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字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • Wait. That's the cable?

    等等,那是電纜?那是電纜?

  • I was expecting something so much bigger.

    我期待的是更大的東西。

  • That's the internet.

    這就是互聯網。

  • To get across the ocean, nearly all internet traffic

    為了跨越大洋,幾乎所有的互聯網流量。

  • has to use a cable like that one.

    必須使用這樣的電纜。

  • - It's tiny. I'm so surprised. - You're actually surprised.

    - 好小啊 我很驚訝。- 你真的很驚訝。

  • I know, I could tell. Love it.

    我知道,我看得出來。喜歡它。

  • All right, let's go get some hard hats.

    好了,我們去買些硬帽子吧。

  • Cleo: If you're watching this YouTube video

    克萊奧如果你在看這個YouTube視頻

  • anywhere outside of the United State,

    美國以外的任何地方。

  • this is probably how it's getting to you.

    這可能是它是如何讓你。

  • For most of us, the internet is virtual.

    對於我們大多數人來說,網絡是虛擬的。

  • It's made of Instagram posts and e-mails and YouTube videos.

    它是由Instagram的帖子和電子郵件和YouTube視頻組成的。

  • But it's also a physical thing,

    但這也是一種物理現象。

  • and what it's made of and where it goes matters

    以及它的構成和去向都很重要。

  • for how we use the internet now

    對於我們現在使用互聯網的方式

  • and who will be benefit in the future.

    以及未來誰將受益。

  • So I want to know how does our internet really work

    所以我想知道我們的互聯網到底是怎麼運作的?

  • and what comes next?

    接下來呢?

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • The decade I was born, people were still learning about the internet,

    我出生的那十年,人們還在學習互聯網。

  • and they didn't exactly consider it crucial.

    而他們並不完全認為這是至關重要的。

  • But, you know, I think about this.

    但是,你知道,我想過這個問題。

  • What about this internet thing?

    那網絡這個東西呢?

  • What the hell is that exactly?

    那到底是什麼東西?

  • And they call it the World Wide Web.

    他們稱它為網際網路。

  • You can e-mail anyone.

    你可以給任何人發郵件。

  • What the hell is e-mail?

    電子郵件是什麼鬼?

  • Man: Can you believe what's possible these days?

    男人:你能相信現在的可能性嗎?

  • Conversations through your computer.

    通過電腦進行對話。

  • Cleo: But now it seems we can't even function without it.

    克萊奧但現在看來,我們甚至不能沒有它的功能。

  • Jobs require online applications.

    工作崗位需要網上申請。

  • Parents around the country know

    全國各地的家長都知道

  • that their kids can't get an adequate education

    擔心他們的孩子不能得到適當的教育。

  • without internet access.

    不上網。

  • I mean, people tweeting that they needed

    我的意思是,人們在推特上說他們需要...

  • to be rescued and a boat came in.

    要救人,有船來了。

  • It's truly been life saving.

    真的是救命稻草。

  • The internet has become essential to us,

    互聯網已經成為我們必不可少的。

  • but a lot of us still don't know how it works.

    但我們很多人仍然不知道它是如何工作的。

  • Okay, I need you to close your eyes.

    好吧,我需要你閉上眼睛。

  • - All of us? - Just trust me. Just close your eyes.

    - 我們所有人?- 相信我吧 閉上你的眼睛。

  • Yeah, for real. I'm serious. Close your eyes.

    是的,是真的。我是認真的。閉上你的眼睛。

  • What's the craziest thing she could show us

    她能給我們看的最瘋狂的東西是什麼?

  • - when we open our eyes? - ( laughs )

    - 當我們睜開眼睛的時候?- (笑)

  • - I hope it's kittens. - Okay, now you can open them.

    - 我希望是小貓。- 好了,現在你可以打開它們了。

  • ( screams )

    (尖叫聲)

  • - Joss: Tiny people! - Alex: They're us.

    - 喬斯他們就是我們- 他們就是我們。

  • Christophe: It's tiny us.

    克里斯托夫。這是微小的我們。

  • So I know that there are three major parts of the internet.

