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  • Palms sweaty,

    手心不停出汗,

  • heart racing,

    心怦怦跳個不停,

  • stomach in knots.

    胃像打了結一樣,

  • You can't cry for help.

    甚至不能搬救兵。

  • Not only is your throat too tight to breathe,

    不只你的喉嚨緊得無法呼吸,

  • but it'd be so embarrassing.

    而且這真的太丟人了,

  • No, you aren't being stalked by a monster,

    不是因為有鬼怪正在後頭追趕,

  • you're speaking in public,

    而是你正在公開演講!

  • a fate some deem worse than death.

    有時這比死亡更糟,

  • See, when you're dead, you feel nothing;

    至少死了,你便毫無感覺;

  • at a podium, you feel stage fright.

    在講台前,怯場則讓你如臨大敵,

  • But at some point we've all had to communicate

    但總有一天我們都得

  • in front of people,

    在眾人面前演說。

  • so you have to try and overcome it.

    所以你必須嘗試著去克服它,

  • To start, understand what stage fright is.

    從了解什麼是怯場開始。

  • Humans, social animals that we are,

    人類,身為群居動物的我們,

  • are wired to worry about reputation.

    時常會擔心我們的聲譽,

  • Public speaking can threaten it.

    而公開演講可能會威脅到它。

  • Before a speech, you fret,

    於是,在演講之前你開始煩惱

  • "What if people think I'm awful and I'm an idiot?"

    大家會不會覺得我很糟, 而且還是個笨蛋?

  • That fear of being seen as an awful idiot

    害怕被當作糟糕的笨蛋

  • is a threat reaction

    是種受到威脅的反應,

  • from a primitive part of your brain

    這反應源自 腦中一個原始區塊,

  • that's very hard to control.

    非常難以控制。

  • It's the fight or flight response,

    這是對抗或逃避的反應,

  • a self-protective process seen in a range of animals,

    一種在許多動物身上 可見的自我保護過程,

  • most of which don't give speeches.

    雖然牠們大部分都不需要演說。

  • But we have a wise partner

    在恐懼行為的研究中,

  • in the study of freaking out.

    我們有個聰明的合作夥伴 ──

  • Charles Darwin tested fight or flight

    查爾斯.達爾文, 他在倫敦動物園蛇類生態館中

  • at the London Zoo snake exhibit.

    測試了對抗或逃避反應。

  • He wrote in his diary,

    他在日記裡寫道:

  • "My will and reason were powerless

    「對於從未經歷過

  • against the imagination of a danger

    危險的想像,

  • which had never been experienced."

    我的意志或理智

  • He concluded that his response

    完全無能為力。」

  • was an ancient reaction unaffected

    他結論寫到:他的反應

  • by the nuances of modern civilization.

    是一種不受些微現代文明影響的古老反應。

  • So, to your conscious modern mind,

    所以,對你有意識的現代化頭腦來說,

  • it's a speech.

    這只是一場演說,

  • To the rest of your brain,

    但對剩下的部分來說,

  • built up to code with the law of the jungle,

    當你意識到演說可能失敗的後果時,

  • when you perceive the possible consequences

    弱肉強食的叢林法則。

  • of blowing a speech,

    則將累積演變成

  • it's time to run for your life

    是時候該選擇要趕快逃命去

  • or fight to the death.

    或是奮力一搏,至死方休。

  • Your hypothalamus, common to all vertebrates,

    跟所有的脊椎動物都一樣,

  • triggers your pituitary gland to secrete

    你的下視丘刺激腦下垂體去分泌

  • the hormone ACTH,

    名叫 ACTH 的荷爾蒙,

  • making your adrenal gland

    促使腎上腺

  • shoot adrenaline into your blood.

    釋出腎上腺素進入你的血液

  • Your neck and back tense up,

    你的脖子及背部變得緊蹦,

  • you slouch.

    頭部低垂,

  • Your legs and hand shake

    你的手腳顫抖著,

  • as your muscles prepare for attack.

    因為你的肌肉正做好準備攻擊。

  • You sweat.

    你不停地流汗,

  • Your blood pressure jumps.

    血壓飆高,

  • Your digestion shuts down

    消化系統停工,

  • to maximize the delivery of nutrients

    使養分及氧氣大量的傳送到

  • and oxygen to muscles and vital organs,

    肌肉及主要的器官

  • so you get dry mouth, butterflies.

