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  • To help us understand the current situation in Ukraine, lets look back at its modern history.

    為了了解烏克蘭現今的情勢,讓我們回顧其近代歷史

  • As the dust settled after World War I, Ukraine was defeated and divided and the Soviets controlled much of the country.

    第一次世界大戰結束後,烏克蘭被擊敗、分裂並遭蘇維埃政權控制多數領土

  • In 1922 Ukraine, along with Russia, became the founding members of the Soviet Union.

    1922年,烏克蘭與俄羅斯成為蘇聯的創始國

  • Fast-forward to 1932 when the great famine began, up to 10 million Ukrainians starved to death.

    快轉到1932年的大飢荒,接近1千萬烏克蘭人因飢荒喪生

  • Part of the reason why it got so bad was because of the policies of the new head of the communist party, Joseph Stalin.

    會如此嚴重,部份原因可歸咎於新的共產黨領導人 - 喬瑟夫‧史達林

  • Then came the Great Terror: Two waves of Stalinist political repression and persecution

    緊接著就是恐怖時期: 史達林兩波的政治壓迫及迫害

  • resulted in the killing of some 681,000 people; including 80 percent of the Ukrainian cultural elite

    殘殺了約68萬1千人,其中包括80%的烏克蘭文化菁英

  • and three-quarters of all the Ukrainian Red Army's higher-ranking officers.

    和 3/4 的烏克蘭紅軍高階官員

  • Then came the outbreak of WWII.

    接著二戰爆發

  • German armies invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941,

    德軍在1941年6月入侵蘇聯

  • beginning four straight years of non-stop total war. In the battle of Kiev,

    並展開連續四年的全面性戰爭,在基輔的戰役中

  • Axis troops encircled and laid siege to the capital city. More than 600,000 Soviet soldiers

    軸心國的部隊對其首都進行圍城,有超過60萬的蘇聯士兵

  • were killed or taken captive there. The total losses inflicted upon the Ukrainian

    遭到殺害或俘虜;烏克蘭人口的損失

  • population during the war are estimated between five and eight million, including over half

    在這次戰爭中估計在500~800萬之間,其中包括

  • a million Jews killed by Nazi death squads, sometimes with the help of local collaborators.

    被納粹行刑部隊殺害的50萬猶太人,有時候當地合作勢力也參與其中

  • The republic was heavily damaged by the war. More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000

    該共和國因戰爭被嚴重破壞。超過700個城鎮和28,000個

  • villages were destroyed. Material losses comprised an estimated 40 percent of Ukraine's national

    村落被摧毀,估計損失的物資達烏國40%的

  • wealth. But Ukraine bounces back with its economy boomed.

    財富;但烏克蘭的經濟迅速反彈

  • Industrial output doubled from 1940 to 1955. Before long Ukraine was a

    1940至1955年間工業輸出成長2倍,不久後烏克蘭便成為

  • European leader in industrial production, and an important center of the Soviet arms

    歐洲工業生產領導國、以及蘇聯武器重鎮

  • and high-tech research industries. Ukraine produced many prominent Soviet sports

    和高科技工業研發中心;烏克蘭還培育出許多傑出蘇聯運動選手

  • players, scientists, and artists over this period as well as much of the Soviet leadership,

    科學家、及藝術家,甚至是同時期的許多蘇聯領導者

  • including Leonid Brezhnev, who ousted Khrushchev and became the Soviet leader from 1964 to

    包括1964至1982年繼任赫魯雪夫成為蘇聯領導者的列昂尼德·布里茲涅夫

  • 1982. Then, on 26 April 1986, a reactor in the Chernobyl

    1986年4月26日,車諾比的一個

  • Nuclear Power Plant exploded, resulting in the worst nuclear reactor accident in history.

    核子反應爐爆炸,造成史上最嚴重的核災

  • The Soviet Union began to break apart under the weight of theWar of Laws,” which

    蘇聯由於"變法之爭"開始瓦解

  • was the constant conflict between the Soviet Federal Government and its various republics,

    此爭端源於眾多共和政權向蘇聯聯邦政府

  • who were each seeking greater autonomy. On 24 August 1991, the Ukrainian parliament officially

    爭取更多的自治權。1991年8月24日,烏克蘭議會

  • declared independence. But then the economy immediately sank into

    正式宣佈獨立,但其經濟很快就陷入

  • depression and lost 60 percent of its GDP from 1991 to 1999.