    所以我知道,互聯網有三大部分。

  • We are on this outer ring. They call it the last mile,

    我們在這個外環上。他們稱之為最後一英里。

  • but really it's the first and last mile.

    但實際上這是第一和最後一英里。

  • So it's the texts we send,

    所以我們發的是簡訊。

  • the notifications we receive, the apps we use.

    我們收到的通知,我們使用的應用程序。

  • Everything we do to connect or receive information from the internet

    我們所做的一切,都是為了連接或接收來自互聯網的資訊。

  • happens in this first and last mile.

    發生在這第一和最後一英里。

  • And we are inside...

    而我們在裡面...

  • the Vox office.

    Vox辦公室。

  • Also out in this outer ring are houses.

    在這個外環裡,還出了房子。

  • - You guys wanna help me put these down? - Yes.

    - 你們想幫我把這些東西放下嗎?- 好啊

  • - Trees. - So all of the--

    - 樹木。- 所以所有的...

  • all of the trees and all of the houses,

    所有的樹和所有的房子。

  • all Wi-Fi, which uses routers

    所有使用路由器的Wi-Fi

  • somewhere in our office or somewhere in your home,

    在我們的辦公室或你家裡的某個地方。

  • and all cell service,

    和所有手機服務。

  • which means that you're paying a cell tower

    這意味著你要支付手機塔的費用。

  • a little bit further away,

    有點遠。

  • but still pretty close by.

    但還是挺近的。

  • All this wireless technology uses radio waves

    所有這些無線技術都使用無線電波

  • to send signals into and out of the internet.

    來發送信號進入和離開互聯網。

  • I'm gonna show you how this works.

    我會告訴你如何工作。

  • But first, I'm gonna take a selfie.

    但首先,我要自拍一張。

  • Perfect. Okay.

    這是完美的。好吧,我知道了

  • So this is our selfie. I-- ( laughs )

    所以這是我們的自拍。我 -- (笑)

  • - Joss, you've nailed that face. - Yeah, it's my go-to.

    - 喬絲,你把那張臉畫得很好- 是啊,這是我的首選

  • So I'm just gonna send this to you via e-mail.

    所以,我只是要通過電子郵件把這個發給你。

  • - Typical e-mail. - Typical e-mail.

    - 典型的電子郵件。- 典型的電子郵件。

  • - There it is. - Boom.

    - 在那裡,它是。- Boom.

  • - Ta-da. - So my goal is to figure out

    - 噠噠。- 所以我的目標是找出

  • how my e-mail got from my phone to yours.

    我的郵件是怎麼從我的手機傳到你的手機上的?

  • In order for my e-mail to get from here to here,

    為了讓我的電子郵件從這裡傳到這裡,

  • my phone takes that photo

    我的手機拍的照片

  • and cuts it up

    並將其切碎

  • - into more manageable packets. - No!

    - 變成更容易管理的數據包。- 不!

  • - We've been decapitated. - Just--

    - 我們已經被斬首了。- 只是...

  • - Christophe: Just me. - Just you.

    - 克里斯托夫只有我。- 只有你。

  • - So, imagine each packet like a letter in an envelope. - Uh-huh.

    - 所以,想象每一個包就像信封裡的信一樣。 So, imagine each packet like a letter in an envelope.- 嗯哼 Uh -huh.

  • So, each envelope gets a header,

    所以,每個信封都有一個頭。

  • which is a little bit more information that includes--

    這是一個有點更多的資訊,包括 -

  • - Christophe: Where it's from. - Where it's from and where it's going to,

    - 克里斯托弗從哪裡來的?- 它從哪裡來,又要到哪裡去。

  • and a bunch of other things that we're not going to talk about.

    以及其他一堆我們不打算談論的事情。

  • So the format of each header follows a set of rules,

    所以每個頭的格式都遵循一套規則。

  • and you can think about these rules

    你可以想想這些規則

  • like the rules of the online postal system.

    像網上郵政系統的規則。

  • How everything is packaged and sent and received on the internet.

    一切都是如何在互聯網上進行包裝和收發。

  • So you've probably heard people say that everything that happens

    所以你可能聽人說過,所有發生的事情

  • in our computer is ones and zeros.

    在我們的電腦裡是1和0。

  • - Right? Binary. - I have. Yeah.

