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  • On January 17, 1920, six armed men robbed a Chicago freight train.

    譯者: Pui-Ching Siu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • But it wasn't money they were after.

    1920 年 1 月 17 日,

  • Less than one hour after spirits had become illegal

    六個武裝男性搶劫芝加哥貨運火車。

  • throughout the United States,

    但他們的目標不是金錢。

  • the robbers made off with thousands of dollars worth of whiskey.

    美國烈酒被禁止一個小時之內,

  • It was a first taste of the unintended consequences of Prohibition.

    這些強盜劫走了 價值上千美金的威士忌。

  • The nationwide ban on the production and sale of alcohol in the United States

    這是禁酒令後第一個 意料之外的後果。

  • came on the heels of a similar ban in Russia

    美國對全國酒類生產與販售的禁止

  • that started as a wartime measure during World War I.

    是緊接著俄羅斯在第一次世界大戰

  • But the view in the Western world of alcohol

    作為戰時措施的類似禁令。

  • as a primary cause of social ills was much older.

    但在西方世界裡,

  • It first gained traction during the Industrial Revolution

    酒精早已被視為社會弊病。

  • as new populations of workers poured into cities

    它在工業革命時期開始受歡迎,

  • and men gathered in saloons to drink.

    成群的工人湧入城市,

  • By the 19th century, anti-drinking groups called temperance movements

    人們在酒吧聚集喝酒。

  • began to appear in the United States and parts of Europe.

    直到 19 世紀, 反酒精組織的禁酒運動

  • Temperance groups believed that alcohol was the fundamental driver

    開始出現在美國和歐洲部分地區。

  • behind problems like poverty and domestic violence,

    禁酒組織深信

  • and set out to convince governments of this.

    酒精是貧窮和家庭暴力等問題 背後的主要成因,

  • While some simply advocated moderate drinking,

    並因此致力說服政府。

  • many believed alcohol should be banned entirely.

    雖然有些人只推廣適量飲酒,

  • These movements drew support from broad sectors of society.

    大部分人相信酒精必須被徹底禁止。

  • Women's organizations were active participants from the beginning,

    這些運動得到社會各界的支持。

  • arguing that alcohol made men neglect their families and abuse their wives.

    女性組織從一開始就活躍地參與,

  • Religious authorities, especially Protestants,

    表示酒精導致男人 忽視家庭並虐待妻子。

  • denounced alcohol as leading to temptation and sin.

    宗教領袖,特別是新教教徒,

  • Progressive labor activists believed alcohol consumption

    指責酒精為誘惑和罪惡之源。

  • harmed workers' ability to organize.

    進步勞工主義活動分子相信

  • Governments weren't strangers to the idea of prohibition, either.

    飲酒會降低工人的組織能力。

  • In the United States and Canada, white settlers introduced hard liquors

    政府對禁酒令也不陌生。

  • like rum to Native communities,

    在美國與加拿大, 白人定居者把朗姆酒等烈酒

  • then blamed alcohol for disrupting these communities

    引入原居民社區,

  • though there were many other destructive aspects of their interactions.

    然後責怪酒精干擾了這些社區——

  • The American and Canadian governments banned the sale of alcohol

    即使他們的交流 有許多其他破壞性的方面。

  • to Native populations and on reservation land.

    美國與加拿大政府禁止

  • American temperance movements gained their first victories

    對原居民與保留地販售酒精。

  • at the state and local levels,

    美國禁酒運動在各州與各個社區

  • with Maine and several other states banning the sale and production of liquor

    取得第一次的勝利,

  • in the 1850s.

    緬因與其他數個州

  • In 1919 the 18th Amendment to the US Constitution

    在 1850 年代禁止酒精販售與生產。

  • banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation

    1919 年,美國憲法第 18 修正案

  • of all alcoholic beverages.

    禁止了所有酒類飲品的

  • The amendment took effect a year later under the Volstead Act.

