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  • Since its debut in December 2019, we've been hit with a deluge of information about

    自從 2019 年 12 月首次亮相以來,我們得到太多有關新型冠狀病毒的消息,

  • the novel coronavirus that has often made it difficult to separate fact from fiction.


  • And that's because with each day, we're learning more about the virus behind this global pandemic.


  • As new data has radically altered the scope of COVID-19, we wanted to take this chance

    由於新資料徹底改變了 COVID-19 的範圍,因此我們希望藉此機會

  • to cut through all the misinformation and take a closer look at what exactly it is,


  • the latest info about how it attacks our bodies, and how its stealthy nature has completely shut down our world.


  • We haven't been in a situation like this in over 100 years.

    我們已經有 100 多年沒有遇到這種情況了。

  • No one has experienced a virus that's had this combination of ease of transmissibility and mortality.


  • I'm Timothy Brewer.

    我是 Timothy Brewer。

  • I'm an infectious disease doctor and professor of medicine and epidemiology at UCLA.

    我是 UCLA 的傳染病醫生兼醫學與流行病學教授。

  • I've been an infectious disease physician for about 30 years and an epidemiologist for 25.

    我擔任傳染病醫師已有 30 年,而流行病學家也有 25 年了。

  • Known for the spike proteins on their surfaces, coronaviruses are a large family of viruses


  • that can cause respiratory illnesses like the common cold and more severe ones like


  • SARS, MERS and of course, COVID-19.

    如 SARS、MERS 和 COVID-19。

  • And here's what we know so far about what the virus does to your body.


  • Once it enters the respiratory tract through the nose, mouth, or eyes, it attaches itself


  • to the surface of a cell likely via a receptor called ACE2.

    會通過稱為 ACE2 的受體並附著在細胞表面。

  • The virus then fuses with the cell's membrane, and releases its RNA.

    病毒接著與細胞膜融合,並釋放 RNA。

  • The infected cell then begins to make copies of the virus that will continue their invasion throughout the body.


  • But when it comes time for the immune system to fight back, it's a bit of a mixed bag


  • when it comes to the human body's response.


  • While the majority of cases are mild,


  • Severe disease occurs in about 15% of individuals, and about 5% of individuals are so sick that

    大約 15% 的人會有嚴重疾病,約 5%的人病得很重,

  • they need to go into an intensive care unit and probably end up on a ventilator.


  • Now keep in mind, most of the statistics we have come from a study of roughly 72,000 COVID-19 patients in China.

    請記住,我們大多數的統計資料來自中國對大約 72,000 名 COVID-19 患者的研究。

  • In this study and others since, severe cases displayed an intense cough, high fever, shortness


  • of breathand in some cases, pneumonia.


  • In the more extreme cases, there has been increasing evidence that patients' immune


  • systems are overreacting to the virus in a specific way.


  • So the cytokine storm are the chemical signals that the immune system is releasing to basically


  • call out all the forces to try to eliminate the virus.


  • And in the process of doing that, they can also damage normal cells like cells in the


  • lung that make it difficult or impossible for the individual to breathe.


  • And since our organs need oxygen to function, complications from the disease can lead to organ failure and even death.


  • And if you still think that these severe cases only affect the elderly or those with pre-existing


  • conditionslike diabetes, heart disease or asthmathink again.


  • Recent CDC data reported an increased number of hospitalizations among healthy adults in

    CDC 的最新資料顯示,美國 20 至 54 歲健康成年人中

  • the U.S. between the ages of 20 and 54 years old.


  • Why one person will develop very severe disease and potentially die and another person not


  • is not entirely clear, but it's probably genetically determined by small differences in the way


  • your immune system works and responds to a certain pathogen.


  • My name is Dr. Larry Lutwick.

    我是 Larry Lutwick 醫生。

  • I'm a professor of medicine at the Mayo Clinic, School of Medicine and Sciences.


  • I've been in infectious diseases for 40 some odd years.

    我對傳染病有 40 多年的經驗了。

  • Now for those who experience a milder form of COVID-19, diagnosis can be difficult to pin down.

