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  • For nearly a decade,

    譯者: Amanda Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

  • my collaborators and I at the Self-Assembly Lab

    近十年來,

  • have been working on material systems that transform themselves,

    我的合作夥伴和我 一直在自組裝實驗室

  • assemble themselves

    研究會自主變形、

  • and adapt to their environment.

    自組裝、

  • From our early work on 4D printing,

    適應環境的材料系統。

  • where we printed objects, dipped them underwater,

    我們早期從事 4D 列印的研究,

  • and they transform,

    將物體列印出來,浸泡到水裡,

  • to our active auxetics that respond to temperature and sunlight,

    然後他們自己會變形。

  • to our more recent work on active textiles

    後來我們做出會因溫度和陽光 做出反應的活性拉脹材料。

  • that respond to body temperature and change porosity,

    接著到我們更近期所做的活性布料,

  • to our rapid liquid printing work

    會根據體溫調節布料的孔隙率。

  • where we print inflatable structures

    我們還以快速液態列印,

  • that morph based on air pressure

    製作出隨氣壓

  • and go from one shape to another,

    變出各種形狀的可膨脹結構,

  • or our self-assembly work

    並且自行改變形狀。

  • where we dip objects underwater,

    還有材料自行組裝的研究,

  • they respond to wave energy and assemble themselves

    我們將物體浸泡在水裡,

  • into precise objects like furniture.

    它們會對波能做出反應

  • Or, at larger scales,

    而精準地自行組裝成 各種東西,像是家具。

  • using wind energy,

    還有規模更大的,

  • we have meter-diameter weather balloons

    像是利用風力,

  • that assemble in the airspace above a construction site.

    我們做出米徑氣象氣球,

  • For dangerous environments or harsh, extreme places

    它是在一個建築工地上方的空中 自行組裝起來的。

  • where it's hard to get people or equipment,

    在危險的環境 或條件嚴峻、極端的地方,

  • they can assemble in the airspace, and as the helium dies,

    人或是設備很難到得了。

  • they then come back to the ground,

    它們能在空中組裝,

  • and you're left with a big space frame structure.

    等到氦氣消散時,就會降到地面,

  • All of this research is about taking simple materials,

    留下一個空的大型框架結構。

  • activating them with forces in their environment --

    這些研究都是拿簡單的材料,

  • gravity, wind, waves, temperature, sunlight --

    利用環境中的力來活化它們

  • and getting them to perform,

    ──像是重力、風力、波力、 溫度、陽光等外力──

  • getting them to transform, assemble, etc.

    設法讓它們執行工作, 或讓它們變形、組裝等等。

  • How do we build smart things

    要怎麼製造智慧的東西,

  • without complex electromechanical devices?

    卻不需要用到複雜的電子機械設備?

  • But more recently we were approached by a group in the Maldives,

    但最近,馬爾地夫 有個團體跟我們聯繫,

  • and they were interested in taking some of this research and ways of thinking

    他們很有興趣將這個研究和思考模式

  • and applying it to some of the challenges that they've faced

    應用到他們在氣候變遷方面 所面臨的挑戰上。

  • in terms of climate change.

    有馬爾地夫的人跟你聯繫時,

  • And the first thing you do

    你要做的第一件事,

  • when you're approached by someone in the Maldives

    就是告訴他,你要現場勘查。

  • is say you want to go on a site visit.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    太棒了。

  • It is amazing.

    我們到了那裏,

  • So we went there

    而在離開時帶走的,

  • and I actually walked away with a really different perspective

    是一種對氣候變遷的未來 完全不同的看法,

  • on the future of climate change.

    因為你會感覺到馬爾地夫在下沉中。

  • Because you would imagine, you know, the Maldives are sinking.

    他們慘了。他們要怎麼辦呢?

  • They're screwed. What are they going to do?

    我離開時有個想法:

  • But I walked away thinking, they might be the model,

    我們可以將馬爾地夫 當作未來人工環境的範本,

  • the future model of the built environment, where they can adapt and be resilient

    讓他們能夠因應 氣候變遷,屹立不搖,

  • rather than our fixed, man-made infrastructure.

    而不受到傳統硬體建設的侷限。

  • But there's typically three main approaches

    因應海平面上升和氣候變遷,

  • to sea level rise and climate change.

    主要有三種典型的做法。

  • One of them is that we can do nothing and we can run away.

    第一種就是甚麼也不做, 逃走就好了。

  • And that's a pretty bad idea.

    這個主意太差了。

  • As more than 40 percent of the world's population

    超過 40% 的世界人口住在海邊,

  • is living in coastal areas,

    海平面上升,加上風暴越來越激烈,

  • as sea levels rise and as storms get worse and worse,

    越來越多地方會沉到海裡。

  • we're going to be more and more underwater.

