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字幕列表 影片播放

  • Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

  • Humankind loves to build walls.

    人類很喜歡築牆。

  • Have you ever noticed that?

    你們有注意到這點嗎?

  • We build walls for everything:

    我們會為各種目的造牆:

  • for shelter, for protection, for privacy.

    為了遮蔽、為了保護、為了隱私。

  • Over the past 70 years,

    在過去七十年間,

  • the number of barriers between countries has doubled.

    國家間的邊境屏障數量加倍了。

  • Right now, there are more walls than at the end of the Second World War,

    現今,牆的數目 比第二次大戰結束時還多,

  • more than during the Cold War.

    比冷戰時期還多。

  • Growing up in Germany,

    我在德國長大,

  • the fall of the Berlin Wall always felt to me

    我總覺得柏林圍牆的倒塌

  • like the introduction of a new world, a world without barriers.

    讓我看到了一個嶄新的世界, 一個沒有隔閡的世界。

  • But since the attacks of 9/11,

    但,九一一事件之後,

  • the construction has experienced an extreme rise.

    築牆進入另一波高峰。

  • Since then, the amount has doubled,

    從那時起,數量就加倍了,

  • with about 30 new structures that were planned or built.

    規劃或建造出來的牆大約有三十座。

  • Walls and fences are often built with the intention of security,

    建造圍牆通常是為了安全起見,

  • security from another group of people,

    抵禦其他族群的人、

  • from crime, from illegal trades.

    犯罪、非法交易。

  • But walls and fences only provide us with a feeling of security,

    但圍牆只能讓我們覺得好像安全,

  • which is different from real security.

    但與真正的安全感有所不同。

  • Even though they might make us feel safe,

    雖然這些建築物能讓我們感到安全,

  • the structures themselves can't protect us.

    建物本身其實無法保護我們。

  • Instead, they do something else:

    它們帶來適得其反的效果:

  • they separate.

    分裂了我們。

  • They create an us and a them.

    這些建築物創造出了 「我們」和「他們」。

  • They establish an enemy.

    這些建築物樹立了敵人。

  • Walls make us build a second wall in our head, a mental wall.

    實體的牆讓我們在腦中 建造出第二座牆,心理的牆。

  • And those mental walls slowly make us lose sight

    那些心理的牆慢慢地讓我們看不見

  • of all the things we have in common with the people on the other side.

    我們和另一邊的人有什麼共通點。

  • The other way around,

    反過來,

  • mental walls can grow so strong that they encourage us to build,

    心理的牆也會越來越茁壯, 鼓勵我們去建造、

  • keep or strengthen physical walls.

    維持或強化實體的牆。

  • Physical and mental walls are closely interlinked,

    實體和心理的牆有很密切的關聯,

  • and one almost always comes with the other.

    兩者幾乎是焦孟不離。

  • It's a constant cycle:

    這是種持續性的循環:

  • physical walls empower mental walls, and mental walls empower physical walls

    實體的牆讓心理的牆變強大, 心理的牆讓實體的牆變強大,

  • until at one point one part falls away,

    直到某一部分垮掉,

  • and the cycle is disrupted.

    循環才會中斷。

  • When the Berlin Wall was being built,

    當柏林圍牆建造時,

  • it was hard to tell who the wall was facing,

    很難分別這座牆是要阻隔誰,

  • because the people living around it identified as one.

    因為生活在圍牆附近的人 覺得彼此並無差異。

  • There was no us and them.

    沒有「我們」和「他們」的區別。

  • There was no others.

    沒有「其他人」。

  • During the time of separation,

    在分裂的期間,

  • both sides developed differently and formed individual identities.

    兩邊有了不同的發展, 形成了個別的自我認同。

  • All of a sudden, there was an us and a them.

    突然間,就分出了 「我們」和「他們」,

  • A mental wall was built,

    心理的牆被築起。

  • and when the Berlin Wall fell again in 1989,

    當柏林圍牆在 1989 年拆除時,

  • this mental wall in the head of the people stayed.

