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  • This is the British Museum.

    這就是大英博物館。

  • It's the world's largest world history museum

    它是世界上最大的世界歷史博物館。

  • and it draws millions of visitors every year.

    並且每年都會吸引數百萬的遊客。

  • Inside, it holds more than 8 million cultural and historical artifacts from all over the world

    裡面收藏著來自世界各地的800多萬件文化歷史文物。

  • which cover 2 million years of human history.

    其中涵蓋了200萬年的人類歷史。

  • If you follow the museum's recommended list ofDon't Missitems, you'll see its star pieces.

    如果你按照博物館推薦的 "不容錯過 "項目清單,你就會看到它的明星作品。

  • Like this Easter Island sculpture that's

    比如這個復活節島的雕塑

  • about a thousand years old.

    大約有一千多年的歷史。

  • Or this bronze sculpture of the Hindu God Shiva.

    或者這個印度教溼婆神的青銅雕塑。

  • But there's a problem hidden in the museum,

    但博物館裡藏著一個問題。

  • and we can see an example of it along this route.

    而我們可以在這條路線上看到一個例子。

  • Out of those 12 pieces, nearly half have disputed ownership.

    在這12件作品中,有近一半的作品存在所有權爭議。

  • The British Museum claims those pieces belong there, on display for the world to see.

    大英博物館宣稱這些作品屬於那裡,展示給全世界看。

  • But in recent years, many have been fighting to get them back to where they came from.

    但近年來,很多人一直在爭取讓它們回到它們的故鄉。

  • "The list of disputed museum treasures keeps on growing"

    "有爭議的博物館珍品名單不斷增加"

  • Should cultural artifacts be returned to their home countries or be left in western museums?"

    "文物應該回國還是留在西方博物館?"

  • "The subject of intense debate as to who should now own them

    "關於現在誰應該擁有它們的問題引起了激烈的辯論"

  • Let's start with some context.

    先說說背景吧。

  • In the late 1600s, the British Empire began expanding across several continents.

    16世紀末,大英帝國開始在幾大洲擴張。

  • It became the largest empire in history, controlling about a quarter of the world's land and population.

    它成為歷史上最大的帝國,控制了世界上約四分之一的土地和人口。

  • During its centuries-long rule, the empire

    在長達數百年的統治中,帝國

  • took precious resources and wealth from countries all around the world,

    從世界各國搶走了寶貴的資源和財富。

  • Including thousands of cultural and historical artifacts.

    包括上千件文物和歷史文物。

  • Many of which ended up here, in the British Museum

    其中很多都在這裡結束了,在大英博物館。

  • which was founded in 1753 and kept growing to accommodate all the new pieces

    該公司成立於1753年,並不斷髮展壯大,以容納所有的新作品。

  • in its collection.

    在其收藏的。

  • Lots of the items in the museum were legally acquired

    博物館裡的很多物品都是合法獲得的。

  • and are completely undisputed, like this one.

    並且是完全沒有爭議的,比如這個。

  • A 2,000 year old roman vase sold to the museum by a Duke in 1945.

    1945年,一位公爵將一個2000年前的羅馬花瓶賣給了博物館。

  • The problem is with the pieces that are disputed.

    問題在於有爭議的件。

  • Like the first item you see as soon as you walk in.

    就像你一進門看到的第一個項目。

  • The Rosetta Stone, taken by British troops

    英軍拍攝的羅塞塔石

  • from the French in what is now Egypt.

    從法國人在現在的埃及。

  • Or further in, the Parthenon Sculptures.

    或者再往裡走,帕臺農神廟雕塑。

  • Removed from the acropolis in Athens by a British Lord, and sent to the British Museum.

    被一位英國勳爵從雅典衛城移走,送到大英博物館。

  • Or, over here.

    或者,在這裡。

  • On the floor dedicated to African Art.

    在非洲藝術專用樓層。

  • The Benin Bronzes.

    貝寧青銅器。

  • Some of the most contentious items in the museum.

    博物館裡一些最有爭議的項目。

  • The Benin Bronzes are kind of hard to categorize,

    貝寧青銅器有點難以歸類。

  • because they include such a huge range of items.

    因為它們包括瞭如此廣泛的項目。

  • From engraved ivory tusks

    來自雕刻的象牙

  • to brass sculptures

    到銅雕

  • to plaques.

    戲匾。

  • But they were all produced here, in the Kingdom of Benin in present-day Nigeria.

    但它們都是在這裡生產的,在今尼日利亞的貝寧王國。

  • This wealthy and industrious kingdom produced

    這個富饒而勤勞的王國生產出了

  • thousands of objects and art pieces starting in the 1500s.

    從15世紀開始的數千件物品和藝術品。

  • A lot of the items adorned palace walls and were used for religious rituals.