    解決這個嚴重的問題事不宜遲。

  • So it's imperative that we solve this pretty demanding problem.

    第二種做法就是建造屏障物。

  • The second is that we can build barriers.

    我們可以築牆,

  • We can build walls.

    但問題是,用靜態方法

  • The problem here is that we take a static solution

    來解決超動態、超不穩定的問題,

  • trying to fight against a superdynamic, high-energy problem,

    大自然總會戰勝我們,

  • and nature is almost always going to win.

    所以這可能也行不通。

  • So that's likely not going to work either.

    第三種做法是疏濬。

  • The third approach is using dredging.

    疏濬就是將深海 海床的沙子大量吸上來,

  • So dredging is where you suck up a bunch of sand from the deep ocean

    放回海灘上。

  • and you pump it back onto the beaches.

    美國東北岸或西海岸年復一年,

  • If you go to any beach around the Northeast or Western Coast,

    靠著疏濬勉強維持沿岸的生存。

  • you'll see that they use dredging year after year after year

    這也不是很好的辦法。

  • just to survive.

    馬爾地夫也這麼做,

  • It's really not a good solution.

    一個月內就可用疏濬的沙子 造一個新的島嶼。

  • In the Maldives, they do the same thing, and they can build an island in a month,

    對於海洋生態系來說,這很糟糕。

  • a brand new island they build from dredging.

    到頭來,不疏濬都不行,

  • But it's really, really bad for the marine ecosystem,

    他們必須年復一年,持續這樣做。

  • and then they become addicted to dredging.

    但在他們建造好一個島嶼的同時,

  • They need to do that year after year.

    三個沙洲也自動形成。

  • But in the time that it took them to build that one island,

    沙子的量多到 足以讓一艘船擱在上面,

  • three sandbars built themselves,

    這就是我們說的現場勘查,

  • and these are massive amounts of sand

    真的很辛苦。

  • so big you can park your boat on it,

    (笑聲)

  • and this is what's called a site visit.

    波士頓那頭正值冬天。

  • It's really hard work.

    這是大量沙子

  • (Laughter)

    藉著波浪的力量和海洋地形 自然堆積起來的。

  • In Boston winters.

    所以我們就開始研究 沙洲是怎麼形成的。

  • This is massive amounts of sand that naturally accumulates

    如果能深入探究,

  • just based on the forces of the waves

    我們就能了解它和利用它。

  • and the ocean topography.

    它是藉由海洋的波能

  • So we started to study that. Why do sandbars form?

    加上地形的因素,將沙堆積起來的。

  • If we could tap into that,

    所以我們建議運用大自然的力量

  • we could understand it and we could utilize it.

    來建造而不是摧毀。

  • It's based on the amount of energy in the ocean

    在我麻省理工的實驗室, 我們裝設了一個波浪槽。

  • and the topography in the landscape that promotes sand accumulation.

    一個會製造波浪的大水槽。

  • So what we're proposing is to work with the forces of nature

    然後我們將幾何構造放到水中。

  • to build rather than destroy,

    我們試了各種不同的幾何構造。

  • and in my lab at MIT, we set up a wave tank,

    波浪和這些幾何構造交互作用,

  • a big tank that's pumping waves,

    造成亂流,並開始堆積起沙子,

  • and we placed geometries underwater.

    這些沙子就開始自己堆積起沙洲。

  • We tried all sorts of different geometries.

    這是個空拍的視角。

  • The waves interact with the geometry,

    在左手邊,你們會看到 海岸往外推進。

  • and then create turbulence and start to accumulate the sand

    中間,你們會看到形成的沙洲。

  • so the sand starts to form these sandbars on their own.

    這些是幾何結構和波浪的力量 合力造出來的。

  • Here's an aerial view.

    然後我們就開始如法泡製, 建造一個沙洲。

  • On the left-hand side, you'll see the beach that's growing.

    這是二月的時候在波士頓的事。

  • In the middle you'll see the sandbar that formed.

    我們有大捲的帆布,

  • So these are geometries that collaborate with the force of the wave to build.

    用可生物分解的材料做的,

  • We then started to fabricate one. This was in February in Boston.

    超便宜,又好用。

  • We have large rolls of canvas.

    我們將帆布縫製成這些大囊袋,

  • It's a biodegradable material,

    然後我們就飛到那兒。

  • it's super cheap, easy to work with.

    我知道你們在想甚麼。 這不是騙人的音樂節。

  • We then sew it into these large bladders,

    (笑聲)

  • and then we flew over there.

    這是真實生活。是真的。

  • And I know what you're thinking. This is not the Fyre Festival.

    我們飛到那裡, 行李裝的是這些帆布囊袋。

  • (Laughter)

    我們曬傷了,因為波士頓還是冬天。

  • This is real life. It's real.