    大蕭條並在1991至1999年間損失60%的國民生產毛額

  • A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996. The economy was stabilized by the

    新的貨幣 - 格里夫納 - 在1996年問世,經濟上得以在

  • end of the 1990’s. Corruption under Ukraine’s second president

    1990年後期穩定下來。烏克蘭第二任總統的腐敗

  • set the stage for the 2004 ascendence of then Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych to the Presidency

    為2004年時任總理的維克多·亞努科維奇的勝選奠定基石

  • in elections that the Ukrainian Supreme Court ruled were rigged.

    但這場選戰被烏克蘭最高法庭裁定遭非法操弄

  • Yanukovych was then thrown out of power in the peaceful Orange Revolution in favor of

    亞努科維奇接著就在和平的橘色革命中被除權

  • opposition leaders Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko, who became President and Prime

    對手維克多·尤申科和尤莉亞·泰莫申科因而得利,成為總統及總理

  • Minister. Yanukovych then regained the Prime Ministership in 2006, but lost a snap election

    亞努科維奇接著在2006取得總理職權,但又輸掉一場提前結束的選舉

  • just a year later that saw Tymoshenko become Prime Minister again. This map of those 2007

    一年後看著泰莫申科再度成為總理。2007年那些

  • election results shows just how divided Ukraine is politically.

    選舉的結果恰好反映出烏克蘭政治分化的程度

  • Then came the January 2009 natural gas crisis in which Russia stopped supplying gas to Ukraine

    接著在2009年1月的天然氣危機中,俄國停止烏國天然氣的供應

  • in the middle of winter. Since Ukraine is itself the main supply route to much of Europe,

    - 於嚴冬之中。由於烏國本身就是歐洲多國主要輸氣路徑

  • this was a pretty big problem. Tymoshenko eventually signed an agreement to reopen the

    這造成了嚴重的問題。泰莫申科最終簽署了重啟管線的協議

  • pipes, but not before Ukraine incurred major economic losses.

    但已經造成烏克蘭嚴重的經濟損失

  • As a result of the political fallout, Yanukovych - who just does not go away - was elected

    歷經政治挫敗,亞努科維奇仍不肯放棄

  • President again in 2010. And in October, 2011, Tymoshenko was sentenced to seven years in

    2010年再度當選總統。2011年10月泰莫申科遭判刑七年

  • prison for abuse of office because she signed the natural gas deal with Russian President

    因為她濫用職權和俄國總統普丁簽署天然氣協議

  • Vladimir Putin. In 2012 the European Union and Ukraine began

    2012年歐盟與烏克蘭

  • negotiations for it to join the 28-nation group. President Viktor Yanukovych urged the

    對其加入28國的集團展開談判,總統亞努科維奇

  • parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU's criteria.

    敦促議會修法以達歐盟標準

  • But Russia does not want this to happen, and responded by starting a trade war that resulted

    但俄國並不樂見其成,並對此展開一場貿易戰爭

  • in a 10% decline in Ukrainian export revenue from the previous year, or $1.5 billion in

    造成烏國出口歲入比前一年減少10%、等同15億美元的損失

  • losses. Bringing us to the 3-month old Euromaidan

    其後歷時三個月

  • protests which began at the end of 2013 when Yanukovych - who was feeling the economic

    2013底的親歐盟示威行動,亞努科維奇受到經濟壓力

  • pressure - abruptly suspended efforts to join the EU. He then turned around and signed an

    倏然中止加入歐盟的一切努力,旋即與普丁簽署協定

  • agreement with Putin, who offered $15 billion in financial aid and a 33% discount on Russian

    普丁則提供150億美金金援和俄國天然氣33%的折扣

  • natural gas. As a result, the protests have escalated and

    此舉造成更大規模抗議行動

  • become more violent, with many now calling for the ouster of Yanukovych and a rejection

    暴力示威程度加劇,抗議者要求亞努科維奇下台

  • of the Russian deal in favor of a complete embrace of Europe.

    並拒絕與俄國的協議,以重返歐盟的懷抱

To help us understand the current situation in Ukraine, lets look back at its modern history.

為了了解烏克蘭現今的情勢,讓我們回顧其近代歷史

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B1 中級 中文 烏克蘭 蘇聯 俄國 歐盟 普丁 天然氣

烏克蘭歷史。一戰至2014年革命 (Ukrainian History: WWI to 2014 Revolution)

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    姚易辰 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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