    - 對不對?二進制。- 我有。是的,我有。

  • Cleo: Which we can think of

    克萊奧我們能想到的

  • as a kind of Morse code your computer understands.

    作為一種你的計算機可以理解的摩斯碼。

  • And everything that you send over the internet

    而你在互聯網上發送的一切

  • - is also binary. - Mm-hmm.

    - 也是二進制的。- 嗯哼。

  • Christophe: ( gasps ) What?

    克里斯托夫:( 喘氣 ) 什麼?

  • - Ta-da! - When did this happen?

    - 噠噠!- 什麼時候發生的?

  • - What? - I do magic now.

    - 什麼?- 我現在會變魔術

  • - Okay. - Incredible.

    - 好吧 難以置信

  • So, each one or zero is a bit

    所以,每個1或0都是一個位

  • and eight bits is a byte.

    而八位是一個字節。

  • So, if this photo was 1.1 megabytes

    所以,如果這張照片是1. 1兆字節的。

  • that's 8,800,000 ones and zeros.

    那是880萬個1和0。

  • So, somehow these binary ones and zeros

    所以,不知何故,這些二進制的1和0。

  • have to get onto radio waves to be transported

    要進入無線電波才能傳送。

  • - to the router, right? - Exactly. Yes.

    - 到路由器,對不對?- 沒錯,是的是的,是的

  • - Okay. - And that's where I got stuck.

    - 好吧 這就是我被卡住的地方。

  • So, I called up Sundeep Rangan,

    所以,我打電話給Sundeep Rangan。

  • who specializes in computer engineering at NYU.

    他在紐約大學專攻計算機工程。

  • How does a wave carry binary information?

    波是如何承載二進制資訊的?

  • Ah, that is a very good question.

    啊,這是一個非常好的問題。

  • So, the simplest thing you could do

    所以,最簡單的事情,你可以做

  • is every time you want to transmit, say, a zero,

    是每次你想傳輸,比如說,一個零。

  • you could transmit one frequency.

    你可以傳輸一個頻率。

  • And every time you want to transmit a one,

    而每當你想傳送一個。

  • you transmit a different frequency.

    你發射不同的頻率。

  • And then as long as the receiver can detect

    然後只要接收器能檢測到

  • which frequency it is, it can know it's a one or zero.

    是哪個頻率,它就能知道是一還是零。

  • That's actually called frequency modulation.

    這其實就是所謂的頻率調製。

  • Is it also fair then to say

    那麼,是否也可以說

  • that at its most basic, a cell phone is a radio?

    最基本的,手機就是一個收音機?

  • Sundeep: It is a radio.

    Sundeep:這是一臺收音機。

  • It is absolutely a radio.

    這絕對是一臺收音機。

  • Okay, so waves with binary information

    好吧,所以波與二進制資訊

  • have to get from my phone to the router.

    必須從我的手機到路由器。

  • But then at the router, they have to be turned into something else

    但是在路由器上,它們必須變成別的東西。

  • that can go out the back of that device

    可以從該設備的後面出去

  • along cables to get to their next location.

    沿著電纜到達下一個地點。

  • Depending on what the wire is made of,

    要看電線是什麼材質的。

  • it's either gonna be pulses of electricity

    它要麼會是脈衝的電

  • if the wire is copper, or pulses of laser light.

    如果電線是銅線,或脈衝光脈衝。

  • Sundeep: So, it's a laser and it just turns on

    Sundeep。所以,這是一個脈衝光 它只是打開

  • when there's a one, it turns off when it's zero.

    當有一的時候,當有零的時候,它就會關閉。

  • So, faster than this.

    所以,比這個快。

  • - A little bit faster than that. - Faster than this?

    - 比這快一點。- 比這個快?

  • So our photo went from binary to radio waves

    所以我們的照片從二進制變成了無線電波。

  • - to little flashes of laser light, right? - Yes.

    - 到脈衝光的小閃光,對不對?- 是的 Yes.

  • Where does it go after that?

    之後又會去哪裡呢?

  • We're about to find out,

    我們就要知道了。

  • but I'm gonna take Alex.

    但我要帶亞歷克斯。

  • - You're not taking me? - No.

