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  • Anyone into makeupfollowing Instagram beauty influencers, or just watching a bunch of YouTube tutorialsknows that Rihanna's new makeup line, Fenty Beauty, is blowing up.

    任何熱愛美妝的人,包括追蹤美妝達人 Instagram 帳號或看了一堆 YouTube 美妝教學影片的人,都知道蕾哈娜推出的化妝品牌 Fenty Beauty 大爆紅。

  • It dropped during New York Fashion Week in September of this year and since then the color-poppin' highlighters, Match Stixs, and lip gloss have created a buzz on social media.

    自今年 (2017) 9 月於紐約時裝周推出後,其色彩繽紛的打亮餅、多功能底妝棒和唇彩,在社交媒體上引起了熱議。

  • But the most notable thing about the line is the range of foundation shadesthere are 40 to be exact.

    該產品線最引人注目的就是廣泛齊全的粉底色調,確切來說共有 40 種色號。

  • And many of the deeper shades were sold out in stores and online within days of the launch, which is bananas because how often do you hear about darker shades of makeup being sold out?


  • For a long time, the beauty industry has neglected women of color as consumers, but our bad gal RiRi's incredibly successful makeup line has challenged the notion that the market for deeper shades isn't profitable for cosmetic companies.


  • It also raised an important question: "Why haven't most companies had the same kind of inclusivity or the success to go with it?"


  • "But the interesting thing about Fenty is that it's not the very first time that a beauty line has had expansive shades."

    「有趣的是 Fenty 並非第一個提供廣泛色調的美妝品牌。」

  • That's Tiffany Gill, Associate Professor of History and Black American studies at the University of Delaware.

    她是 Tiffany Gill ,美國德拉瓦大學歷史學和美國黑人科學學系的副教授。

  • "Before the Fenty Beauty line launched, Make Up For Everanother cosmetic company that caters a lot to professional makeup artistslaunched a campaign that also had a lot of skin tone inclusivity."

    「Fenty Beauty 出現之前,專業彩妝師愛用的 Make Up For Ever 也推出了膚色包容性的廣告活動。」

  • Other mainstream brands like Covergirl, Revlon, Maybelline, and L'Oreal also attempted to cater to the broader market of complexions.

    封面女孩 (Covergirl)、露華濃 (Revlon)、媚比琳 (Maybelline) 和 巴黎萊雅 (L'Oreal) 等主流品牌也試圖迎合更廣泛的膚色市場。

  • But it's quite easy to see where mainstream brands have fallen short.


  • I went to several drugstores and a major department store and I saw a clear trend.


  • There were 50 shades of beige to choose from.

    架上有 50 種米色調可供選擇。

  • This looks really pale, I'm not...I'm not that pale, I'm...

    這個色號看起來很白 ,我沒有......我沒有那麼白 ,我是......

  • But, the darker shades were limited to a handful of options.


  • When I tried to match my own skin with the available shades of foundation, you can see how these few products weren't gonna work for me.

    當我試著從現有的粉底色號中 ,挑選一款吻合膚色的粉底 ,你會發現這些色調都不適合我。

  • Is it really that hard to get it right?


  • Tasha Brown, a makeup artist based in LA, who's worked with a number of Hollywood stars, doesn't seem to think so.

    定居於洛杉磯並曾與許多好萊塢明星合作的彩妝師 Tasha Brown 似乎不這麼認為。

  • "As a makeup artist, it is the same technique I would use that for anyone from Karen Elson to Alek Wek."

    「身為彩妝師,無論是幫 Karen Elson 或 Alek Wek 化妝,我都是用同樣的技巧。」

  • "I first look at the undertone of the skin, then I look at the actual shade range, and then I pick the correct texture for their skin tone."


  • "So, there is no extra difficulty in understanding deeper skin tone."


  • So it's easy to find a foundation match, if you know your undertone, which is your underlying skin tone on a spectrum of cool to warm.


  • But finding deeper shades that actually offer the right undertones for women of color has been incredibly hard.


  • Maybe product development is where it really gets tricky?


  • "Yeah, actually, it's not very difficult to make deeper shades."


  • What?


  • "Depending on the base, all foundations have the same basic base."


  • "So for example, if we're talking about a standard foundation, which would be a water-and-silicone baseit's an emulsion where the water phase is surrounded by siliconethat basic emulsion would be the same."


  • "The only difference between a lighter shade and a darker shade is the ratio of pigments."


  • "And all foundations contain the same 4 pigments."


  • "It's titanium dioxide, iron oxide red, iron oxide yellow, and iron oxide black."


  • "So you just play with the ratios of those pigments to get to a lighter color or a darker color."


  • The trouble with finding the right shade isn't limited to foundation.


  • "Yes, it's not just foundation, you know? It is blush; it is lipstick where it's a beautiful color you know, but it's a light wash."


  • "And deeper skin tones tend to demand a little bit more pigment."


  • It's a problem that can be solved with an understanding of deeper skin tones.


  • But overall, in 2014, only 18% of American Chemical Society members were people of color.

    但整體而言,2014 年,美國化學協會只有 18% 的會員是有色人種。

  • In 2015, Black, Hispanic and Asian women made up 16.3% of workers in the personal care products industry.

    2015 年,在個人護理產業中,黑人女性、拉丁女性和亞洲女性共占 16.3%。

  • "As a consumer, you want to have options in comparison, you want things to be easy."


  • "I want to be able to walk into a store and see myself represented."


  • Over the past few years mainstream beauty companies have been making an effort to be more inclusive.


  • But why is it taking them so long to get it right?