    人民腦海中這座 心理的牆仍然留存著。

  • Eastern Germans had to be reintegrated into their own country,

    東德人必須重新整合 回歸到自己的國家中,

  • and even though they didn't have to move places,

    即使他們不需要搬遷,

  • many still today feel like they have never fully arrived.

    至今許多人仍然覺得 他們始終沒有歸屬感。

  • Those remaining effects of the mental wall are also measurable.

    心理的牆所留下的效應是可量化的。

  • A study from the Freie University of Berlin in 2005

    柏林自由大學在 2005 年 所做的一項研究指出,

  • shows that even 15 years after the reunification,

    即使重新統一已經十五年,

  • Germans still believed that cities on the other side of the former wall

    德國人仍然認為 在已倒塌圍牆的另一邊城市

  • are further away than they really are.

    比實際的距離還要遙遠。

  • The interesting thing is that they found a link between political attitude

    有趣的是,他們發現政治態度

  • and estimation of the distance.

    和預估距離遠近兩者間是相關的。

  • The more a participant was against the German reunification,

    越是反對德國重新統一的受測者,

  • the further away they estimated cities to be.

    所預估另一邊城市的距離就會越遠。

  • It's the mental wall which keeps cities on the other side far away,

    是心理的牆讓另一邊的 城市顯得很遙遠,

  • and the higher and stronger this mental wall,

    這座心理的牆越高、越堅固,

  • the more difficult they seem to be reached.

    另一邊的城市似乎就越遙不可及。

  • I tried to repeat this study

    我試著針對成長過程中

  • with a group of young Germans who grew up without the wall

    沒有歷經柏林圍牆的 年輕德國人重新進行這項研究,

  • to see if these effects are still measurable nowadays.

    我想知道現今是否 仍然能發現這些效應。

  • And the results show that this generation,

    結果顯示,這一代,

  • my generation,

    我所屬的世代,

  • is just kind of bad at geography in general --

    地理基本上都蠻爛的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • East and West.

    東、西都一樣。

  • But in our defense, this could be seen as an improvement, right?

    但我們可以辯解說 這也算是某種改善,對吧?

  • We never experienced the actual wall.

    我們從來沒有經歷過實體的牆。

  • This physical barrier was never able to make us build a mental wall

    打從一開始,這座實體的障礙

  • in the first place.

    就從來沒有讓我們築起心理的牆。

  • I would love to take this as a serious indication

    我很希望這項發現意味著

  • that there could be a future without a mental wall dividing Germany,

    德國未來可能不會有 一道分化彼此的心牆存在。

  • but I think we have to face reality:

    但我想我們也必須要面對現實:

  • this one wall could be disappearing,

    這一座牆可能會消失,

  • but in the meanwhile, a billion others are constructed.

    但在這期間,還有十億座牆 正在建造中。

  • One global trend we are currently experiencing

    我們目前所經歷到的一項全球趨勢

  • is the rise of gated communities.

    就是門禁(封閉式)社區的興盛。

  • And in a way, gated communities can be seen the same exact way as countries,

    在某種層面上, 門禁社區就像國家一樣,

  • just on the small scale --

    只是規模較小——

  • neighborhoods surrounded by walls and fences

    街坊被圍牆和柵欄環繞,

  • to protect citizens from other citizens --

    保護住民不受其他住民的侵擾——

  • and the only difference is, it's by choice.

    唯一的差別是,這是人們的選擇。

  • But the physical and mental effects on the people living inside

    但,就所受到的身體 及心理影響來說,

  • and the people kept outside

    住在裡面的人 和被拒於外的人是相同的,

  • are the same,

    城市、街坊被分離開來,

  • separating cities, neighborhoods

    連遊樂場都是。

  • and even playgrounds.

    去年春天,我在 布魯塞爾的兩間小學

  • In the spring of last year, I worked on a design project in Brussels

    進行一個設計計畫, 就發現了這個狀況。

  • at two elementary schools where this was the case.

