字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 "Good morning. My name is Malachy Browne. I'm a senior producer on the Visual Investigations team here at the 'Times.' Thanks for tuning in and sending questions in advance. We've got dozens of questions from viewers and readers of the 'Times,' which we're going to go through. First of all, we're going to introduce the team." "I'm Haley Willis." "Hey. I'm Evan Hill. I'm a visual journalist on the team." "I'm Barbara Marcolini." "Christoph Koettl." "And Christiaan Triebert." "And one of the first questions that we got is what is open-source investigation? So Christiaan, have a go." "Yeah, so basically, open-source investigation is it's reporting, but using any kind of openly-available source. So think of a Facebook post, or a tweet, a YouTube video, or just a database-- anything you can find online, openly, and for free. So this is the opposite of closed source. Like if a source tells me something or tells my colleague something, you will need to believe that source. But the strength of open-source reporting is that anyone with an internet connection and a laptop can access that same source and can take the same steps for verification. So that's what we do here-- a lot of open-source investigation." "And a lot of the process, if there is an event that we're investigating, it involves, as Christiaan said, collecting as much evidence as we possibly can, you know, from the open web. There's so much documentary visual evidence out there now that allows us to get to the truth of an event to break it down and really analyze it moment by moment. And so that could be video satellite imagery, a timestamp from a tweet, but it also involves turning those open sources who are witnesses into primary sources, and finding secure ways to get in touch with them, and find out more about what they saw, very often get the raw imagery as we did in Syria. Do you want to talk about that a little bit?" "Yeah, I think that was an interesting one because that combined sort of traditional reporting methods with the open-source stuff that I've been learning as a new member of the team. But for that story for Syria, we needed to get a wealth of material." "Do you want to explain what the series was about just for a second?" "Yeah, so it was a series of stories about Russian bombing of hospitals in Syria and other civilian targets that came out over the course of last year. And we needed to get a bunch of material from the ground-- videos and photos from Syrian journalists. And so that was basically who we can find through WhatsApp networks, through activist networks, people we can reach out to and expand our sources on the ground speaking in Arabic a lot of the time." "And the key was using the material to identify the minute that a strike happened." "Yeah, and that included metadata analysis, so going into the actual files, explaining to the sources on the ground the best way to send the files to us so that we can extract the information from the file to confirm, oh, yes, we heard the airstrike occurred at 5:00 PM. We'll the file tells us, yes, it did occur at 5:00 PM." "And by establishing the very minute of those attacks, then we obtained access to thousands of intercepted recordings of Russian pilots carrying out their missions. And so by understanding the time that something happened on the ground, we could then examine what was going on in the skies at that time, and then, you know, basically apportion blame to specific pilots for attacks on hospitals, on an IDP camp, a busy commercial street in Syria. So the evidence that witnesses are collecting and that we're managing to verify through our processes here can be really valuable to the journalism. How did you get your start in OSINT? OSINT is Open-Source Intelligence. It's a term that lots of people use to describe this work. We call it visual investigations or open-source investigations. Choose your term, but how did you get your start in it, Barbara?" "I actually started working at Storyful. Storyful is an agency that verifies content on social media. So that's how I started, just working at this agency and learning from their experience there, which by the way, Malachy used to work for them." "I came from Storyful too. That was where I got my start too. Haley?" "I got my start working with a student collective actually at the University of California, Berkeley at our Human Rights Center. We had a lab that did this kind of work for human rights legal cases and for advocacy groups. We had a partnership with Amnesty International and their Digital Verification Corps. So that's kind of how I started this work is using the same open-source techniques that everyone's been talking about, and we applied that to kind of human rights issues." "Christoph?" "I got my start at Amnesty International in 2007, so quite a while ago. And back then, I think when I started at Amnesty, it's the first time that a human rights group started using satellite imagery. So that was my-- well, that is my speciality. We did a lot of work around satellite