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  • Extreme weather is now a common staple of our daily news.

    在這個時代,人類對極端氣候已經是司空見慣。

  • The UK saw it's highest temperature ever back in July, while the US had it's second-hottest and second-wettest year on record.

    英國在去年 7 月創下史上最高溫紀錄,去年也是美國有紀錄以來第二高溫和第二潮濕的一年。

  • In fact, temperature records around the world were smashed last year with several countries all experiencing some of their hottest-ever months.

    除了英美兩國,去年全球各地均刷新高溫紀錄,而其中有幾個國家遭受到熱浪的侵襲。

  • Last month was the warmest June on record.

    上個月是歷年來最暖的 6 月。

  • By the weekend, at least 14 states are expected to break temperature records.

    我們預計本週末將有至少 14 個州會打破過去的氣溫紀錄。

  • This June, heat wave will possibly break previous national all-time records.

    今年 6 月的熱浪極有可能突破過往的國家最高溫紀錄。

  • In fact, Germany recorded it's highest-ever June temperature on Wednesday.

    事實上,德國剛於本週三寫下史上最高溫 6 月的紀錄。

  • And as our climate continues to change, natural disasters are on the rise.

    氣候不斷地變遷,連帶引發了更多的自然災害。

  • 2019 was one of the most active cyclone periods on record, with the biggest, Hurricane Dorian, killing at least 70 people and leaving 70,000 homeless.

    2019 年是史上最多颶風的一年,當年威力最強大的多利安颶風造成至少 70 人喪命、70,000 人無家可歸。

  • Meanwhile, the worst bushfire season in living memory over in Australia has fueled debates around the relationship between climate change and natural disasters once again.

    同時,發生在澳洲,人類有記憶以來最嚴重的林火也再次激起人們對氣候變遷與自然災害之間的關係討論。

  • But how exactly can natural disasters be affected by climate change?

    但氣候變遷到底如何造成自然災害呢?

  • Climate change refers to changes in weather over a long period of time.

    氣候變遷指的是天氣在一段長時間裡的變化。

  • Many of the ways we measure climate point towards a global warming trend.

    許多氣候測量方法都顯示了全球溫度有上升的現象。

  • And the planet getting hotter can influence extreme weather events in a number of ways.

    而我們相信地球持續增溫勢必引發系列自然災害事件。

  • Take wildfires for example.

    以野火為例。

  • Rising temperatures mean the periods of drought are more common and last longer.

    地球溫度上升意味著更常見及更長期的旱季。

  • If there is less moisture in the earth because of increased temperatures, things can catch fire and spread more easily.

    伴隨地球升溫而來的土壤水分不足,令樹林更容易著火,並迅速蔓延。

  • Australia has experienced it's hottest day on record.

    澳洲迎來了史上最炎熱的一天。

  • You know, we are seeing unprecedented conditions.

    這是我們從未見過的情況。

  • So in Australia for instance, while climate change can't be pinned down as the direct cause of bushfires, scientists have said that this hotter, drier climate has led to the fires becoming more intense.

    雖然無法證明氣候變遷與澳洲林火有直接關係,但科學家說,這個更高溫、更乾燥的氣候造就了更嚴重的林火。

  • A dry climate also impacts on local ecosystems.

    除了引發林火的可能性,乾燥的氣候也對各地的生態系統有影響。

  • And how plants and animals behave differently when their environment changes can have a knock-on effect on natural disasters.

    動植物隨著環境改變而出現的異常行為和反應,也對自然災害的發生有連鎖效應。

  • The relationship between the bark beetles and wildfires in California is just one example of this happening.

    樹皮甲蟲就是造成加州野火的元兇之一。

  • When the trees that are weakened by drought, they become more susceptible to attacks from the beetles.

    乾旱令樹木變得脆弱,以至於無法抵禦樹皮甲蟲的攻擊。

  • They burrow inside the tree and kill it.

    這些樹皮甲蟲鑽進樹心,啃食並致病樹木,導致樹的死亡。

  • In some areas of California, more than three quarters of trees have been killed by the beetles, leaving millions of dried up trees ready and waiting to catch fire.

    加州有些地區,面積超過四分之三的樹林因樹皮甲蟲而枯死,這些數以百萬計的枯樹成了引發火災的易燃物。

  • But a hotter world doesn't just affect fires and droughts.

    地球暖化引發的自然災害不僅限火災和旱災。

  • Melting glaciers and ice sheets are causing sea levels to rise.

    冰川和冰層的融化使海平面節節上升。

  • A warmer atmosphere also holds more water, which means heavy rain is more likely.

    更溫暖的大氣凝聚了更多的水氣,讓豪雨變更頻繁多見。

  • Flooding is more common.

    水災更常發生。

  • London and the rest of the Southwestern Ontario got hit with heavy rain Friday night and Saturday.

    倫敦和加拿大安大略省的西南部在週五和週六晚上遭受暴雨襲擊。

  • Four people have died in Spain as heavy rain and flash flooding continue to batter at the south east.

    東南部接連不斷的豪大雨和暴洪造成 4 人喪命。

  • The French capital has been drenched with three weeks of rain in just an hour.

    法國首都在一個小時內下了三星期的雨量。

  • So up to 20 flood warnings are in place now across England and Wales.

    英國和威爾斯發布了多達 20 則的洪水警報。

  • But it also has an effect on hurricanes.

    氣候變遷也加劇了颶風的頻繁形成。

  • Warmer air and ocean temperature results in hurricanes becoming more intense, while higher seas mean that storm surges are bigger and ultimately cause more damage.

    更溫暖的空氣及海洋塑造更猛烈的颶風,更高的海平面,意味著更大的風暴,最終造成更強大的危害。

  • Hurricanes are categorized by their wind speed.

    人類以風速來為颶風分等級。

  • And because warmer temperatures allow forming hurricanes to pick up more energy, Category 4 and 5 hurricanes are becoming more likely.

    當溫度越高,颶風就能吸收越多能量,也越有可能形成風力四、五級的颶風。

  • It is the strongest hurricane in modern records for the area.

    這是該地區域有紀錄以來最猛烈的颶風。

  • Since we last talked, there has been in intensification.

    距離上次報導至今,這裡的天氣狀況不斷惡化。

  • I'm sure you can tell right now, the wind is really, really, really, really strong out here.

    我相信你們應該看得出來。這裡的風真的非常強。

  • In fact, experts predict hurricanes in these highest categories to more than double in frequency by the end of the century.

    事實上,專家曾預言,直到本世紀末,最強颶風發生的頻率可能增加一倍以上。

  • Natural disasters have always happened.

    自然災害一直都在發生。

  • But throughout human history, we haven't had the ability to influence nature on such a large scale that it could actually change the climate.

    縱觀人類史,我們對大自然的影響力從來沒有大到足以改變氣候。

  • Now we do, and we have.

    現在我們有了,而且我們也做到了。

  • And as long as the temperature of our world continues to rise, we can expect events like fires, drought, flooding, and hurricanes to happen more often and on a bigger scale.

    只要地球的溫度持續上升,我們可以預計像火災、乾旱、水災、颶風這種災難將會更常發生,而且規模更大。

Extreme weather is now a common staple of our daily news.

在這個時代,人類對極端氣候已經是司空見慣。

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B1 中級 中文 英國腔 氣候 災害 變遷 高溫 溫度 暖化

【環境教育】地球生病了?氣候變遷如何造成各種自然災害? (How Does Climate Change Affect Natural Disasters?)

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    Cindy Lin 發佈於 2020 年 08 月 12 日
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