    - 你不帶我去嗎?

  • It's his turn. I gotta go.

    輪到他了我得走了

  • Ooh.

    哦。

  • So, the wires out of the back of our router

    所以,我們的路由器後面的線就出來了

  • connect to other wires inside out office,

    連接到辦公室內的其他電線。

  • which are owned by our internet service provider

    屬於我們的互聯網服務提供商

  • - or ISP. - Alex: Okay.

    - 或ISP。- Alex:好的。

  • And they're responsible for looking at the header

    而他們負責看頭頂

  • of each of those envelopes

    這些信封的每一個

  • and figuring out the most efficient route

    並找出最有效的路線

  • to get to its next location, which is an internet hub.

    以達到其下一個位置,也就是互聯網中心。

  • - Alex: And where would that be? - Cleo: Right there.

    - 亞歷克斯:那會是哪裡呢?- 克萊奧:就在那裡。

  • That's an internet hub.

    那是一個互聯網中心。

  • - Alex: This old building? - Cleo: Yeah.

    - 亞歷克斯:這棟老樓?- 克萊奧:Cleo: Yeah.

  • - All right, let's go. - It looks just like every other

    - 好了,我們走吧- 它看起來就像其他的

  • office building I've ever seen.

    我所見過的辦公大樓。

  • Greg Sisk: Well, it started as Western Union's headquarters.

    Greg Sisk:它最初是西聯公司的總部.

  • So, it supported telegraph operators back in the day,

    所以,當年它支持電報員。

  • and it's migrated to today

    並遷移到今天

  • where it's supporting the internet

    在這裡,它支持互聯網

  • - here in lower Manhattan. - That's poetic.

    - 這裡在曼哈頓下城。- 那是詩意的。

  • So all those wires all need to come to a place like this

    所以所有的線都要到這樣的地方來。

  • to connect between networks.

    來連接網絡之間。

  • So, for our example, our ISP in the office has a network.

    所以,以我們為例,我們辦公室的ISP有一個網絡。

  • And AT&T, which is Christophe's cell provider, has a network.

    而AT&T,是Christophe的手機供應商,有一個網絡。

  • And in order for my e-mail to get from my phone

    為了讓我的電子郵件從我的手機上傳過來

  • into Christophe's phone,

    到Christophe的手機裡。

  • all of those networks have to send those ones and zeros

    所有這些網絡都必須發送這些1和0。

  • across those wire pathways.

    穿過這些電線通道。

  • There's so much that happens

    有這麼多的事情發生

  • in that split second that you connect.

    在你連接的那一瞬間。

  • So there's really no such thing as a cloud

    所以說,真的沒有什麼云云的事情

  • or any type of magnanimous--

    或任何類型的寬宏大量的 -

  • - The cloud is a marketing term. - Yeah.

    - 雲是一個營銷術語。- 是啊 Yeah.

  • Cleo: The thing that I find really amazing is that,

    克萊奧我覺得很神奇的事情是,

  • like, my e-mail is one of the millions of messages

    就像,我的電子郵件是數以百萬計的資訊之一。

  • flowing through these cables.

    流過這些電纜。

  • That feels really abstract, but it's actually--

    這感覺真的很抽象,但它實際上 --

  • there's a message to somebody's mom

    有一個消息給某人的母親。

  • and there's a college application

    還有一個大學申請

  • and there's a job offer.

    並且有一個工作機會。

  • And there's a dank meme in here somewhere.

    而且這裡還有一個骯髒的備忘錄在某處。

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • Okay, so my e-mail became a series of waves of light

    好吧 我的郵件變成了一連串的光波 Okay, so my e-mail became a series of wave of light.

  • that travels over the tubes of the internet.

    在互聯網的管道上傳播的。

  • But what if I wanted to send it somewhere really far away?

    但如果我想把它送到很遠的地方呢?

  • Somewhere on the other side of the world?

    在世界另一端的某個地方?

  • We're in Newington, New Hampshire, to go to a factory

    我們在新罕布什爾州的紐賓頓,要去一家工廠。

  • that's gonna show us how the internet works at long distances.