imagery for a few years, and then around 2011, it became just extremely important with the Arab Spring to verify YouTube videos, photos, and similar materials. So we had to teach ourselves, basically, how to verify that and how to integrate that into human rights reporting." "Yourself?" "So I was an aspiring journalist as a student, so I tried to do photo reports in Iraq, and Syria, and Ukraine, but I felt like I'm not the best writer there is in the world and I'm also not the best photographer. So I felt like what am I doing? What am I contributing to what is already out there, right? Anyone with an internet connection can find stories that are better written, have better photos. And I was intrigued by a guy called Eliot Higgins, who started Bellingcat, an open-source investigation group. And I just started tweeting. Literally on Twitter, I started tweeting out my findings because in Iraq, I saw airstrikes in the distance, but I didn't know much about it except for I could say, well, an airstrike happened. But by using that same kind of satellite imagery Christoph was talking about, I could figure out when did the airstrike or what did it target, who was in control of the village. And I started tweeting out those findings and got involved in 2015-- so wow, five years ago-- with this group called Bellingcat. And I've been doing that ever since before I joined the 'Times' last year." "A great question to get started on the practices from Natalie in Toronto and Sena in Tehran-- how do you verify a video? There's lots of different ways you can verify video, but maybe we'll cut to a show and tell. We have one from recently when the Ukrainian airliner crashed down outside Iran. Iran was denying that it was shot down. There were reports at the time that it was allegedly due to technical malfunction. And over the course of a few days, we had started mapping out the evidence related to the downing of that airliner. It killed over 170 people on board. Maybe we'll just walk through that. You've got a slide show that I'll cut to here. Sorry, not that one. It's on Keynote. Bear with me for a second. Yeah, there we go." "Right, so let's just start with it right?" "Yeah." "So PS752, it basically started for us with a Slack message from a colleague, who was like, whoa, a plane has been crashed in Iran. And we were all on high alert. It was the evening here in New York. Basically, the whole team was still in the office because Iran had just launched those ballistic missiles onto military targets in Iraq. So we were all on high alert. And then this message comes in and we're like, O.K., whoa, let's investigate it. So one of the first things we're doing with this is open-source reporting. We explained it in a lot of words, but it's an actual example. This is a plane crash. Now, any commercial airliner nowadays is being tracked. And anyone with an internet connection can track those flights through websites like Flightradar24, RadarBox24. And here, we see the actual flight path of the plane that allegedly crashed near Tehran. And we can see how it's here on the-- it's starting to take off. It's departing the International Airport near Tehran, the capital of Iran. And we can see how it flies away. And we can also see the flight path is not that long. It basically stops right here. Now, the great thing is that we can also download this flight path for free and put it in a program that's called Google Earth. And Google Earth is just basically Google Maps on steroids. It's, as you can see here, this is the same flight path that we just saw on the website. It's now on Google Earth and you can see it's also in 3D. The height is also visible. And we can see exactly where the last transponder sign of that flight was spotted. That's the first start for us, just to have basic information about the incident and have a sense of time and space. Now, it started to get morning already in Iran. And before people started uploading photos from the crash site, people saw that plane going down. And you can see it here. There are different videos. Here, we see the plane, but we couldn't verify those videos at first. But what we did is we matched them up with this explosion to be sure, hey, that they are showing the same incident. So these videos seem to be from the same plane crash, so it's a first step. We hadn't verified the location of this, but the crash sites were-- sorry-- anyone nowadays has-- usually, a lot of people have a mobile phone, right? And Tehran is a massive city. So if something like this happened what you just saw in those videos is that people start filming something when it happens. I mean, think of yourself. Imagine something big is happening. And here, we can see a video from the actual crash site when the morning has broken already. And one method we use, usually as a first step for verifying a video to come back to the question, is a process we call geolocation. And geolocation is determining where a photo or a video has been taken based on visual clues in the video. Well, let's have a look. We see a lot of debris.