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  • Globally, over two billion cups of coffee are consumed every day.

    全球每天有超過 20 億杯咖啡被消耗掉。

  • In Britain alone, we need around 95 million cups to keep us going from dawn 'til dusk.

    就單論英國而言,我們一天需要 9500 萬杯咖啡讓我們度過一天。

  • But 450 years ago, Western Europe had barely even heard of it.

    但 450 年前,西歐幾乎還沒什麼聽說過它。

  • Coffee's roots lie in Ethiopia, where the wild plant grew.


  • People slowly started to realise that the dried fruit, when roasted and ground, could be used to produce a beverage which was curiously addictive, and gave its drinker a bit of a buzz.


  • Coffee is, let's face it, an acquired taste.


  • Early Western drinkers were fascinated by it, recognising its potential as a drink which was ideal for business.


  • Wine and beer were great, but they weren't always conducive to delicate negotiations which required a clear head.


  • When Westerners brought the drink back to Britain, reactions were polarized, including one description of it as:


  • "Pluto's diet-drink, that witches tipple out of dead men's skulls."


  • The first coffee house in the U.K. opened in Oxford in 1651, followed by London, and they quickly became sort of proto-clubs.

    英國第一間咖啡店於 1651 年開幕於牛津,後來在倫敦也接著開幕,他們隨即成為某種俱樂部的原型。

  • There were coffee houses for all sorts, from bankers to merchants, literati to men about town, and they were often heavily politicized.


  • Charles II tried to ban them for encouraging sedition.


  • Many subscribed to journals and newspapers for their clientele and, since a dish of coffee cost only a penny, they became known as the "penny universities."


  • They were, however, only for men, and coffee quickly became seen as a masculine drink.


  • Even today, men drink more coffee than women.


  • It wasn't uncontroversial, however.


  • Like anything new, and foreign, there were those who feared it, and one blistering attack in 1674 claimed it caused impotence.

    就像任何新的事物,總是會有人對此感到恐懼,其中 1674 年一個對咖啡的強烈抨擊聲稱,咖啡會導致陽痿。

  • Excessive use of that newfangled, abominable, heathenish liquor called coffee, which... drying up the radical moisture, has so eunucht our husbandsthat theyas unfruitful as those deserts where that unhappy berry is said to be brought.”


  • Others claimed it had exactly the opposite effect, answering that it: "Makes the erection more vigorous, the ejaculation more full, and adds a spiritualescency to the sperm."


  • The taste still put many people off, but the British habit of drinking it with milk and sugar, like their tea, helped.


  • By the 18th Century it was established as a part of British life, emerging out of coffee houses and into its place as an after-dinner drink.

    到了 18 世紀,它已經成為英國人的生活的一部分,不再僅限於咖啡館,成為晚餐後的飲料。

  • In the 19th Century coffee was still pretty bad, until the Italian invention of the espresso machine which forced pressurised water through a small amount of ground beans—a huge step forward from simply steeping coffee and filtering it, and then keeping it warm for hours until needed.

    在 19 世紀咖啡嚐起來仍然差強人意,直到義大利人發明了咖啡機,迫使壓力水通過少量的研磨豆,簡單的浸潤並過濾使咖啡向前邁進了一大步,並且直到需要時可以保溫數小時。

  • Italian coffee culture, with its futuristic and gleaming coffee machines and aura of effortless cool, spread across the Western world.


  • Their rules, well... ruled, including tenets such as never drink a cappuccino after lunch.


  • The last 20 years have seen the rise of new types of coffee: long, flavoured American drinks, along with the Antipodean flat whites.

    最近 20 年有許多不同種咖啡的出現,例如長黑美式或風味美式,以及地中海馥列白咖啡。

  • We've also adopted a new way of drinking it.


  • Wandering down the street coffee cup in hand is such a ubiquitous sight now that it's hard to remember this is a recent fad.


  • It's a fundamental part of hipster identity, along with beards and vintage cardis [cardigans], knowing your cold brew from your nitro is vital.


  • Society and coffee have moved on a lot in 450 years.

    這個社會,還有咖啡,在過去 450 年已經進步了很多。

  • But some things haven't changed.


  • So, here's to coffee, with a side of sedition, sociability and amazing cool.


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Globally, over two billion cups of coffee are consumed every day.

全球每天有超過 20 億杯咖啡被消耗掉。

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