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  • In 1929, astronomer Edwin Hubble noticed that almost all galaxies had a red shift to their

    1929年,天文學家埃德溫-哈勃注意到,幾乎所有的星系都有一個紅移到它們的

  • color, and the farther away they were, the redder they appeared.

    顏色,而且離得越遠,越顯得紅豔。

  • He concluded that the waves of light from the galaxies had been stretched as they traveled

    他的結論是,來自星系的光波在行進過程中被拉長了。

  • to us, meaning space itself was expanding in all directions.

    對我們來說,意味著空間本身在向四周擴展。

  • This observation literally shaped our image of the universe, but now some researchers

    這一觀察結果確實塑造了我們對宇宙的印象,但現在一些研究人員

  • think that shape may be a bit lopsided.

    覺得這個形狀可能有點歪斜。

  • The idea that space looks pretty much the same everywhere is known as the cosmological

    空間在任何地方看起來都差不多的想法被稱為宇宙論。

  • principle.

    原則。

  • Sure, close up there are variations.

    當然,近看有變化。

  • The structure of star systems, galaxies, or even galaxy clusters are going to be different.

    星系、星系、甚至星系團的結構都會有所不同。

  • But on an extremely zoomed-out scale of many billions of light years, it's believed the

    但在極度放大的幾十億光年的尺度上,人們認為

  • universe looks and behaves the same way in every direction.

    宇宙的每一個方向看起來和行為都是一樣的。

  • In other words, it's isotropic.

    換句話說,它是各向同性的。

  • We think it started with a big bang 13.8 billion years ago, and like a balloon, has expanded

    我們認為它始於138億年前的一次大爆炸 就像氣球一樣,一直在膨脹著

  • more or less evenly in every direction since.

    此後,在各個方向上都或多或少地均勻。

  • A good piece of evidence supporting the notion that the universe is isotropic is the cosmic

    支持宇宙各向同性這一觀點的一個很好的證據是宇宙的

  • microwave background, the afterglow left by the big bang, which looks pretty smooth and

    微波背景,大爆炸留下的餘暉,看起來很平滑,很

  • uniform.

    統一。

  • An isotropic universe is convenient.

    一個各向同性的宇宙是方便的。

  • If everything is behaving the same and expansion is happening evenly, then we can assume dark

    如果一切都表現得一樣,而且擴張是均勻的,那麼我們就可以假設暗色的

  • energy, what we think is driving the accelerating expansion, acts the same everywhere, and has

    我們認為推動加速膨脹的能量,在任何地方的作用都是一樣的,並且具有以下特徵

  • been since the big bang.

    自大爆炸以來,一直。

  • But what if somewhere along the way the rules changed, and the universe isn't expanding

    但是,如果某個地方沿途的規則發生了變化, 宇宙並沒有膨脹,怎麼辦?

  • evenly anymore?

    均勻的了嗎?

  • Some astronomers decided to double check using X-ray emissions from galaxy clusters, and

    一些天文學家決定利用星系團的X射線發射來進行雙重檢查,並。

  • have concluded that the universe may not be as isotropic as we thought, in other words,

    已經得出結論,宇宙可能並不像我們想象的那樣是各向同性的,換句話說。

  • it could beanisotropic.”

    它可能是 "各向異性"。

  • The researchers looked at data from almost 850 galaxy clusters.

    研究人員考察了近850個星系團的數據。

  • Using their X-ray emissions, the astronomers estimated each cluster's temperature, and

    天文學家利用它們的X射線輻射,估計了每個星團的溫度,並且

  • thus its luminosity.

    是以其光度。

  • Keep in mind that luminosity is how much light a celestial object gives off, meaning it's

    請記住,光度是指一個天體發出的光的多少,也就是說它的

  • an intrinsic property and should be the same no matter how you measure it.

    是一種內在屬性,無論你如何衡量它都應該是一樣的。

  • Once they had used x-ray observations to determine the clusters' luminosities, they cross-checked

    一旦他們利用X射線觀測確定了星團的光度,他們就交叉核對了X射線。

  • the numbers using another method that relies on the rate we assume the universe is uniformly

    使用另一種方法來計算數字,這種方法依賴於我們假設宇宙是均勻的。

  • expanding.

    擴大。

  • When they compared the two values, they found two areas of the night sky where the numbers

    當他們比較這兩個數值時,發現夜空中有兩個區域的數字。

  • didn't match up.