    我們將這些帆布袋 裝滿沙子,放到水裡。

  • And we flew there with these canvas bladders in our suitcases,

    這些跟在模擬水槽中的 是一樣的幾何結構,

  • we got sunburned because it was Boston winter,

    只是這些是實際的比例大小。

  • and then we filled them with sand and we placed them underwater.

    裝滿沙子,

  • These are exactly the same geometries that you saw in the tank,

    放到水中,這些都只是 很簡單的幾何結構。

  • they're just human scale.

    在這些帆布袋前, 你們可以看到清澈的水。

  • Large objects filled with sand,

    波浪打過來,

  • we'd place them underwater, they're just really simple geometries.

    水很清澈。

  • In the front of them, you'll see it's clear water.

    但它們的後方有亂流。

  • The waves are crashing over.

    水和沙子混和在一起,

  • It's quite clear.

    把原本沉澱的沙子移動並堆積,

  • And then on the backside, there's turbulence.

    你們可以看到 友善的魟魚群來造訪我們。

  • The water and the sand is mixing up.

    左邊的是第一天,右邊是第三天。

  • It's causing sediment transport, and then the sand is accumulating.

    可以看到沙子 在淺色的區域呈波浪狀,

  • You'll see some friendly stingrays here that visited us.

    這就是沙子正在堆積當中,

  • On the left is day one, the right is day three.

    而且只花了兩天的時間。

  • You'll see the sand ripples in the light areas

    這是去年二月的事, 而且還在持續進行當中。

  • where the sand is accumulating

    這只是這項研究的起始階段。

  • just after two days.

    明年和接下來的幾年當中,

  • So this was last February, and it's very much ongoing work.

    我們打算透過衛星影像 和回聲深度量測學來做研究,

  • This is just in the beginning of this research.

    以便了解環境中

  • Over the next year and longer,

    天然的沙子堆積的 短程和長程衝擊情況。

  • we're going to be studying this through satellite imagery

    我們還有更大的遠景,

  • and bathymetry data

    也就是建造可潛水的幾何構造,

  • to understand what the short-term and long-term impacts are

    就像潛水艇一樣可浮可沉。

  • of natural sand accumulation in the environment.

    像是可適應變化的人工礁石,

  • And the bigger vision, though,

    某個方向有風暴來臨時, 可以讓它們就位。

  • is that we want to build submersible geometries,

    季節改變時,

  • almost like submarines that we can sink and float.

    就以這些結構利用波力來堆積沙子。

  • Like adaptable artificial reefs,

    我們認為這適用於許多海岸區域,

  • you could deploy them

    以及全球的許多島國。

  • if there's a storm coming from one direction or another

    但我們在思考如何建造智慧環境時,

  • or if the seasons are changing,

    像是建造智慧建築、 智慧汽車、智慧服裝,

  • you can use these adaptable reef structures

    通常都是要耗用更多能量——

  • to use the force of the waves to accumulate sand.

    更多電池、更多設備、 更多成本、更複雜,

  • And we think this could be used in many coastal regions

    到頭來也更多的失敗。

  • and many island nations around the world.

    所以我們現在不斷努力 設法用更少的資源建造智慧的東西,

  • But when we think about building smarter environments,

    簡單又智慧的東西。

  • think of smarter buildings or smarter cars or smarter clothing,

    所以我們在實驗室 和在這個特定的計畫中的提案,

  • that typically means adding more power,

    是利用簡單的材料,像是沙子,

  • more batteries, more devices, more cost, more complexity

    借助環境中的力量,像是波浪,

  • and ultimately more failure.

    來堆積和適應。

  • So we're always trying to think about how do we build smarter things with less?

    我想邀請各位跟我們同心協力, 來發展這項技術,

  • How do we build smarter things that are simple?

    來推廣並運用這樣的思考模式。

  • And so what we're proposing at the lab and with this project specifically

    我認為這是一個 對抗氣候變遷的新模型,

  • is to use simple materials like sand

    提高我們的適應力和韌性,

  • that collaborates with forces in the environment like waves

    而不再抵抗和恐懼。

  • to accumulate and adapt.

    請幫助我們將大自然的破壞力 轉化成建設力。

  • And we'd like to work with you, collaborate with us, to develop this,

    謝謝。

  • to scale it and apply this way of thinking.

    (掌聲)

  • We think it's a different model for climate change,

  • one that's about adaptation and resilience

  • rather than resistance and fear.

  • So help us turn natural destruction into natural construction.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

For nearly a decade,

譯者: Amanda Chu 審譯者: Marssi Draw

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B1 中級 中文 TED 沙子 堆積 幾何 波浪 馬爾地夫

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