  • "When it comes to beauty, they're usually based on very narrow ideas of what constitutes beautiful."


  • "And even if there are a wider range of women who are demanding products, a wider range of consumers who want to see themselves reflected and are willing to pay money to get these products, many brands are unwilling to cater to them in fears that it will damage their brand."


  • "In fears that it will make their brand less glamorous, less beautiful, if it's attached to black women, if it's attached to darker skin women."


  • The beauty industry has a long history of catering to a very specific type of person.


  • In the late 1940s, makeup for black women was available, but beauty companies still focused on skin lightening products for black women.

    在 1940 年代晚期,出現了為黑人女性打造的化妝品,但是化妝品公司還是只為這些女性製造淺色調的產品。

  • "We begin to see, really in the 1970s, an attempt to begin to show a wider range of beauty when it comes to makeup products."

    「一直到 1970 年代我們才真的看到有化妝品嘗試著展現更廣的美。」

  • It's when the cultural movementBlack is Beautifulbegan to rise as a celebration of blackness in the African American community.


  • Robert Williams, a leading figure in American psychology, wrote, "The Black is Beautiful movement" and the all-out effort to instill racial pride in black people have done much to neutralize and offset much of the damaging effects of oppression from being black.”

    Robert Williams,一位頂尖美國心理學巨擘曾寫道:「黑就是美,以及所有將黑人驕傲植入人心所做的努力,都對消弭平緩身為黑人而產生的壓抑有諸多貢獻。」

  • The movement was not only a response to colorism in the Black community, but also the prevalent racism in wider American culture.


  • That movement brought a change in the beauty industry toomore products were being created for the black community.


  • "And a lot of that really came from a lot of black-owned companies themselves."


  • "Companies like Fashion Fair cosmetics, which was developed by the Johnson Publishing company, which was the publishing company behind Ebony, for example."

    「一些像是 Fashion Fair 化妝品這類的公司,這間公司是由幕後金主是 Ebony 的 Johnson Publishing 出版業所創辦。」

  • Drugstore brands like Maybelline had Shades of You in the 90s; Black Opal had products that catered to women of color starting in 1994; Iman began selling in discount retailers in 2004; and Covergirl had the Queen Collection in 2006.

    一些像是 Maybelline 這樣的藥妝店在 90 年代推出了 Shades of You 的系列產品;自 1994 年開始,Black Opal 也有了迎合黑人女性的產品;2004 年, Iman 開始在特價商店販售其產品;2006 年,Covergirl 有了 Queen Collection 系列產品。

  • Then you had luxury brands like NARS, MAC, Bobbi Brown, Black-Up, and Make Up For Ever offering even more shades of brown at higher prices.

    接著有了像是 NARS、MAC、Bobbi Brown 這類的高級品牌,還有 Make Up For Ever 推出高單價的咖啡色調產品。

  • But it hasn't always been a smooth ride for all of these brands.


  • L'Oréal faced controversy when it was accused of whitewashing Beyonce in its 2008 campaign.

    像是 L'Oréal 就曾經引發爭議,這間公司被控告在其 2008 年的一個宣傳活動中洗白碧昂絲。

  • In 2016, MAC launched theirVibe Tribecollection which at worst is cultural appropriation and at best is pretty culturally insensitive.

    2016 年,MAC 推出了 Vibe Tribe 系列產品,說好聽點是文化誤用,說難聽點根本毫無文化敏感度。

  • Yep.


  • While mainstream brands have missed the mark, independent beauty brands have successfully filled the gaps, brands like koyVoca, Cocotique, and The Lip Bar all offer extensive products for women of color.

    當主流品牌失去了市場,獨立化妝品品牌,像是 koyVoca、Cocotique 和 The Lip Bar 都成功弭平隔閡並為有色人種女性打造出更多元的產品。

  • The gap between mainstream and independent brands is also evident in the way they reach their audience.


  • While major brands still turn to traditional advertising on TV and in magazines, a lot of independent creators rely heavily on social media.


  • "Social media has changed the beauty industry in tremendous ways."


  • "What is really interesting is that if you go on social media there are lots of women, some of whom are professionally trained makeup artists, some are just women who like make up and have sort of taught themselves and have huge followings."


  • "And they have followings of people who will listen to what they say."


  • "And so it's much more intimate than having, for example, just a celebrity at the front of your campaigns, which is often what Covergirl, and L'Oréal, and many of the big companies have done."

    「比起像是許多大公司像是 Covergirl 和 L'Oréal 的做法,讓一個名人出現廣告上,獨立媒體的這種作法更貼近消費者。」

  • Brands can try to copy Rihanna's marketing, but there's more to it than that.


  • If I love it, I'm gonna to go all the way to the end about it."


  • "And I dabbled in makeup before, but this is like my vision from the ground up, from the textures to the foundation shades, to the names."


  • "I have a 100% involvement in this process."


  • Even if Rihanna's makeup line doesn't live up to the hype over time, there's no denying that Fenty is causing a much-needed stir in the beauty industry.

    即使蕾哈娜的化妝品品牌並沒有越來越賣,但是不可否認的是 Fenty 在化妝品產業已掀起了一股不可或缺的旋風。

Anyone into makeupfollowing Instagram beauty influencers, or just watching a bunch of YouTube tutorialsknows that Rihanna's new makeup line, Fenty Beauty, is blowing up.

任何熱愛美妝的人,包括追蹤美妝達人 Instagram 帳號或看了一堆 YouTube 美妝教學影片的人,都知道蕾哈娜推出的化妝品牌 Fenty Beauty 大爆紅。

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