    兩間學校的入口和運動場是共用的。

  • Both the schools share an entrance and the schoolyard.

    兩間學校都用荷語教學。

  • Both schools teach in Dutch.

    但其中一間收的學生 主要是比利時的孩子,

  • But one school is mainly visited by Belgian children,

    另一間則是移民家庭的孩子。

  • and the other school, by immigrant children.

    兩間學校用圍牆和柵欄分開,

  • The schools are separated by walls and fences,

    孩子們唯一能夠互動的地方

  • leaving the children no point of interaction

    就是運動場上將他們隔開的柵欄。

  • other than this fence on the schoolyard that separates them.

    我開始在那裡工作時,

  • When I started to work there,

    看到這些孩子要站在柵欄旁

  • it made me sad to see children having to stand at a fence

    才能和另一邊的朋友 交談,讓我很感傷。

  • to talk to their friend on the other side.

    但,更糟的是,大部分的孩子

  • But what's even worse is that most of the children

    永遠不會有機會 和另一邊的人交朋友。

  • will never get the opportunity to even make a friend on the other side.

    學校應該是讓孩子,所有的孩子,

  • School should be the place where children, all children,

    聚集在一起學習的地方——

  • come together and learn --

    向老師學習,但更重要的是,

  • learn from the teacher, but more importantly,

    向彼此學習。

  • learn from each other.

    多樣性越豐富,能學的就越多。

  • And the more diversity, the more there is to learn.

    事實上,學校可能就是我們一生中,

  • In fact, school might be the only time in our lives

    有機會讓我們與有著 社會差異的彼此,建立連結的地方。

  • where establishing a contact despite social differences is even possible.

    在孩子發展過程的 這個時期將他們隔離,

  • Separating children during this time of their development

    只會讓融合變得極度困難,

  • will make integration extremely difficult,

    或甚至根本不可能。

  • if not impossible.

    但不知怎麼的, 似乎只有我一個人

  • And yet, somehow,

    覺得布魯賽爾的這道柵欄有問題。

  • I seem to be the only one having a problem with this fence in Brussels.

    大部分的家長、老師、孩子

  • Most of the parents, teachers and children

    都已經完全無視這道柵欄, 甚至連質疑都免了。

  • stopped seeing or at least questioning the structure.

    實情就是這樣。

  • It's just how it is.

    沒有人用其他方式看待它。

  • Nobody has ever seen it differently.

    人人都支持它。

  • And people are in favor of it.

    我曾經問過一個男孩是否 會想和另一邊的孩子玩,

  • I once asked a boy if he would like to play with the other side,

    他說:「不會。」

  • and he said, "No."

    接著我問他,如果沒有 柵欄的阻隔,會和他們玩嗎?

  • Then I asked if he would play with them if the fence wasn't there,

    他說:「有可能。」

  • and he said, "Probably."

    但,接著他馬上 補充說不該拆掉柵欄,

  • But then he quickly added that the fence should stay,

    因為另一邊的人不好, 都不把他的球還給他。

  • because the other side is mean and they never give back his ball.

    這很有趣,因為我和 兩邊的孩子都談過,

  • It's funny, because I talked to children from both sides,

    大家都告訴我另一邊的人不好,

  • and everyone told me that the other side is mean

    且都是因為不會把球還回去。

  • because they never give back the ball.

    兩邊的孩子都不喜歡對方,

  • The children on both sides dislike each other,

    在柵欄旁經常會有孩子發生口角,

  • and there are regularly arguments breaking out at this fence,

    這也是大家認為柵欄應該 留在那裡的主要原因:

  • which is also the main reason why people feel the need

    它能保護雙方的孩子 或至少雙方的玩具,

  • for it to be there:

    且能預防混亂。

  • it protects the children from each other,

    不知何時,孩子開始從柵欄下

  • or at least their toys,

    爬過去把他們的球取回,

  • and it prevents chaos.

