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  • On April 8th, 2020,

    2020年4月8日,

  • a few hundred people in Florida broke the state's stay-at-home order

    佛羅里達有數百人 不顧政府頒布的"禁令"

  • to go wait in this line.

    在屋外排隊等候。

  • Hundreds of thousands of people had lost their jobs,

    數十萬人丟了工作

  • and applied for unemployment benefits through Florida's online system.

    並希望通過佛羅里達州的線上系統來申請失業救濟金

  • But the people in this line had come out to get these:

    但這些排隊的民眾只得到

  • paper applications.

    紙本申請單

  • Because for thousands in Florida, the website wasn't working.

    因為佛羅里達失業申請過多,該網站已無法正常運行。

  • "Problems from almost the moment it went online..."

    網站似乎從一上線就出現問題了...

  • "Plagued with site crashes and glitches..."

    網站的卡頓和故障真的很令人崩潰...

  • "The process to file is nearly impossible."

    “完成申請幾乎是不可能的。”

  • Americans have lost their jobs all over the country.

    全美國各地都有人失去了工作。

  • But the kind of help they can get depends on what state they live in.

    但是他們可以獲得的幫助 與於他們所居住的州息息相關。

  • That's because the US doesn't really have one unemployment system; it has 53 of them.

    因為美國真的沒有一種統一的失業補助系統;它有53個。

  • Each state and territory has their own, and the differences between them are huge.

    每個州和地區都有自己的失業救濟方案,而且它們之間的差異很大。

  • In places like New Jersey and Massachusetts, before the economy crashed,

    在紐澤西州和馬薩諸塞州等地,

  • a little more than half of all workers without jobs were collecting unemployment benefits.

    在經濟崩潰之前,半數以上沒有工作的工人中是可以領取失業救濟金的

  • In Florida, less than 10% of unemployed people were getting them.

    但在佛羅里達州,只有不到10%的失業者 可以領。

  • In places like Florida, the complicated, hard-to-use unemployment system

    在佛羅里達

  • isn't a mistake.

    複雜且難以使用的失業申請系統不是設計錯誤

  • It's doing exactly what it was designed to do.

    它就是這樣被設計出來的

  • Back during the Great Recession, lots of people were out of work.

    在經濟大蕭條時期很多人失業。

  • State unemployment systems were in overdrive.

    國家失業救濟被過度利用

  • In many states, the funds that fed those systems were running out of cash

    在許多州,救濟金已經入不敷出了

  • So lots of states, including Florida, raised taxes on businesses.

    包括佛羅里達州的許多州開始提高商業稅收

  • That made lots of business owners unhappy.

    這讓許多老闆不高興了

  • In the 2010 and 2012 elections, several states elected Republican governors

    在2010年和2012年的選舉中,

  • who promised to reverse those tax hikes.

    共和黨因提出不增加商業稅收 許多州的州長因此當選了。

  • "Any tax increase kills jobs."

    “任何增加稅收都會導致失業。”

  • In 2011, when Rick Scott took office,

    2011年,里克·斯科特(Rick Scott)上任時,

  • Florida employers paid $319 per worker in unemployment taxes.

    佛羅里達州的雇主為每名工人支付了319美元的失業稅。

  • By 2019, when he left,

    到2019年他下台時,

  • they were paying $50 per worker.

    每個工人只要付50美元失業稅。

  • The lowest rate in the country.

    如此低的稅率

  • But that meant Florida's system was underfunded again.

    意味著佛羅里達的失業補助系統將再次資金不足。

  • So, the new governor and the Republican legislature started finding ways

    因此,新州長和共和黨立法機關開始尋找方法

  • to pay less money to fewer people.

    給更少的人且支付更少的錢

  • They cut weekly payments,

    他們取消了每週付款的方式

  • and reduced the number of weeks you could collect unemployment if you were laid off.

    就算被解僱,可以領取失業救濟金的周數也減少

  • But they also redesigned the system itself.

    並且他們也重新設計了系統

  • In 2011, Florida governor Rick Scott signed a law

    2011年,佛羅里達州州長里克·斯科特(Rick Scott)簽署了一項法律

  • that moved the state's entire unemployment application process online.

    全州的所有失業救濟改為只可以線上申請

  • The new system was notoriously difficult to use.

    眾所周知,新系統很難使用

  • "No money, and no answers, because of problems with the state's new $63 million unemployment website."

