Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

自動翻譯
  • In the 1800s, most paintings looked like this.

    在19世紀,大部分的畫都是這樣的。

  • Muted colors, complex scenes, and lots of mythological stuff.

    色彩柔和,場景複雜,還有很多神話的東西。

  • But in 1865 something came along that was so different, it caused shock and horror and

    但在1865年,出現了一些不同的東西,它引起了震驚和恐懼,並且...

  • outrage.

    憤怒。

  • the body's putrefying color recalls the horror of the morgue."

    "屍體腐爛的顏色讓人聯想到停屍房的恐怖"

  • "a skeleton dressed in a tight-fitting tunic of plaster."

    "一具穿著緊身石膏衣的骷髏"

  • takes on at times the undefinable terror of a painted corpse.”

    "有時會有一種難以定義的恐怖,就像一具畫中的屍體。"

  • "her face is stupid, her skin cadaverousshe does not have a human form."

    "她的臉很蠢,她的皮膚很粗糙... 她沒有人形"

  • The painting is called Olympia, and it changed the art world forever.

    這幅畫叫奧林匹亞,它永遠改變了藝術界。

  • Édouard Manet painted Olympia in 1863.

    愛德華-馬奈於1863年創作了《奧林匹亞》。

  • When Paris was the cultural center of the world.

    當巴黎成為世界文化中心的時候。

  • And the center of this cultural center was the Academy of Fine Arts.

    而這個文化中心的中心就是美術學院。

  • The Academy was made up of upper-crust art critics that worshipped the Italian Renaissance

    學院是由崇拜意大利文藝復興時期的上層藝術評論家組成的。

  • painters of three hundred years prior.

    三百年前的畫家。

  • You know - Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, Titian

    米開朗基羅,拉斐爾,波提切利,提香... ...

  • And at the Paris Salonthe Academy's legendary annual art showthey only displayed

    而在巴黎沙龍--學院傳奇性的年度藝術展上,他們只展示了

  • art that mimicked the renaissance style.

    模仿文藝復興風格的藝術。

  • To determine who got in, they had a bunch of rules.

    為了確定誰能進去,他們有一堆規則。

  • First and foremost - great art was supposed to convey a moral or intellectual message.

    首先--偉大的藝術本來就是要傳達一種道德或智慧的資訊。

  • And all acceptable art fell into one of five categories ranked by their capacity to deliver

    而所有可接受的藝術都屬於五種類型之一,按其傳遞能力排序。

  • those messages.

    這些資訊。

  • Landscapes and still lifes were at the bottom. In the middle are portraits...

    最下面是風景和靜物。中間是人像... ...

  • And genre paintingsmostly quaint scenes of poor or foreign subjects, painted for the

    而體裁畫--多為古色古香的窮鄉僻壤或外國題材的景物,畫的是為。

  • rich.

    豐富的。

  • At the top of the list is History painting, the Academy's darling.

    排名第一的是歷史畫,是學院的寵兒。

  • These depicted major historical or mythical moments, they were considered the best at

    這些描繪重大歷史或神話時刻的作品,被認為是最好的。

  • providing an ethical or moral lesson.

    提供倫理或道德教訓;

  • Like depictions of the birth of Venus - showing the goddess emerging fully formed from the

    就像對維納斯誕生的描述--顯示出女神完全成形的樣子。

  • ocean, a symbol of womanly perfection and divine love.

    海洋,是女人完美和神聖愛情的象徵。

  • Which brings us to the second set of rules.

    這就有了第二套規則。

  • Equally important to what was painted was how it was painted.

    與畫什麼同樣重要的是如何畫。

  • Take that painting ofThe Birth of Venus

    就拿那幅 "維納斯的誕生 "來說吧。

  • It's the kind of painting the Academy loved.

    這就是學院派喜歡的畫。

  • Its subjects are idealized, prettified visions of the worldsmooth and beautiful, with

    它的主題是理想化的、經過美化的世界願景--平滑而美麗,具有以下特點

  • no body hair and flawless skin.

    沒有體毛,皮膚無瑕。

  • The painting follows the rules of depth and perspectivemeaning it looks like it could

    這幅畫遵循了深度和透視的規則--這意味著它看起來就像可以...

  • exist in the real world.

    存在於現實世界中。

  • And the scene is complex and layered - there's a lot going on.

    而且場景複雜,層次分明--事情很多。

  • Its colors are ones you'd find in nature. They aren't too saturated or harsh.

    它的顏色是你在大自然中找到的顏色。它們不會太飽和或太刺眼。

  • And the brushstrokes are smooth. So smooth that they're nearly invisible on the canvas.

    而且筆觸很流暢平滑到在畫布上幾乎看不見。

  • For a long time, really the only way to become a successful artist was to follow the Academy's

    在很長一段時間裡,真正成為一個成功的藝術家的唯一途徑是遵循學院的

  • rules.

    規則。

  • Which makes Manet's Olympia all the more an outlier.