    不符合。

  • In these regions, the clusters were as much as 30% brighter or dimmer than predicted,

    在這些區域,星團比預測的亮度或暗度高達30%。

  • meaning they were closer or farther away than they should be if the universe were isotropic.

    意思是說,如果宇宙是各向同性的,他們比應該的距離更近或更遠。

  • That would throw a serious wrench into our understanding of the cosmos.

    這將嚴重影響我們對宇宙的理解。

  • Why would the cosmic microwave background be so smooth when the recent universe isn't?

    為什麼宇宙微波背景會如此平穩,而近代宇宙卻不平穩?

  • Would this mean the laws of physics are different in certain areas?

    這是否意味著物理定律在某些領域是不同的?

  • Is it possible dark energy affects some regions more strongly than others?

    是否有可能暗能量對某些地區的影響比其他地區更強烈?

  • It's hard enough finding an explanation for dark energy when it behaves uniformly.

    當暗能量表現均勻的時候,為它找到一個解釋已經很困難了。

  • These are the questions an anisotropic universe would raise, and their answers may be unknowable.

    這些都是一個各向異性宇宙會提出的問題,其答案可能是不可知的。

  • But one possibility suggested by one study doesn't overturn all of our assumptions about

    但是,一項研究提出的一種可能性並不能推翻我們關於的所有假設。

  • isotropy.

    同向性;

  • These researchers are looking to explain the findings in ways that gel with the cosmological

    這些研究人員希望用與宇宙學相吻合的方式來解釋這些發現。

  • principle.

    原則。

  • One explanation is some clusters could be caught in a “bulk flowwhere even more

    一種解釋是,一些集群可能會被捲入 "大宗流 "中,在那裡,甚至有更多的

  • massive clusters farther away drag them off.

    巨大的集群更遠的地方把它們拖走。

  • Or there's the possibility that the data the conclusions are based on are just plain

    也有可能是結論所依據的數據只是普通的

  • wrong.

    錯。

  • One astronomer pointed out that one region the researchers deemed particularly lopsided

    一位天文學家指出,研究人員認為有一個區域特別片面。

  • is also near an area where the Milky Way's gas and dust are thickest.

    也是在銀河系氣體和塵埃最濃厚的區域附近。

  • It's possible that's absorbing x-rays and throwing off the luminosity calculations.

    有可能是吸收了X射線,把光度的計算給丟了。

  • But the researchers do take the effect of the Milky Way into account.

    但研究人員確實考慮到了銀河系的影響。

  • Even if their results were due to an absorption effect, it would mean some new kind of super-dust

    即使他們的結果是由於吸收效應,那也意味著某種新的超級塵埃

  • was scrambling the emissions (which gives me serious Golden Compass vibes).

    是擾亂排放(這給我嚴重的金羅盤的氛圍)。

  • The researchers intend to follow up with infrared observations to take another

    研究人員打算通過紅外觀測進行後續工作,再拍攝一次。

  • stab at determining the clusters' luminosities.

    嘗試確定星團的光度。

  • Maybe their future results will show that their assumptions based on x-rays were off

    也許他們未來的結果會表明,他們基於X射線的假設是錯誤的。

  • and the universe is the same in all directions.

    而宇宙的各個方向都是一樣的。

  • Then again, maybe their results will change everything we know about the history and shape

    不過話說回來,也許他們的結果會改變我們對歷史和形狀的一切認識。

  • of the cosmos.

    的宇宙。

  • If ever a topic needed more research, this is it.

    如果說有什麼課題需要更多的研究,那就是這個了。

  • One instrument that will help map out the dark energy of the universe and answer this

    有一種儀器可以幫助繪製出宇宙的暗能量,並回答這個問題。

  • riddle is ESA's Euclid telescope.

    謎底是歐空局的歐幾里德望遠鏡。

  • Amanda has a Countdown To Launch episode on that here.

    阿曼達有一個倒計時啟動的情節,在這裡。

  • Be sure to subscribe, thanks for watching, and I'll see you next time on Seeker!

    一定要訂閱,謝謝大家的觀看,我們下期《求是》見!

In 1929, astronomer Edwin Hubble noticed that almost all galaxies had a red shift to their

1929年,天文學家埃德溫-哈勃注意到,幾乎所有的星系都有一個紅移到它們的

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