    生產、販售與運輸。

  • Since the act did not ban personal consumption,

    一年後,修正案的 沃爾斯泰德法正式生效。

  • wealthy people took the opportunity to stock up while restaurants and bars

    因為法例沒有禁止個人飲酒,

  • rushed to sell their remaining supply.

    富人藉此機會大量購買

  • Workers lost their jobs as distilleries, breweries, and wineries closed down.

    餐廳與酒吧急著出售的存貨。

  • Meanwhile, organized crime groups rushed to meet the demand for alcohol,

    釀酒廠、啤酒廠與紅酒廠的 倒閉導致工人失業。

  • establishing a lucrative black market in producing, smuggling,

    同時,犯罪組織為了滿足酒精需求

  • and selling illicit liquor.

    而創立了生產、走私 和販售非法烈酒的黑市,

  • Often they worked side-by side with corrupt policemen

    以獲取暴利。

  • and government officials,

    他們通常與腐敗的 警察與政府官員合作,

  • even bombing the 1928 primary election for Illinois state attorney

    甚至在 1928 年伊利諾伊州 總檢察長選舉投炸彈,

  • in support of a particular political faction.

    為了支持特定的政治派系。

  • Tens of thousands of illegal bars, known as "speakeasies,"

    成千上萬俗稱為 「地下酒吧」的非法酒吧

  • began serving alcohol.

    開始販售酒精。

  • They ranged from dingy basement bars to elaborate dance-halls.

    它們出現在骯髒的地下室, 也出現在精美的舞廳。

  • People could also make alcohol at home for their own consumption,

    人們也可以在家釀酒以供飲用,

  • or obtain it legally with a doctor's prescription or for religious purposes.

    也可以透過醫生處方 或宗教原因合法獲取。

  • To prevent industrial alcohol from being consumed,

    為了避免人們飲用工業用酒精,

  • the government required manufacturers to add harmful chemicals,

    政府要求產商添加有害化學物質,

  • leading to thousands of poisoning deaths.

    導致上千人中毒死亡。

  • We don't know exactly how much people were drinking during Prohibition

    我們不知道具體有多少人 在禁酒令期間喝酒,

  • because illegal alcohol wasn't regulated or taxed.

    因為非法酒精沒被規管或徵稅。

  • But by the late 1920s,

    但在 1920 年代末期,

  • it was clear that Prohibition had not brought the social improvements

    我們清晰可見禁酒令 沒有帶來所保證的社會進步,

  • it had promised.

    反而是政治腐敗與 組織性犯罪的原因之一,

  • Instead it contributed to political corruption and organized crime

    被上百萬的市民藐視。

  • and was flouted by millions of citizens.

    在一次底特律啤酒廳的突擊搜查, 當地郡長、市長和國會議員

  • At one raid on an Detroit beer hall, the local sheriff, mayor and a congressman

    因為喝酒被逮捕。

  • were arrested for drinking.

    隨著 1929 年 經濟大蕭條的開始,

  • With the start of the Great Depression in 1929,

    政府亟需酒精交易的稅收,

  • the government sorely needed the tax revenue from alcohol sales,

    相信解除禁酒令能刺激經濟發展。

  • and believed that lifting Prohibition would stimulate the economy.

    1933 年,國會通過第 21 條修正案, 以廢除第 18 條修正案——

  • In 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment repealing the 18th

    唯一被完全撤銷的修正案。

  • the only amendment to be fully repealed.

    禁酒運動的成員

  • Members of the temperance movements

    相信酒精是社會問題的根源,

  • believed that alcohol was the root of society's problems,

    但是現實更為複雜。

  • but the reality is more complicated.

    雖然徹底禁止酒精行不通,

  • And while banning it completely didn't work,

    酒精對健康與社會的影響 現今依然持續著。

  • the health and social impacts of alcohol remain concerns today.

On January 17, 1920, six armed men robbed a Chicago freight train.

譯者: Pui-Ching Siu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 酒精 販售 禁止 修正案 政府

禁酒是個壞主意 (Banning alcohol was a bad idea)

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    shuting1215 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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