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  • When you imagine a playground, chances are, it looks something like this.

    當你想像一個遊樂場時,它很有可能看起來像這個樣子。

  • There's usually a slide, a bridge, and a high point with a domed roof.

    通常有一個滑梯、一座橋和一個帶著圓頂屋頂的高點。

  • That's what makes this a playground, and this, and this.

    所以這是一個遊樂場,還有這個,這個也是。

  • But what about this?

    那這個呢?

  • This isn't a junkyard.

    這裡不是垃圾場。

  • It's called an adventure playground.

    這叫做冒險遊樂場。

  • Here, there are no plastic play structures, just things like old tires, wood planks, and hammers and nails.

    這裡沒有塑料遊樂設施,只有舊輪胎、木板、槌子和釘子之類的東西。

  • Places like this represent one of the most debated ideas in play architecture: that playgrounds should be designed to let kids take more risks.

    像這樣的地方代表了遊樂建築中最富爭議的觀點之一:遊樂場的設計應該要能孩子學習承擔風險。

  • Now, this nightmare for helicopter parents is the hottest new thing in American playgrounds, because there's growing evidence that play like this is a whole lot healthier, and safer, for kids.

    現在,這個直升機父母的夢魘成了美國遊樂場的熱門話題,因為越來越多的證據顯示,這種遊樂場對孩子來說更健康、更安全。

  • "They can play with very dangerous tools, they can take really dangerous risks and overcome them.".

    「他們會把玩非常危險的工具、他們會冒著極大的風險並克服它們。」

  • "And this fills up a tremendous sense of self confidence in themselves, which is really quite fascinating to watch.".

    「這讓他們對自己充滿了自信,而這種現象令人著迷。」

  • That's Marjory Allen.

    這位是 Marjory Allen。

  • She was a British landscape architect and children's welfare advocate around the middle of the century.

    她是二十世紀中的英國景觀設計師及兒童福利倡導者。

  • In 1945, she visited Copenhagen, where she met an architect named Carl Theodor Sorensen.

    1945 年,她去了哥本哈根,並認識了建築師 Carl Theodor Sorensen。

  • Two years earlier, during the German occupation of Denmark, Sorensen noticed a problem: kids in his neighborhood weren't using playgrounds.

    兩年前 (1943年),在德國占領丹麥期間,Sorensen 發現了一個問題:街坊鄰居的孩子們不去遊樂場。

  • In fact, they were playing just about everywhere else, even in construction sites and bombed-out buildings.

    事實上,他們會遊樂場以外的地方玩耍,甚至是建築工地或炸毀的廢墟。

  • So, in a housing development in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Sorensen closed off an empty lot and filled it with building materials, discarded objects, and tools.

    所以,在哥本哈根郊區的一項住宅開發計畫中,Sorensen 封閉了一塊空地,並在裡面放滿建築材料、廢棄物品和工具。

  • Here, kids could dig, and build, and invent on their own.

    在這裡,孩子們可以自己挖土、建造和發明。

  • The play structures were ultimately designed by the kids themselves.

    遊樂場的結構由孩子們親自設計。

  • Sorensen called it a junk playground, and kids and parents loved it.

    Sorensen 稱之為垃圾遊樂場,孩子和家長都很喜歡它。

  • When she returned to England, Marjory Allen started opening similar playgrounds all across London.

    Marjory Allen 回到倫敦後,開始在倫敦各地開設類似的遊樂場。

  • And she renamed them: from junk to adventure.

    而她把它們命名為:從垃圾到冒險。

  • From there, they became a global phenomenon.

    自此,這變成了全球的現象。

  • They spread to Minneapolis, Boston, Toronto, Tokyo, Houston, Berkeley, Berlin.

    這個趨勢蔓延至明尼阿波利斯、波士頓、多倫多、東京、休士頓、柏克萊和柏林。

  • And to create these playgrounds, designers had to introduce a critical element: controlled risk.

    而為了打造這些遊樂場,設計師得考量一個關鍵要素:可控風險。

  • In this context, a risk isn't the same thing as a hazard.

    在這種情況下,冒險和危險是兩回事。

  • When you're climbing a tall tree, a rotten branch is a hazard: the threat is unexpected.

    當你攀爬一棵大樹時,腐爛的樹枝就是一種危險:不可預期的威脅。

  • But how high you climb is a risk: it's manageable, and requires you to actively make a decision.

    但你爬多高就是冒險:它是可控的,你得自主地做出決定。

  • You can break the elements of controlled risk down into 6 categories: heights, speed, tools, dangerous elements, rough and tumble play, and the ability to disappear or become lost.

    你可以把可控風險的要素分成六類:高度、速度、工具、危險要素、打鬧行為和消失或迷路的能力。

  • And a good adventure playground includes a mix of these.

    而一個好的冒險遊樂場是以上幾種要素的混合體。

  • Designers also focus on separation of space.

    設計師也得考慮空間分離。

  • To give kids the feeling of discovering things on their own, parents have to stay out.

    為了讓孩子們覺得他們能自己發現新事物,家長不能介入。

  • That can mean installing a physical barrier or providing things like restrooms, cafés, and seating, so that parental experience isn't an afterthought.

    這意味著設置屏障,或提供諸如洗手間、咖啡廳或休憩座椅等設施,提前將育兒體驗考量在內。

  • Finally, designers fill it with loose parts.