    而學校的因應方式 就是加上這些金屬板。

  • At some point, the children started to crawl beneath the fence

    現在孩子改從上面爬過去。

  • to get their ball back,

    在布魯塞爾,我不知道何者先發生:

  • and the reaction of the schools was to put these metal plates there.

    是心理的牆太堅固, 導致他們要建造實體的牆,

  • Now they climb over.

    或是先有這個在運動場上

  • I don't know what came first in Brussels:

    突顯社會差異的柵欄。

  • a mental wall that grew too strong that it made them build a physical fence,

    但當我開始在那裡工作時,

  • or this fence that now emphasizes the social differences,

    我知道自己想要 做點什麼來改變這個情況。

  • even on the schoolyard.

    我想要讓兩邊的人都再次了解 他們其實有很多的共通點。

  • But what I did know when I started to work there

    對孩子來說,這並不困難,

  • was that I wanted to change something about the situation.

    因為即使一個運動場是說荷語,

  • I wanted to show both sides again how much they have in common.

    另一個運動場是說法語、 土耳其語及阿拉伯語,

  • For children, this isn't very hard,

    但,「玩樂」是他們的共通語言。

  • because even though one schoolyard speaks Dutch

    結果發現,想要玩樂的渴望

  • and the other schoolyard, a mix of French, Turkish and Arabic,

    遠大於他們之間存在的所謂差異。

  • they all speak the universal language of play.

    我在柵欄處設置了不同的遊戲,

  • And it turned out the desire to play

    將柵欄轉變成一種介面, 雙方的共有地,而不是障礙。

  • is a lot stronger than all the supposed differences between them.

    突然間,孩子們被吸引聚集在一起,

  • I installed different games at the fence,

    交換鉛筆,

  • which turned it into an interface, a common ground,

    用電話交談。

  • instead of a barrier.

    其中尤以電話的設計最為成功,

  • And all of a sudden, children were drawing together,

    因為孩子們很驚訝

  • exchanging pencils

    他們能夠透過這個裝置 聽到另一邊的聲音,

  • and talking on the phone.

    因此他們講個不停。

  • Especially the phones were a great success,

    就小學而言, 家長扮演非常重要的角色,

  • because they were so amazed

    他們會形塑出自己孩子的 日常生活以及環境。

  • by the fact that they can hear the other side through this device

    所以我知道,若我想要改變現況,

  • that they couldn't stop speaking.

    我得想辦法讓家長也能理解

  • In the case of an elementary school, parents play a very big role

    他們和另一邊有多少共通點。

  • in shaping the everyday life and the environment of their children.

    但,對家長的難度就高很多,

  • So I knew that if I wanted to make a difference,

    因為大部分的家長說不同的語言,

  • I had to somehow show them, too, how much they have in common

    在各行各業領著不同薪資,

  • with the other side.

    有不同的社交圈,

  • But for parents, this was a lot more difficult,

    不同的宗教信仰,

  • because most of them speak different languages,

    有著不同的文化背景,

  • work different jobs with different incomes,

    且有不同的價值觀。

  • live in different social circles,

    然後還有我,一個學生,

  • believe in different religions,

    與上述那些完全迥異。

  • experience different cultures

    我要如何讓他們理解

  • and share different values.

    他們有許多共通點?

  • And then there was me, a student,

    我選擇不要由我自己來說服他們,

  • different in all of these aspects again.

    而是讓他們自己的孩子來講。

  • So how could I show them

    我在運動場上設計了一場照片展,

  • how much they have in common?

    讓他們看到他們的孩子 透過柵欄在玩樂。

  • I chose not to convince them myself

    展覽到尾聲時,

  • but by letting their own children do the talking.

    我請大家寫下他們的 想法、點子和希望,

  • I designed a picture exhibition on the schoolyard

    寫在這些大木箱上,

  • showing them their children playing together through the fence.

