字幕列表 影片播放 列印英文字幕 PATRICK WINSTON: The Uniform Code of Military Justice specifies court martial for any officer who sends a soldier into battle without a weapon. There ought to be a similar protection for students because students shouldn't go out into life without the ability to communicate, and that's because your success in life will be determined largely by your ability to speak, your ability to write, and the quality of your ideas, in that order. I know that I can be successful in this because the quality of communication, your speaking, your writing, is largely determined by this formula. It's a matter of how much knowledge you have, how much you practice with that knowledge, and your inherent talent, and notice that the T is very small. What really matters is what you know. This point came to me suddenly a few decades ago when I was skiing at Sun Valley. I had heard that it was Celebrity Weekend, and one of the celebrities was Mary Lou Retton, famous Olympic gymnast, perfect 10s in the vault. And I heard that she was a novice at skiing, so when the opportune moment arrived, I looked over on the novice slope and saw this young woman who, when she became unbalanced, went like that. And I said that's got to be her. That must be the gymnast. But then, it occurred to me, I'm a much better skier than she is, and she's an Olympic athlete-- not only an ordinary Olympic athlete, an outstanding one. And I was a better skier because I had the K, and I had the P, and all she had was the T. So you can get a lot better than people who may have inherent talents if you have the right amount of knowledge. So that's what my objective is today, and here's my promise. Today, you will see some examples of what you can put in your armamentarium of speaking techniques, and it will be the case that some one of those examples, some heuristic, some technique, maybe only one, will make-- will be the one that gets you the job. And so this is a very non-linear process. You never know when it's going to happen, but that is my promise. By the end of the next 60 minutes, you'll have been exposed to a lot of ideas, some of which you'll incorporate into your own repertoire, and they will ensure that you get the maximum opportunity to have your ideas valued and accepted by the people you speak with. Now, in order to do that, we have to have a rule of engagement, and that is no laptops, no cell phones. So if you could close those, I'll start up as soon as you're done. Some people ask why that is a rule of engagement, and the answer is, we humans only have one language processor. And if your language processor is enga-- could you shut the laptop, please? If your language processor is engaged browsing the web or reading your email, you're distracted. And worse yet, you distract all of the people around you. Studies have shown that. And worse yet, if I see a open laptop somewhere back there or up here, it drives me nuts, and I do a worse job. And so that ensures that all of your friends who are paying attention don't get the performance that they came to have. So that's it for preamble. Let's get started. First thing we talk about, of course, is how to start. Some people think the right thing to do is to start a talk with a joke. I don't recommend it, and the reason is that, in the beginning of a talk, people are still putting their laptops away. They're becoming adjusted to your speaking parameters, to your vocal parameters, and they're not ready for a joke. So it doesn't work very well. They usually fall flat. What you want to do instead is start with empowerment promise. You want to tell people what they're going to know at the end of the hour that they didn't know at the beginning of the hour. It's an empowerment promise. It's the reason for being here. What would be an example? Oh, I see. At the end of this 60 minutes, you will know things about speaking you don't know now, and something among those things you know will make a difference in your life. Yeah, that's an empowerment promise, so that's the best way to start. So now that I've talked a little bit about how to start, what I want to do is give you some samples of heuristics that are always on my mind when I give a talk, and first of these heuristics is that it's a good idea to cycle on the subject. Go around it. Go round it again. Go round it again. Some people say, tell him what you want to tell him. Tell him again, and then tell him a third time, as if people weren't intelligent. But the point is-- the reason is-- well, there are many reasons, one of which is, at any given moment, about 20% of you will be fogged out no matter what the lecture is. So if you want to ensure that the probability that everybody gets it is high, you need to say it three times. So cycling is one of the things that I always think about when I give a talk. Another thing I think about is, in explaining my idea, I want to build a fence around it so that it's not confused with somebody else's idea. So if you were from Mars, and I was teaching you about what an arch is, I might say to you, well, that's an arch. And that's not to be confused with some other things that other people might think is-- this is not an arch. That's not an arch. I'm building a fence around my idea so that it can be distinguished from somebody else's idea. So in a more technical sense, I might say, well, my algorithm might similar-- might seem similar to Jones's algorithm, except his is exponential, and mine's linear. That's putting a fence around your idea so that people can not be confused about how it might relate to something else. The third thing on this list of samples is the idea of verbal punctuation. And the idea here is that, because people will occasionally fog out and need to get back on the bus, you need to provide some landmark places where you're announcing that it's a good time to get back on. So I might, in this talk, say something about this being my outline. The first thing we're going to do is talk about how to start. Then we're going to deal with these four samples, and among these four samples, I've talked about the first idea-- that's cycling. The second idea, building-- and now, the third idea is verbal punctuation. So I'm enumerating and providing numbers. I'm giving you a sense that there's a seam in the talk, and you can get back on. So now, we're on a roll, and since we're on a roll, can you guess what fourth idea might be here-- an idea that helps people get back on the bus? AUDIENCE: Ask a question. PATRICK WINSTON: Yes? AUDIENCE: Ask a question. [INAUDIBLE] PATRICK WINSTON: Ask a question, yes. Thank you. So ask a question. And so I will ask a question-- how much dead air can there be? How long can I pause? I counted seven seconds. It seemed like an eternity to me to wait and not say anything for seven seconds, but that's the standard amount of time you can wait for an answer.