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  • Optics, or the enhancement of our natural vision,


  • has been one of the biggest catalysts for science over the past 500 years,

    是 500 年來,科學最主要的 催化劑之一

  • Interestingly, it wasn't scientific interest, but more practical matters that led to the initial advancements in optics,

    有趣的是,光學發展最初不是 為了科學,而是更實際的問題

  • starting around 1440 when Johannes Gutenberg invented his printing press.

    1440 年古騰堡 (Johannes Gutenberg) 發明了印刷機

  • In short order, books, which had been a rarity,


  • were now becoming a widespread phenomenon.


  • All that new reading material meant more knowledge was circulating,


  • but it also meant that more people were straining their eyes,


  • likely as they read by candlelight.


  • And while spectacles had been invented in Italy around 1286,

    雖然眼鏡早在 1286 年 就在義大利發明

  • the need for reading glasses increased substantially.


  • Now that people could use lenses to see things more clearly,


  • they started wondering if vision could be enhanced to see things the human eye couldn't perceive by its own devices.

    人們開始思考,能否透過儀器 讓肉眼看到本來看不見的東西

  • Robert Hooke pursued microscopy, and 1665 he published his findings of worlds inside worlds,

    虎克 (Robert Hooke) 研究顯微鏡 1665 年公布他發現的小世界

  • which he called "cells" in the book "Micrographia."


  • At the other end of the spectrum,


  • Galileo innovated with telescopic lenses,

    伽利略 (Galileo Galilei) 改良了伸縮式望遠鏡

  • and in 1609, he had refined a telescope until he had an instrument powerful enough to see distant objects in the sky

    1609 年,他改進的望遠鏡 強大到足以看清天空遠處的物體

  • with an accuracy no one had before him.


  • He found that the moon had craters and mountains,


  • that Jupiter had moons of its own, and the whole system governing the earth and space was brought into question.

    木星有衛星。支配地球與 天體運行的整個系統開始被質疑

  • Not everyone was thrilled with all the things Galileo saw though.


  • For instance, it was taught at the time that the moon was a perfectly smooth sphere.

    例如當時大家認為 月亮是完全光滑的球體

  • Yet here was visual proof that was awfully hard to discount.


  • Upon finding moons around Jupiter, he also verified what Johannes Kepler had surmised:

    發現木星的衛星後,他也證實了 克卜勒 (Johannes Kepler) 的推測

  • that the earth was not the center of the universe,


  • dispelling another central dogma of Galileo's day.


  • Then almost exactly a year after Galileo died,


  • Isaac Newton was born.

    牛頓 (Isaac Newton) 誕生了

  • A lot that had been unknown was visible by now,


  • but much of it was simply the foundation for further questions.


  • What was light anyway? And color, for that matter?


  • What were the laws that governed the earth, and the heavens?


  • And could we capture them through keen observation?


  • Newton experimented extensively with optics,


  • and came to understand light as something of substance,


  • and colors as components of light at different frequencies.


  • Before Newton, people widely believed that the color was due to different amounts of light,

    在牛頓之前,人們普遍認為 顏色是因為光量不同造成的

  • with red being lots of light, and blue being mostly dark.


  • Newton's prism experiments showed that white light could not only be broken into its component colors with one prism,

    牛頓的三稜鏡實驗顯示 不但白光可分解出各種組成顏色

  • but that a second lens could recompose those colors back into white light again,


  • thus showing that color was a matter of light's refraction rather than how light or dark it was.

    這顯示顏色與光的折射有關 與亮度無關

  • Newton's studies of optics led to the development of the reflecting telescope.

    牛頓的光學研究 引領了反射式望遠鏡的發展

  • This, together with his study of planetary motion, led to his theory of gravitation,

    加上他對行星運動的研究 引發了他的萬有引力定律

  • one of the world's greatest examples of learning to see something invisible

    這是世上最偉大的例子之一: 要了解看不見的事物

  • by observing its effect on things that are visible.


  • So fast forward a few hundred years, and here we stand.


  • We've evolved from a single lens to optics that reveal the birth of a star in another galaxy,

    光學已從單一鏡片進化到可觀察 其他星系的新星誕生、

  • or a child developing in the womb,


  • or an electron whirling around an atom.


  • At a time when so much is visible, how we see the world around us matters even more than what we see.

    現代太多東西可以看到了,重要的 不是看到什麼,而是怎麼看這世界 甚至比我們所看到的重要。

  • Will we see a world where everything important has already been discovered?

    我們覺得世上所有重要的事物 都已被發現了嗎?

  • Or will we see one in which yesterday's discoveries are but a doorway to the breakthroughs of tomorrow?

    還是覺得昨日的發現,不過是 引領我們到明日突破的入口?

Optics, or the enhancement of our natural vision,


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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 牛頓 顏色 望遠鏡 眼鏡 發現

【TED-Ed】眼鏡背後的故事 (The story behind your glasses - Eva Timothy)

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    keep seeing 發佈於 2014 年 05 月 12 日