    我把這些箱子貼上 「你認為呢?」的標籤。

  • At the end of this exhibition,

    許多人在上面寫下「是的」。

  • I asked people to write down their thoughts, ideas and wishes

    「是的」什麼?

  • on these big wooden boxes,

    我始終沒有說出我的意見 或之後該採取什麼行動,

  • and I labeled the boxes with, "What do you think?"

    所以,他們是贊成哪個問題?

  • A lot of people wrote "Yes" on it.

    我問他們,他們說, 是的,柵欄應該拆除。

  • Yes, what?

    是的,我們想要和另一邊一起玩。

  • I never mentioned my opinion or an action that should follow,

    這些照片本身的意涵就足以回答

  • so which question were they answering with yes?

    根本沒被提出來的問題。

  • When I asked, they said yes, the fence should go.

    大家又再次看見了這個情況有多荒謬,

  • Yes, we want to play with the other side.

    不用我來說,

  • The pictures implied enough to answer a question

    就能感受到柵欄是有多麼地多餘。

  • that was never proposed.

    這場展覽一次讓兩邊 都看到了他們的相似之處。

  • People were seeing the absurdity of the situation again

    那天,沒有「我們」 與「他們」之別,

  • and felt how unnecessary this fence is

    沒有「其他人」。

  • without me forcing an opinion on them.

    心理的牆開始瓦解。

  • The exhibition showed the two sides their similarities for once.

    我選用「瓦解」這個詞,

  • That day, there was no us and them,

    是因為破除心理的牆 是一趟漫長的旅程,

  • there was no others.

    且破除心理的牆可能會比

  • The mental wall started to crumble.

    單純拆除實體的牆還要困難許多。

  • I chose the word "crumbling,"

    我們必須要挑戰我們的意見和信念,

  • because breaking a mental wall is a long journey,

    甚至可能需要承認我們的過錯。

  • and breaking a mental wall can be a lot more difficult

    在布魯塞爾發生的這件事 是向前邁進的一大步,

  • than simply tearing down the physical one.

    但,德國是歷經數個世代 才踏出了這一步。

  • We have to challenge our opinion and beliefs

    世界各地有許多例子

  • and maybe even admit our own wrongs.

    都和我在布魯塞爾及德國的 經歷有著異曲同工之妙,

  • So what happened in Brussels was a big step,

    這些例子足夠讓我們學到教訓了。

  • a step that has been taking generations in Germany.

    但,我們仍然試圖用築牆 來解決築牆無法解決的問題,

  • There are many examples from all over the world

    因為築牆並不能治本。

  • telling the same story I experienced in Brussels and Germany,

    若築牆有用,那也只是減輕症狀而已。

  • enough examples from which we could have learned.

    所以,下次當你計劃要築牆時,

  • But still, we seek walls as solutions for problems that they cannot solve,

    或計劃要支持某位想要築牆的人時,

  • because walls don't fight the root of our problem.

    我希望你能記得 你會造成的影響是什麼。

  • If anything, they reduce the symptoms.

    因為,這種簡單的建物 很難創造出更多安全感。

  • So the next time you are planning to build a wall

    反之,它會影響到 每天與它共同生活的人,

  • or you are planning to support someone who wants to build a wall,

    儘管有地理上的邊界區別,

  • I want you to remember the impact you are really having.

    人們其實共享著許多文化和價值觀。

  • Because, this simple structure will hardly create more security.

    對他們而言,你建造了 兩座牆,而不是一座。

  • Instead, it will affect the people living with it every day,

    要花上數十年、數世代的時間, 才能夠再次打破隔閡的牆。

  • people who, despite the geographic border,

    謝謝。

  • often share a lot of culture and values.

    (掌聲)

  • For them, you are not building one wall but two,

  • two walls which will take decades and generations to overcome again.

  • Thank you.

  • (Applause)

Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: SF Huang

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The intangible effects of walls | Alexandra Auer

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 01 日
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