    很多物品都裝飾在宮殿的牆壁上,用於宗教儀式。

  • But they weren't just decorative...

    但它們不僅僅是裝飾品... ...

  • They were visual archives of the kingdom

    他們是王國的視覺檔案

  • in a society that did not develop written script as we know them.

    在一個沒有發展出我們所知道的書面文字的社會里。

  • That's Professor Chika Okeke-Agulu, an art historian and professor from Nigeria

    這就是來自尼日利亞的藝術史學家、教授Chika Okeke-Agulu。

  • who teaches at Princeton University.

    他在普林斯頓大學任教。

  • They told their history, how they narrated the histories of kingship

    他們講述自己的歷史,他們如何敘述王權的歷史。

  • of the kingdom. Its political and social life.

    的王國。其政治和社會生活。

  • But in 1897 would lose thousands of these cultural pieces.

    但在1897年將失去成千上萬的這些文化作品。

  • At the time, European colonial powers were

    當時,歐洲殖民國家

  • expanding south, in what was called theScramble for Africa”.

    向南擴張,被稱為 "爭奪非洲"。

  • They split up the continent into spheres of influence for financial exploitation.

    他們將大陸分割成勢力範圍,進行金融剝削。

  • All these pink areas were the British ones.

    這些粉色區域都是英國人的。

  • Benin, over here, was in Britain's sphere of influence.

    貝寧,在這裡,是英國的勢力範圍。

  • But the kingdom didn't comply with Britain's trade demands.

    但王國並沒有遵守英國的貿易要求。

  • And in January of 1897 it led to what was

    而在1897年1月,它導致了什麼?

  • called the Benin Disaster.

    稱為貝寧災難。

  • Where Benin guards killed seven British emissaries, plus their many guides and servants.

    在那裡,貝寧衛兵殺死了七名英國使者,還有他們的許多向導和僕人。

  • In response 1,200 British troops embarked

    作為迴應,1,200名英軍登船。

  • on a mission called theBenin Punitive Expedition”.

    執行一項名為 "貝寧懲罰性探險 "的任務。

  • The British wanted revenge, but the mission was about more than just that.

    英國人想要復仇,但任務的意義不僅僅是復仇。

  • There were reports of these vast treasures in the palace of the king of Benin,

    有報道說,這些巨大的寶藏在貝寧王的宮殿裡。

  • and that if they could retrieve these treasures, sales from it could offset the cost of the invasion

    而如果他們能找回這些寶物,從它的銷售可以抵消入侵的成本。

  • This was all well planned.

    這一切都是精心策劃的。

  • And so the punitive expedition, in other words, was also an economic enterprise.

    所以,換句話說,懲罰性的考察,也是一種經濟事業。

  • The British soldiers armed with machine guns

    裝備機槍的英國阿兵哥

  • conquered the city and burned it to the ground.

    征服了這座城市,並將其燒燬。

  • But not before carefully taking thousands of artifacts.

    但在小心翼翼地取走數千件文物之前。

  • They piled them up neatly, photographed them

    他們把它們堆得整整齊齊,拍下了照片

  • and even labeled themloot”.

    甚至給他們貼上了 "戰利品 "的標籤。

  • This photo, taken at the Benin palace after the raid,

    這張照片,是突襲後在貝寧王宮拍攝的。

  • shows soldiers with the dismantled plaques that were brought to the British Museum,

    圖為阿兵哥與被帶到大英博物館的拆解牌匾。

  • and sold all over the world.

    並銷往世界各地。

  • And after hundreds of years,

    而經過幾百年的時間。

  • the once prosperous kingdom was gone.

    曾經繁華的國度已經消失了。

  • The region fell under full British colonial

    該地區完全處於英國殖民統治之下

  • control until 1960, when Nigeria, including the City of Benin, gained independence.

    直到1960年,尼日利亞,包括貝寧市獲得獨立。

  • But even though they were finally free,

    但即使他們終於自由了。

  • their historical artifacts were still spread all over the world.

    他們的歷史文物還分佈在世界各地。

  • Locked up in western institutions, like the Leipzig Museum of Ethnology in Germany

    被關在西方的機構裡,比如德國的萊比錫民族學博物館。

  • and the Quai Branly Museum in Paris.

    和巴黎的Quai Branly博物館。

  • And, of course, the British Museum.

    當然,還有大英博物館。

  • 1995.

    1995.

  • In London.

    在倫敦

  • That was my first time seeing an original ancient Benin artwork.

    那是我第一次看到原汁原味的古貝寧藝術品。

  • Yes. At the British Museum.