    “嶺不到錢,也沒有回音",是這個新的標榜有6300萬美元的失業網站最大的問題。”

  • In 2019, Florida's state auditor released a report on the state's unemployment system.

    2019年,佛羅里達州審計師發布了該州失業製度的報告。

  • It noted that it frequently gave incorrect error messages,

    報告中指出,網站經常發出錯誤的假消息,

  • and would often prevent the submission of an application entirely.

    並且通常會阻止提交申請。

  • Honestly, I'm an unemployment insurance expert,

    我是失業保險專家

  • and some of the screenshots I've been seeing don't make any sense to me.

    某些屏幕截圖在我看來完全沒有任何意義

  • I talked to Michele Evermore, an unemployment lawyer and researcher.

    我與律師兼研究員米歇爾·埃弗莫爾(Michele Evermore)進行過討論。

  • It's clear that there is a very intentional movement

    很明顯,這是一個故意的設計

  • to make benefits difficult to access, just by making the computer system difficult.

    讓使電腦系統變得困難就使申請人難以獲得補住

  • First, Florida's unemployment application itself is extremely difficult to complete.

    首先,佛羅里達州的失業申請 本身很難完成

  • Think about the last form you filled out online. You probably started at the top with some

    想像一下您在線上填寫的表格。 你可能從頭開始...

  • basic identifying information, then filled in more boxes as you scrolled down.

    基本身分信息,然後向下滾動繼續按指示填寫

  • But to submit a claim on Florida's unemployment website,

    但是在佛羅里達州的失業補助申請網站內

  • you submit just a few bits of information at a time,

    你一次只能填寫一部分的信息

  • then click to a new page, and hope it's all being saved.

    然後提交... 希望一切都被保存下來。

  • Each time you hit submit, and a new page has to load,

    每點擊一次提交時, 新頁面必須重新加載

  • that's a new opportunity for the system to crash and kick you out.

    而這就是一個系統崩潰並把你踢出去機會

  • Next, if you do get through the process

    如果你幸運的完成了剛剛所有過程……

  • Some Florida politicians have blamed the system's problems on Deloitte,

    佛羅里達政府官員會將認為是德勒公司的系統出問題

  • the contractor the state used to help build the new online system back in 2013.

    2013年網站系統的創建公司

  • But that same year, Deloitte also helped Massachusetts build its online system.

    而在同一年,德勤也幫助了 馬薩諸塞州建立線上系統。

  • Using the same basic framework,

    設計框架基本相同

  • Massachusetts has been able to get benefits to a much greater percentage of jobless people than Florida.

    但與佛羅里達州相比,馬薩諸塞州能夠提供失業者更多補償。

  • Everybody's trying to blame the computer,

    每個人都認為是電腦的問題

  • but in reality, it's the politics.

    但實際上,這是政策

  • It's not the computer's fault.

    不是電腦本身的錯。

  • The computer does what you tell it to do.

    電腦系統是按照你的指示執行操作

  • In response to the pandemic, Congress gave states more than a billion dollars

    為了應對大流行,

  • to boost unemployment benefits,

    國會給各州超過十億美元的失業救濟金

  • and made gig workers and freelancers eligible for them.

    並讓臨時工與自由職業者都可以提出申請

  • But all workers still have to go through state systems, like Florida's, to get those benefits.

    但是所有工人申請仍然必須經過州 系統,包括佛羅里達州,才能得到補助

  • At some point in their working lives, 4 out of 5 Americans

    在他們的工作中,5個美國人中有4個

  • will need to access safety net programs like unemployment insurance.

    將需要通過安全網程序 像失業保險。

  • But these programs benefit that 1 out of 5, too.

    但是這些程序也會使5分之一的人受益。

  • It keeps money churning in the economy when there's a downturn.

    經濟不景氣時它會使錢越發流通

  • For every dollar spent in unemployment insurance benefits, $1.61 was generated

    失業保險金每支出1美元

  • in local economic activity.

    在當地的經濟活動就會產生1.61美元。

  • It's increasingly clear that our physical health is linked to that of our neighbors.

    越來越明顯的是,我們的身體 健康與我們鄰居的健康息息相關。

  • It turns out, our economic health is, too.

    事實證明,我們的經濟狀況也是如此。

On April 8th, 2020,

2020年4月8日,

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Why it's so hard to get unemployment benefits

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 12 日
影片單字