    這讓馬奈的《奧林匹亞》更顯得格格不入。

  • Check out this painting by Renaissance master Titian from 1538.

    看看這幅文藝復興時期大師提香1538年創作的畫作。

  • Look familiar?

    看著眼熟嗎?

  • It should.

    它應該。

  • Manet painted Olympia as a direct riff on Titian's “Venus of Urbino.”

    馬奈畫奧林匹亞是直接模仿提香的 "烏爾比諾的維納斯"。

  • but there's a reason Manet's painting ruffled so many feathers when it hung in the

    - 但馬奈的畫被掛在博物館裡時,之所以會引起這麼大的反響是有原因的。

  • Salon.

    沙龍。

  • For starters, the name Olympia was a popular pseudonym for sex workers.

    首先,奧林匹亞這個名字是性工作者的流行化名。

  • Manet took a beloved, instantly recognizable painting and corrupted it - subbing in a common

    馬奈拿著一幅心愛的、一眼就能認出的畫作,並將其腐化--代入了一幅常見的畫作。

  • sex worker for the morally upright goddess of love and fertility.

    性工作者,為道德高尚的愛與生育女神。

  • There's not much room for a sex worker in the heirarchy of genres.

    在流派的傳人中,性工作者的空間並不大。

  • But it was also how Manet painted Olympia was what really changed things

    但也正是馬奈如何畫奧林匹亞才真正改變了一切。

  • Manet used stark and unnatural colors that give Olympia a cold, harsh look.

    馬奈使用了鮮明而不自然的色彩,使奧林匹亞顯得冷峻、刺眼。

  • And look at how rough and textured Manet's brushstrokes are compared to Titian's imperceptible

    看看馬奈的筆觸是多麼的粗糙,多麼的有質感,相比之下,提香的筆觸是多麼的不易察覺。

  • ones.

    的。

  • And, unlike Titians, Manet's painting doesn't seem to exist in real space. It's much flatter

    而且,與蒂蒂安不同,馬奈的畫似乎並不存在於真實的空間中。它更平坦

  • and less complex.

    且不太複雜。

  • And beyond the rules, the two paintings just feel different.

    而在規則之外,兩幅畫的感覺就是不一樣。

  • Venus lounges while Olympia sits at attention.

    維納斯在休息,而奧林匹亞則坐在一旁。

  • Venus' maids place furs in a chest, probably a wedding gift. Olympia's maid brings her

    維納斯的女僕把毛皮放在箱子裡,可能是結婚禮物。奧林匹亞的女僕帶給她

  • flowers, likely from one of her regular customers.

    鮮花,很可能是她的一個老顧客送的。

  • And compare their hands.

    並比較他們的手。

  • People really didn't like Olympia's tensed fingers - one critic claimed she wasmocking

    人們真的不喜歡奧林匹亞緊張的手指--一位評論家稱她是在 "嘲笑"。

  • the poseof Venus, with a hand shamelessly flexed"

    姿態 "的維納斯,無恥地彎曲著一隻手"

  • Where Venus is warm and inviting, Olympia is tense and stiff. It's as if Venus invites

    金星是溫暖和邀請的地方,奧林匹亞是緊張和僵硬的。這就像維納斯邀請

  • you to look at her, while Olympia confronts youalmost like she's shaming you for

    你看她,而奧林匹亞面對你 - 幾乎像她的羞辱你的

  • intruding.

    侵入。

  • It's not totally clear why the Academy chose to display Manet's rule-breaking painting,

    目前還不完全清楚,為什麼學院選擇展出馬奈這幅打破規則的畫作。

  • but it probably had something to do with Manet's growing popularity.

    但這可能與馬奈越來越受歡迎有關。

  • You can see his influence so clearly in what came next.

    在接下來的工作中,你可以清楚地看到他的影響。

  • He led the charge toward modernism in the late 1800s.

    他在19世紀末引領了現代主義的潮流。

  • Starting with the impressionists - Monet, Degas - who adopted his penchant for modern

    從印象派開始--莫奈、德加--他們採用了他對現代藝術的執著。

  • themes and loosened brushstrokes.

    主題和鬆散的筆觸。

  • But it's not just the impressionists who owe Manet.

    但不只是印象派欠馬奈的。

  • More than anything, Olympia is proof that no one entity gets to decide what art should

    更多的是,奧林匹亞是證明,沒有一個實體得到決定什麼藝術應

  • look like.

    看起來像。

  • And, when we look back on the history of art, we don't remember the people who were really

    而且,當我們回顧藝術史時,我們並不記得那些真正的人

  • good at following the rules.

    善於遵守規則。

  • We remember the people who moved the needle forward.

    我們記住了那些推動針頭前行的人。

In the 1800s, most paintings looked like this.

在19世紀,大部分的畫都是這樣的。

字幕與單字
自動翻譯

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 Vox 奧林匹亞 維納斯 學院 規則 藝術

The naked lady that changed the rules of art

  • 10 0
    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 18 日
影片單字