    這將向我們展示互聯網如何在長距離工作。

  • We're headed into the third layer, the internet backbone.

    我們要進入第三層,互聯網骨幹網。

  • Oh, that's the cable highway.

    哦,那是電纜公路。

  • What's the cable highway?

    電纜公路是什麼?

  • Cleo: That's where the cables go

    克萊奧 這就是電纜去

  • from the factory down to the dock.

    從工廠到碼頭。

  • The company we're gonna go see,

    我們要去看的公司。

  • SubCom, is one of the top four submarine cable providers

    亞通,是四大海底電纜供應商之一。

  • in the world.

    在世界上。

  • There's the ship.

    那是船

  • - All right. - Hi.

    - 好吧,我知道了- 晦。

  • - Hi. I'm Alysia. - Hi. I'm Cleo.

    - 嗨,我是艾莉西亞。我是Alysia。- 嗨,我是克萊奧。我是克萊奧

  • - So nice to meet you. - Nice to meet you.

    - 很高興見到你。- 很高興見到你。

  • Alysia: This is the SubCom Decisive.

    Alysia:這是小組委員會決定性的。

  • She is a custom-built cable installation

    她是一個定製的電纜安裝

  • and maintenance vessel.

    和維修船。

  • She's 139 meters long,

    她有139米長。

  • which is about 450 feet.

    這大約是450英尺。

  • - Wow. - Yeah.

    - 哇哦- 是啊。

  • Cleo: The engineering and material science at work here

    克萊奧工程和材料科學在這裡工作

  • are incredibly complex.

    是非常複雜的。

  • But the basic process is actually really simple.

    但其實基本流程真的很簡單。

  • Light goes in on one side of the ocean

    光線從海洋的一側進入

  • and comes out on the other.

    並在另一邊出來。

  • So, as the Decisive moves across the ocean,

    所以,隨著 "決勝號 "在大洋彼岸的移動。

  • the internet cable is gonna come out the back

    網線要從後面出來了

  • and be laid down behind it.

    並在其身後偃旗息鼓。

  • And sometimes it's gonna be buried in the ocean floor

    有時它會被埋在海底。

  • by that machine right there.

    由那臺機器就在那裡。

  • But most of the time it's just gonna lay there

    但大多數時候,它只是會躺在那裡。

  • on the bottom of the ocean.

    在海底。

  • So, these are the two types of cable that we have, the two basic types.

    所以,這就是我們的兩種類型的電纜,兩種基本類型。

  • So this one, this is called lightweight cable.

    所以這個,這個叫輕質電纜。

  • So that's the one that we would use in the middle of the ocean.

    所以,這就是我們在海洋中會用到的那個。

  • And then this piece is the stuff that we use

    然後這塊是我們用的東西。

  • the plow to install and actually bury.

    犁安裝和實際埋設。

  • And the cable is engineered to be super strong in a lot of ways,

    而且電纜的設計在很多方面都是超強的。

  • but it is also very delicate in a lot of other ways.

    但它在很多其他方面也是非常精緻的。

  • Cleo: The wires that carry the light waves themselves

    克萊奧攜帶光波的電線本身

  • are typically made of fiberglass,

    通常是由玻璃纖維製成。

  • literally just a continuous strand of glass

    鏡花水月

  • about the size of a human hair.

    和人的頭髮差不多大。

  • Why is it that there are so few fibers?

    為什麼會有這麼少的纖維?

  • We're working on trying to put more fibers inside the cable

    我們正在努力嘗試在電纜內加裝更多的光纖。

  • to get more data into each fiber to make it

    以獲得更多的數據到每根光纖中,使之成為一種新技術。

  • so that we can send more information than what we already have.

    以便我們能夠發送比我們已有的更多的資訊。

  • ( music playing )

    (音樂播放)

  • Whoa!

    哇!

  • - So that's the cable tank. - Whoa.

    - 所以這就是電纜罐。- 哇哦

  • Slow, slow. We got the pipe. We got the pipe.

    慢,慢。我們得到了管道。我們得到了管子。

  • Alysia: Work it over. Work it over.

    Alysia:工作了。工作了。

  • What we're doing is we're loading it into the tank

    我們要做的是把它裝進罐子裡。