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  • (gentle music)

  • - Hello everyone and welcome back to English with Lucy.

  • Do you ever feel confused, when you hear or see

  • phrases like gimme, hafta,

  • lotsa, sorta,

  • typa, frunna, (laughing) what do these all mean?

  • Well, they are quite a few to learn ,

  • they are reductions, or reduced words,

  • and you do need to know these words,

  • in order to understand natural conversation

  • and you might want to use these words

  • if you want to sound more like

  • a native speaker when you talk.

  • Before we get started, I would just like to thank

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  • Right, let's get started with the lesson.

  • So reductions, what are they?

  • They are reduced forms of words.

  • Normally two words, occasionally three words.

  • For example, the reduction, gimme,

  • is actually give plus me.

  • Gimme.

  • For example, gimme that pen.

  • Gimme that pen.

  • Give me that pen.

  • You will find that there are some commonly used words

  • that are often included in reductions.

  • Me being one of them.

  • Another example of reduction including me, is lemme.

  • Lemme.

  • For example, lemme come with you.

  • Lemme come with you.

  • Let me come with you.

  • Now you must never (laughing)

  • use these in formal situations, or formal writing tasks,

  • especially don't use these in exams,

  • unless you are specifically asked to use reductions

  • or slang language.

  • I would say that the most important part of this,

  • is that you understand them so that if a native speaker

  • uses one with you, you can understand and respond,

  • but if you are looking to sound like a native speaker,

  • then you might want to practise these.

  • Now let's move on to the second set of reductions

  • which is what plus is plus word.

  • The first one is, what is up.

  • What is up.

  • What do we say?

  • We say wassup.

  • Wassup.

  • Wassup with that?

  • Wassup with that?

  • What is up with that?

  • Another one is what is her, what is her?

  • We reduce this to whatser, whatser.

  • For example, whatser name again ?

  • What's her name again?

  • That is something that I would genuinely say,

  • in an informal situation,

  • however it would be unlikely to write this down.

  • I would just use this in spoken informal speech.

  • Spoken speech, obviously.

  • The masculine form of this, whatsis.

  • Whatsis.

  • What is his?

  • Whatsis phone number?

  • Whatsis phone number?

  • What is his phone number?

  • Again, I wouldn't write whatsis down,

  • but I would say it.

  • Right onto the third group of reductions,

  • we have word plus have.

  • Word plus have.

  • The first one is could plus have, coulda, coulda.

  • So instead of saying could of, we can say coulda.

  • You coulda told me that yesterday.

  • We also have might have, which reduces to mighta, mighta.

  • She mighta gone to the bank today,

  • she mighta gone to the bank today.

  • We also have must have, which reduces to musta.

  • Musta.

  • She musta taken the train, she musta taken the train.

  • And we have, should have, which reduces to shoulda.

  • I did a video on shoulda, woulda, coulda,

  • you should know about this.

  • I will link it down below or up in the sky somewhere,

  • if you want to watch that video,

  • because this is seriously important.

  • People need to learn how to use,

  • shoulda, woulda, and coulda.

  • Natives and non-natives alike.

  • An example for shoulda, shoulda done something.

  • You shoulda done something.

  • And the last one, would have, woulda, woulda.

  • I woulda gone, I woulda gone, but I was ill.

  • I woulda gone but I was ill.

  • Now the next group of reductions is word plus to.

  • Word plus to.

  • This next one is one you will hear so frequently,

  • it is going plus to, is gonna.

  • I actually did, back in the day, a whole video

  • on just wanna, and gonna, and people found it really useful

  • so I'm hoping this video is really going to

  • enlighten a lot of you, but yes, gonna is a reduction

  • that we use, all the time.

  • I'm gonna go to the shops.

  • Do you want anything?

  • I'm gonna go to the shops, do you want anything?

  • I really wouldn't say, "I'm going to to go the shops,

  • "do you want anything?"

  • I would say, "I'm gonna go to the shops, I'm gonna go"

  • it's much easier.

  • Another really common one, got plus to, got to.

  • This changes to gotta, gotta.

  • I gotta go, I gotta go.

  • Notice that I'm not saying, I got to go, I got to go,

  • I'm saying, "I gotta"

  • I'm almost saying it with a D sound.

  • I gotta go, gotta go.

  • Now what will we say for have plus to?

  • Have to, have to.

  • We would say, hafta, hafta.

  • So we change that V sound to a F sound

  • and then shwah at the tend.

  • Hafta.

  • Oh my god you hafta meet him.

  • You haft meet him.

  • And what about has plus to?

  • Has to, has to.

  • Well it changes to hasta.

  • Hasta, now a lot of non-native speakers

  • will find it quite hard to say the Z sound

  • in front to the T sound.

  • Hasta, hasta.

  • That's quite a hard combination,

  • because Z is voiced and T is unvoiced,

  • so even native speakers will change it to hasta, hasta.

  • She hasta believe him, she hasta believe him.

  • Another one, ought and to, ought to,

  • this changes to oughta.

  • Oughta.

  • You oughta call in sick.