    是的,在大英博物館。在大英博物館。

  • Being in the presence of these magnificent objects

    在這些宏偉的物體面前

  • and knowing that I had to travel all the way from Nigeria

    我知道我必須從尼日利亞一路走來。

  • to see these objects for the first time...

    第一次看到這些物體... ...

  • It was a mixture of pride.

    那是一種混合的驕傲。

  • At the achievement of these ancient artists.

    在這些古代藝術家的成就。

  • And anger. Mixed with a sense of loss, at what could have been

    還有憤怒混合著失落感,在本可以是

  • if I only had to travel a few hundred miles.

    如果我只需要走幾百里路。

  • But at this point, you're limited to those

    但在這一點上,你僅限於那些

  • privileged like me who could get a visa to travel all the way from Nigeria to England

    像我這樣有特權的人可以拿到簽證,從尼日利亞一路走到英國。

  • to encounter these objects.

    遇到這些對象。

  • Most Nigerians will never see them.

    大多數尼日利亞人將永遠不會看到他們。

  • In March 2000, Benin's royal family tried to change that.

    2000年3月,貝寧王室試圖改變這種狀況。

  • They officially requestedall cultural property illegally takenbe returned to

    他們正式要求 "所有被非法掠奪的文化財產......都要歸還"。

  • the rightful owner

    當事人

  • But for the most part the British Museum has ignored any requests.

    但大多數情況下,大英博物館對任何要求都置之不理。

  • The museum is restricted by a government act that prevents it from returning objects.

    博物館受到政府法案的限制,無法歸還物品。

  • But it has also made its stance clear.

    但它也表明了自己的立場。

  • In July of 2020, the British Museum told Vox:

    2020年7月,大英博物館告訴Vox。

  • We don't restitute but we are absolutely committed to lending as widely as possible,

    "我們不歸還,但我們絕對致力於儘可能廣泛地放貸。

  • including to Nigeria. The Museum's foundational value resides in its breadth, scale, complexity,

    包括對尼日利亞。博物館的基礎價值在於其廣度、規模、複雜性。

  • and unity and as such is a true library of the world.”

    和統一,是以是一個真正的世界圖書館"。

  • Chika doesn't see it that way.

    奇卡不這麼看。

  • The British Museum still behaves

    大英博物館的行為仍然是

  • like a colonial museum.

    像一個殖民博物館。

  • You cannot claim to be...

    你不能說自己是...

  • an encyclopedic collector of stolen objects.

    一個被盜物品的百科全書式收藏家。

  • But some are starting to reckon with this history.

    但有人開始算計這段歷史。

  • In 2014, the grandson of this British soldier from the 1897 Benin Expedition,

    2014年,這位1897年貝寧遠征的英國阿兵哥的孫子。

  • returned these two items he inherited to the Benin royal family.

    將他繼承的這兩件東西歸還給貝寧王室。

  • And in 2007, the Benin Dialogue Group was formed.

    並在2007年成立了貝寧對話小組。

  • Western museums and the Nigerian government have been discussing solutions ever since.

    此後,西方博物館和尼日利亞政府一直在討論解決方案。

  • But as of today, none of their Benin Bronzes have been returned.

    但截至目前,他們的貝寧青銅器都沒有歸還。

  • But this is just one story.

    但這只是一個故事。

  • This legacy is bigger than the Benin Bronzes.

    這個遺產比貝寧青銅器還要大。

  • There are hundreds of similarly contested objects in the British Museum,

    在大英博物館裡,有數百件類似的爭議物品。

  • with their own rich historiesand with original owners trying to retrieve them.

    有著自己豐富的歷史--而原主人也在試圖找回它們。

  • But the problem is even bigger than the British Museum.

    但問題比大英博物館更嚴重。

  • It's a legacy of centuries of colonial power that repeats itself again and again.

    這是幾個世紀以來殖民勢力留下的遺產,一次又一次地重演。

  • With different artifacts, in different museums.

    用不同的文物,在不同的博物館裡。

  • Because these requests aren't just about items,

    因為這些要求不僅僅是物品的問題。

  • they are also about cultural and historical identity

    它們也是關於文化和歷史認同的

  • and who gets to own it.

    以及誰能擁有它。

  • This is a long term project.

    這是一個長期的項目。

  • It may last beyond my own lifetime.

    它可能會持續到我自己的生命之外。

  • But the point is that it's now to start the process.

    但問題是,現在要開始這個過程。

  • We cannot wait any longer for a next generation to even begin

    我們不能再等了,下一代甚至要開始。

  • the necessary task and project of cultural reconstitution.

    文化重建的必要任務和項目;

This is the British Museum.

這就是大英博物館。

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B1 中級 中文 Vox 博物館 文物 尼日利亞 歷史 爭議

大英博物館有很多被盜的文物

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 06 日
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