    所以你感到口乾舌燥,非常焦慮,

  • Your pupils dilate,

    你的瞳孔擴張,

  • it's hard to read anything up close,

    看不到任何近距離的東西,

  • like your notes,

    像是你的小抄,

  • but long range is easy.

    看遠距離則容易許多

  • That's how stage fright works.

    這就是怯場運作的過程

  • How do we fight it?

    那我們該如何對抗它呢?

  • First, perspective.

    首先,正視它

  • This isn't all in your head.

    這不全然都是你的想像,

  • It's a natural, hormonal, full body reaction

    那是種自然、受荷爾蒙影響,

  • by an autonomic nervous system on autopilot.

    由自主神經系統自動產生的全身反應。

  • And genetics play a huge role in social anxiety.

    遺傳也在社交焦慮中扮演一個很重要的角色

  • John Lennon played live thousands of times.

    約翰藍儂現場演出了上千場次,

  • Each time he vomited beforehand.

    但在每次演出前他還是緊張地嘔吐,

  • Some people are just wired

    有些人在大眾前表演

  • to feel more scared performing in public.

    就是感到比較驚慌一點

  • Since stage fright is natural and inevitable,

    因為怯場是自然且無法避免的,

  • focus on what you can control.

    所以專注在你可以控制的事物上。

  • Practice

    提前

  • a lot,

    找一個

  • starting long before

    近似於

  • in an environment similar to the real performance.

    真實演出環境的地方,

  • Practicing any task increases your familiarity

    開始大量不停地練習。練習可以同時增加你的純熟度

  • and reduces anxiety,

    並減少你的焦慮,

  • so when it's time to speak in public,

    於是到了實際公開演說的時候,

  • you're confident in yourself

    在實際上台的前幾週,

  • and the task at hand.

    你對自已及手上的任務就會充滿自信。

  • Steve Jobs rehearsed his epic speeches

    史帝夫.賈伯斯

  • for hundreds of hours,

    就花了幾百個小時

  • starting weeks in advance.

    排練他深具魄力的演講

  • If you know what you're saying,

    如果你知道你正在說什麼,

  • you'll feed off the crowd's energy

    你將從群眾中得到能量來源,

  • instead of letting your hypothalamus

    而不會讓你的下視丘

  • convince your body it's about to be lunch

    說服你的身體說你即將成為

  • for a pack of predators.

    獵食者的午餐

  • But hey, the vertebrate hypothalamus

    不過,脊椎動物的下視丘

  • has had millions of years more practice than you.

    可比你多練習了幾百萬年,

  • Just before you go on stage,

    所以在你上台前,

  • it's time to fight dirty

    玩一點小把戲

  • and trick your brain.

    哄騙你的大腦吧

  • Stretch your arms up and breath deeply.

    高舉延伸你的手臂,深呼吸,

  • This makes your hypothalamus trigger

    這使你的下視丘刺激產生

  • a relaxation response.

    一種放鬆反應。

  • Stage fright usually hits hardest

    怯場通常在演講前

  • right before a presentation,

    發作得最嚴重,

  • so take that last minute to stretch and breathe.

    所以把握這最後一分鐘延伸你的手臂及深呼吸,

  • You approach the mic, voice clear,

    然後靠近麥克風,帶著清晰的嗓音,

  • body relaxed.

    放鬆的肢體,

  • Your well-prepared speech convinces the wild crowd

    你早已做好萬全準備的演說會說服大眾,

  • you're a charismatic genius.

    你是一個極具魅力的天才。

  • How?

    怎麼會?

  • You didn't overcome stage fright,

    你不是克服了怯場,

  • you adapted to it.

    而是去適應它

  • And to the fact that no matter

    事實上,無論你

  • how civilized you may seem,

    看起來多進化,

  • in part of your brain,

    你頭腦中的一部分

  • you're still a wild animal,

    仍舊是一個野生動物,

  • a profound, well-spoken wild animal.

    一個知識淵博、 能言善道的野生動物

Palms sweaty,

手心不停出汗,

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 怯場 下視丘 演說 反應 動物

【TED-Ed】瞭解上台恐懼 並且克服它 (The science of stage fright (and how to overcome it) - Mikael Cho)

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    Sofi 發佈於 2014 年 04 月 24 日
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