    最後,設計師用零散物件填補空間。

  • These are the manipulatable objects, the planks, barrels, bricks, and tools, that fuel risky play.

    冒險遊樂場的零散物品包括木板、桶子、磚塊和工具。

  • The idea behind all these design elements is that kids respond well to being treated seriously.

    這些設計元素的概念是:認真對待孩子,它們會表現得更好。

  • If they're presented with risky items with a serious functional purpose, they'll respond cautiously and conduct more experimentation.

    若他們面對的是具有重要功能性的危險物品,他們會謹慎應對,多方嘗試。

  • But if presented with an overly safe, static space, they often wind up seeking dangerous thrills that the built environment fails to provide, which can result in higher injury rates than risky play at adventure playgrounds.

    但若面對過於安全、一成不變的空間,他們往往會追求建築空間欠缺的危險刺激,這可能導致比冒險遊樂場更高的受傷率。

  • In the US, a culture of lawsuit-proof playscape design means that overly safe playgrounds are the norm.

    在美國,預防訴訟的遊戲景觀設計文化,意味著過度安全的遊樂場是標準典範。

  • And design philosophy has focused on how to reduce height, movement, and hard materials.

    而且設計理念集中在如何減少高度、移動和堅硬物料。

  • And that hasn't made playgrounds better.

    然而這沒有讓遊樂場變得更好。

  • When Marjory Allen visited American playgrounds in 1965, she called them "An administrator's heaven and a child's hell.".

    Marjory Allen 在 1965 年勘查美國遊樂場時,稱其為「管理員的天堂,孩子夢的地獄」。

  • But adventure playgrounds have recently begun to catch on in the US, perhaps due to an effort to introduce more unstructured play.

    不過,冒險遊樂場最近開始在美國流行起來,這或許是為了引進更多非結構化遊戲。

  • And their construction comes with a fair share of criticism.

    而這些建築引來了不少批評。

  • "They're making kids play with hammers and nails. That's not adventure, it's just work. They're tricking kids into building their own playground.".

    「他們要孩子們玩鐵槌和釘子。這不叫冒險,這叫做工。他們這是在哄騙孩子們自己建造遊樂場。」

  • Adventure playgrounds do have downsides.

    冒險遊樂場也有缺點。

  • They're pretty ugly, they require a lot of space, and they need resources to staff and maintain.

    它們很簡陋、需要很多空間、需要管理和維護的資源。

  • And as with any playground, there is an opportunity for injury.

    在任何遊樂場玩都有受傷的可能。

  • But the underlying philosophy of risky play can help kids live better lives.

    但是冒險遊戲的基本理念可以幫助孩子過上更好的生活。

  • For one thing, riskier playgrounds encourage more activity.

    其一,風險稍高的遊樂場能激發更多的活動力。

  • A study comparing playgrounds in London, where risky play spaces are popular, to those in San Francisco, Los Angeles, and New York found that children using London's playgrounds were up to 18% more physically active.

    有一項研究將冒險遊樂場廣受歡迎的倫敦與舊金山、洛杉磯和紐約進行比較,發現倫敦遊樂場的孩子,其體力活動力高出了18%。

  • The London playgrounds were cheaper and boasted fewer injuries, too.

    倫敦遊樂場成本較低,並以相對而言較少的受傷率自豪。

  • And multiple studies have shown that children who engage in risky play have better risk detection, creativity, and self esteem.

    而且多項研究顯示,參與冒險遊戲的孩子有更好的風險偵測能力、創造力和自尊心。

  • The playground is one of the only kinds of architecture designed specifically for children.

    遊樂場是專為兒童設計的建築之一。

  • And if these standard model we've decided on is seen as boring by its users, that's a problem.

    然而如果我們設定的標準模型令用戶感到無趣,那就是個問題了。

  • Better design can fix that, even if it's a little risky.

    即使有點風險,但更好的設計可以解決這個問題。

  • I had to look through so many pictures of playgrounds for this story that I decided to use Wix to create a website collecting all of the ugliest and saddest pictures of playgrounds that I could find.

    這個故事我不得不翻看很多操場圖片,才能讓我決定使用 Wix 創建一個網站,收集我能找到的所有最醜陋和最悲傷的操場圖片。

  • And now I have a perfectly curated arrangement of pictures of playgrounds next to graveyards and slides leading into dumpsters and whatever these kid-friendly statues are.

    現在,我有一些在墳墓旁的遊樂園精選照片和通往垃圾場的溜滑梯以及這些對兒童友善的雕像。

  • If you're looking for a simple way to share your passion about broken infrastructure or whatever it is that you're into these days, you should absolutely head to Wix.

    如果你正在尋找一種簡單的方法來分享你對損壞的基礎架構的熱情,或者你最近喜歡上的東西,那麼你絕對應該前往 Wix。

  • To create your own website just like this, click the link below.

    要創建一個像這樣的自己的網站,請單擊下面的鏈接。

  • Wix does not directly impact our editorial, but their support makes videos like this possible.

    Wix 不會直接影響我們的社論,但是他們的支持使像這樣的影片成為可能。

  • So check them out.

    所以去看看吧。

When you imagine a playground, chances are, it looks something like this.

當你想像一個遊樂場時,它很有可能看起來像這個樣子。

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 Vox 遊樂場 孩子 風險 建築 倫敦

為什麼安全的遊樂場對孩子來說不是很好? (Why safe playgrounds aren't great for kids)

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    jeremy.wang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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