    對於 COVID-19 輕微症狀的患者來說,很難確定確診。

  • Common symptoms include low-grade fever, fatigue, and a dry cough, but as we learn more about


  • the disease, there have been reports of a much wider and surprising array of effects.


  • A notable symptom that has occurred is loss of smell.


  • Why some people are presenting with diarrhea as the first manifestation?


  • Why some people, are presenting as if they're having a heart attack with severe chest pain without any cough at all?


  • Luckily about 80% of cases will experience this milder form of the disease.

    幸運的是,約 80% 的病例會有這種輕微症狀。

  • But what makes COVID-19 so mysterious is that its milder cases can look like the common

    但是,COVID-19 如此神秘的原因是,其輕微症狀感覺就像是普通感冒或流感,

  • cold or the flu or even go completely unnoticed.


  • What we're learning from COVID-19 is that individuals are infectious, before they

    我們從 COVID-19 學到的是,個體具有傳染性,

  • have any symptoms like fever, cough, or sore throat.


  • An asymptomatic case is someone who would test positive without ever developing symptoms,


  • while a pre-symptomatic case would test positive before developing a cough or a fever.


  • That is….if we're testing at all.


  • In COVID-19's case, preliminary data out of Singapore suggests that presymptomatic

    在 COVID-19 的病例中,新加坡的初步資料表明,尚未出現症狀的病例

  • cases are contributing to the spread of this disease, while here in the U.S., the head

    正在助長疾病傳播,美國 CDC 負責人日前指出,

  • of the CDC recently suggested that asymptomatic cases could make up as many as 25% of the total infections.

    在美國,無症狀病例可佔感染總數的 25%。

  • But because the person has no symptoms, they don't realize they shouldn't be going out,


  • they shouldn't be interacting with others.


  • And that stealthiness of it, the ability to transmit without symptoms, is part of what


  • is causing this pandemic to occur.


  • There are data to show that even before individuals have symptoms there's a lot of virus in the body.


  • What we call a high viral load.


  • And the more virus there is in the body, the more easily that virus can be generated in


  • droplets and spread to other individuals.


  • That's part of why testing is so important.


  • Right now, it's believed that it takes on average 5-6 days after exposure, and sometimes,

    目前,一般來說感染後平均需要 5-6天,

  • up to 14 before symptoms begin.

    有時甚至需要 14 天才會開始有症狀。

  • So that's why measures like social distancing and hand washing are so crucial to stem the

    這就是為何社交距離和洗手之類的措施,是防止 COVID-19 傳播如此重要的原因,

  • spread of COVID-19, especially when you're dealing with a virus that has a higher rate of transmission, or “R nought,” than the flu:

    尤其在處理比流感更高的傳播率或「R 0 值」的病毒時。

  • Influenza is typically a little bit more than one.


  • Based on early studies, the R nought reproduction number for COVID is about two and a half.

    根據先前的研究,COVID 的 R0 值約為 2.5。

  • So for every one person infected, somewhere between two to three new infections incur.


  • COVID-19's stealthy nature makes it unlike anything we've ever seen.

    COVID-19 的隱密性和我們曾見過的疾病都不同。

  • And we know that with all the information out there, it can feel overwhelming.


  • But from vaccine development to antiviral therapy to advanced contact tracing and testing


  • strategies, the world at large is better scientifically equipped than ever before.


  • It might take a little while, but we can tackle this unprecedented challenge, and it all starts with you.


  • There's nothing easy about a pandemic.


  • The hardest thing, I think, for health care workers and people in general, is the scope of the disease.


  • Society is not used to something like that.


  • You have an active role to play by staying at home, by washing your hands, and by helping


  • other people to stay at home and be isolated if they're sick.


  • So I just want to thank everybody for doing their part to help us all get through this pandemic.


Since its debut in December 2019, we've been hit with a deluge of information about

自從 2019 年 12 月首次亮相以來,我們得到太多有關新型冠狀病毒的消息,


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