B1 中級 美國腔 306 分類 收藏
開始影片後,點擊或框選字幕可以立即查詢單字
字庫載入中…
回報字幕錯誤
"Language alone protects us from the scariness of things with no names." - Toni Morrison, The Nobel Lecture in Literature, 1993
The average 20 year old knows between 27,000 and 52,000 different words.
By age 60, that number averages between 35,000 and 56,000.
Spoken out loud, most of these words last less than a second.
So with every word, the brain has a quick decision to make: which of those thousands of options matches the signal?
About 98% of the time, the brain chooses the correct word.
But how?
Speech comprehension is different from reading comprehension, but it's similar to sign language comprehension — though spoken word recognition has been studied more than sign language.
The key to our ability to understand speech is the brain's role as a parallel processor, meaning that it can do multiple different things at the same time.
Most theories assume that each word we know is represented by a separate processing unit that has just one job: to assess the likelihood of incoming speech matching that particular word.
In the context of the brain, the processing unit that represents a word is likely a pattern of firing activity across a group of neurons in the brain's cortex.
When we hear the beginning of a word, several thousand such units may become active, because with just the beginning of a word, there are many possible matches.
Then, as the word goes on, more and more units register that some vital piece of information is missing and lose activity.
Possibly well before the end of the word, just one firing pattern remains active, corresponding to one word.
This is called the "recognition point."
In the process of honing in on one word, the active units suppress the activity of others, saving vital milliseconds.
Most people can comprehend up to about 8 syllables per second.
Yet, the goal is not only to recognize the word, but also to access its stored meaning.
The brain accesses many possible meanings at the same time, before the word has been fully identified.
We know this from studies which show that even upon hearing a word fragment — like "cap"— listeners will start to register multiple possible meanings, like captain or capital, before the full word emerges.
This suggests that every time we hear a word, there's a brief explosion of meanings in our minds, and by the recognition point the brain has settled on one interpretation.
The recognition process moves more rapidly with a sentence that gives us context than in a random string of words.
Context also helps guide us towards the intended meaning of words with multiple interpretations, like "bat," or "crane," or in cases of homophones like "no" or "know."
For multilingual people, the language they are listening to is another cue, used to eliminate potential words that don't match the language context.
So, what about adding completely new words to this system?
Even as adults, we may come across a new word every few days.
But if every word is represented as a fine-tuned pattern of activity distributed over many neurons, how do we prevent new words from overwriting old ones?
We think that to avoid this problem, new words are initially stored in a part of the brain called the hippocampus, well away from the main store of words in the cortex, so they don't share neurons with others words.
Then, over multiple nights of sleep, the new words gradually transfer over and interweave with old ones.
Researchers think this gradual acquisition process helps avoid disrupting existing words.
So in the daytime, unconscious activity generates explosions of meaning as we chat away.
At night, we rest, but our brains are busy integrating new knowledge into the word network.
When we wake up, this process ensures that we're ready for the ever-changing world of language.
At TED, we're passionate about the human capacity to share ideas.
That's why the TED-Ed team created a program to help you mine your life experience for ideas and stories worth sharing, and then craft those experiences into compelling talks.
It's called TED Master Class, and you can learn more and download the app at ted.com/masterclass.
提示:點選文章或是影片下面的字幕單字,可以直接快速翻譯喔!

載入中…

載入中…

【TED-Ed】人類的腦袋如何辨識言語? (How do our brains process speech? - Gareth Gaskell)

306 分類 收藏
Celine Chien 發佈於 2020 年 7 月 30 日
看更多推薦影片
  1. 1. 單字查詢

    在字幕上選取單字即可即時查詢單字喔!

  2. 2. 單句重複播放

    可重複聽取一句單句,加強聽力!

  3. 3. 使用快速鍵

    使用影片快速鍵,讓學習更有效率!

  4. 4. 關閉語言字幕

    進階版練習可關閉字幕純聽英文哦!

  5. 5. 內嵌播放器

    可以將英文字幕學習播放器內嵌到部落格等地方喔

  6. 6. 展開播放器

    可隱藏右方全文及字典欄位,觀看影片更舒適!

  1. 英文聽力測驗

    挑戰字幕英文聽力測驗!

  1. 點擊展開筆記本讓你看的更舒服

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