think everybody would agree

    我的相信所有人都會同意

  • that the best possible version of his story

    這個故事最佳的版本

  • would be a story

    會是沒有兇殺案發的

  • where no murder ever occurs.

    一個故事

  • How do we do that?

    我們可以怎樣做呢?

  • When our son Lincoln was working on that math problems

    我的兒子林肯在兩星期前

  • two weeks ago, it was a big, gnarly problem.

    嘗試解答他的數學難題。那是一個很大、很複雜的問題

  • And he was learning how, when you have a big old gnarly problem,

    他學習到,當你要解決一個很大、很複雜的問題時

  • sometimes the solution is to slice it in the smaller problems.

    有時候你要將這個問題分割成幾個細小的問題

  • That's what we do for most problems -- in math, in physics, even in social policy

    這是我們解決大部分問題的方法-

  • we slice them into smaller, more manager problems.

    我們將問題分割成較細少的、較容易處理的問題

  • But every once in a while,

    但是,總有一些時候

  • as Dwight Eisenhower said,

    像(前美國總統)艾森豪曾經講過

  • the way you solve a problem

    你解決問題的方法

  • is to make it bigger.

    就是要將它放大

  • The way we solve this problem

    我們現在處理死刑這個問題

  • is to make the issue of the death penalty bigger.

    正正就是要將死刑的事件變大

  • We have to say, all right.

    我們要說,好了

  • We have these four chapters

    我們有這四個

  • of a death penalty story,

    關於死刑故事章節

  • but what happens before

    但甚麼發生

  • that story begins?

    在這個故事之前呢?

  • How can we intervene in the life of a murderer

    我們可以怎樣在一個人變成殺人犯之前

  • before he's a murderer?

    阻止這件事情發生呢?

  • What options do we have

    我們有甚麼選擇

  • to nudge that person

    去把這個人

  • off of the path

    輕輕推出這條不歸路呢

  • that is going to lead to a result that everybody

    這個問題引領我們到一個結局,每個人-

  • death penalty supporters and death penalty opponents

    死刑支持者也好,反對死刑的人也好-

  • still think

    都認為是

  • is a bad result:

    一個悲哀的結局:

  • the murder of an innocent human being?

    一個無辜的人被殺?

  • You know, sometimes people say

    你知道,有時候人們會說

  • that something

    有些事情

  • isn't rocket science.

    並非“火箭科學”

  • And by that, what they mean is rocket

    他們這樣說,就是指火箭科學的確很複雜

  • and this problem that we're talking

    相對地,我們今日探討的問題就簡單得多

  • Well that's rocket science;

    哎喲... 其實我們今天討論的問題確實是一種火箭科學

  • that's the mathematical expression

    就像推進火箭發射

  • for the thrust created by a rocket.

    所用的數學公式一樣

  • What we're talking about today

    今天我們所討論的問題

  • is just as complicated.

    就是一樣的複雜

  • What we're talking about today is also

    我們今天所討論的問題

  • rocket science.

    就是高深的科學

  • My client Will

    我的當時人威廉

  • and 80 percent of the people on

    跟百分之八十的死囚一樣

  • had five chapters in their lives

    他們的生命中有五個章節

  • that came before

    在死囚故事

  • the four chapters of the death penalty

    的四個章節前發生

  • I think of these five chapters as points

    我視這五個章節為我們的“介入點”

  • places in their lives when our society

    一些我們的社會可以

  • could've intervened in their lives and

    介入他們的生活、把他們輕輕推出這條不歸路的機會

  • that created a consequence that we all -- death penalty supporters or death

    一個我們-死刑支持者或

  • penalty opponents --

    反對死刑的人-

  • say was a bad result.

    都認為是悲哀的結局

  • Now, during each of these five

    現在,我要談談這五個章節:

  • when his mother was pregnant with him;

    第一,當他媽媽懷著他的時候

  • in his early childhood years;

    第二,在他童年時

  • when he was in elementary school;

    第三,在他讀小學的時候

  • when he was in middle school and then high

    第四,在他上初中和高中的時候

  • and when he was in the juvenile justice

    第五,在他接觸少年司法制度的時候-每一個階段裏

  • there were a wide variety of things that society could have done.

    我們的社會都有一系列的事情可以做

  • In fact, if we just imagine

    實際上,我們可以想像

  • that there are five different modes of

    我們有五種不同的介入方式,在五個不同的章節裏

  • in each of those five chapters,

    可以有不同的方式

  • and we could mix and match them any way

    我們可以依據我們喜好混合和搭配不同方式

  • there are 3,000 -- more than 3,000 -- possible strategies

    這樣我們有三千種-多於三千種-可以使用的策略

  • that we could embrace in order to nudge

    去把這些像威廉一樣的青少年

  • off of the path that they're on.

    輕輕推出他們踏上的不歸路

  • So I'm not standing here today

    今天,我站在這裏

  • with the solution.

    並沒有一個確實的解決方案