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  • I've come to Caltech because there is a brand new gravitational wave discovery.

    為了最近正沸沸揚揚的重力波新發現, 我特地來到了加州理工學院。

  • Let's go find out what it is.

    讓我們來瞧一瞧吧。

  • Can we talk about the discovery, Rana? -Yeah.

    Rana,請說一下你們這次在黑洞對撞事件中的新發現。好唄?

  • Can I-- I want to sit on one of my black holes. -Alright.

    沒問題啊,但我想找個"黑洞"來坐先。

  • If you notice, this one's a big one

    誰都看得出來這是個 XL 尺碼的黑洞。

  • and that one's a little one. -This one is a little one. -Yeah.

    給你坐的那個是 S 尺碼的。

  • I-I always feel like I'm the most excited out of everybody.

    我總覺得我是所有人中最容易嗨起來的那個。

  • Really? -Yeah.

    真的假的? 如假包換!

  • Because excited when nothing's happening. Cleaning some dust off a piece of glass

    明明什麼大事都還沒發生, 只不過是把一塊鏡片上的灰塵擦乾淨就夠我嗨了。

  • and it still seems exciting, because I think this is the key piece of glass in our

    就因為這塊鏡片是這一整個系統中最關鍵的那塊。

  • system and I'm just clean dust off of it. How cool is that?

    想想這不是很酷嗎?

  • On January 4th,

    讓我們回到1月4日那天,

  • just like a few hours after midnight. Boom. We got another signal much like the

    午夜才剛過不久,碰的一聲, 我們就接收到了來自黑洞的訊號。

  • first signal we found in September of 2015. And it's also well represented by

    這訊號和更早在2015年9月時所接收到的非常相似。

  • these black holes that we're sitting on. One of the black holes had a mass of

    那就像是我們現在正坐著的這兩個"黑洞", 其中較大的那個的質量

  • about 30 solar masses and the other one was about 20. And this one lasted

    大約等於30倍太陽質量,而較小的那個則是大約20倍。

  • longer than the first one. Both because our detectors are better at the lowest

    這次我們所收到的訊號持續的時間比前一次還要長。除了因為我們的感測器對於最低頻率更為敏感外,

  • frequencies and because the signal is from black holes which are smaller, so

    也歸因於這次的訊號來自於較小的那個黑洞。

  • they last longer. And it's really dramatic if you listen to the audio.

    當你聽到它的音頻就能知道這有多麼巨大的不同。

  • The first signal that we got, it's only audible for about a tenth of a second.

    第一次的訊號中,音頻只維持了0.1秒。

  • It's just, "boomp," like this. But this new one sounds like "bvoom."

    聽起來像是聲短短的“boomp, 但這次的聽起來則像是“bvoom。

  • It's a little bit more drawn-out and it comes from farther away.

    比之前的更長一些,而且還是來自更遠的地方。

  • It's the furthest black hole merger that we've been able to detect. So it's about three billion light

    這是我們所能觀測到最遠的黑洞合併,距離地球大約三十億光年,

  • years away, which means that signal-- the merger actually happened three billion

    這表示這個黑洞事件是發生30億年以前,

  • years ago and the signal has been propagating to us for three billion years.

    而這個訊號也是經過30億年的傳播才來到地球。

  • What's particularly interesting in this merger are hints that the two black

    這其中最吸人眼球的地方在於其間接說明了

  • holes weren't spinning with the same orientation as each other or as their orbit.

    這兩個黑洞並不是以相同的方向在旋轉 ,就連運行軌道也不一樣。

  • This suggests that rather than forming out of binary stars, they formed

    這表示了這兩個黑洞一開始就不太可能是個雙星系統,

  • separately and later became entwined through orbital dynamics.

    較可能是原先彼此獨立,後來才因為軌道的互動牽引才導致纏繞。

  • This one really says, okay, we now know that we're going

    這件事說明了,我們現在知道自己將可以目睹更多這樣的東西。

  • to be seeing a lot of these things.

    這件事說明了,我們現在知道自己將可以目睹更多這樣的東西。

  • It's a...

    這真是...

  • It's a relief to have another signal to know that the universe is not just populated

    這讓我大大地鬆了一口氣,讓我瞭解這個宇宙並不只是由所有的小黑洞,

  • by all tiny, tiny black holes or by no black holes.

    或是黑洞以外的其他東西所構成的那麼簡單而已。

  • If we improve our detector

    如果我們進一步強化我們的偵測元件,

  • sensitivity by say a factor of two or three, the rates will go up from, you know,

    把靈敏度向上提昇到2到3個次方,你知道嗎,

  • seeing one every month or every two months to seeing one every day or every week.

    這類事件的觀測機率會從每1到2月一次增加到每天或每週一次。

  • I would say it's very surprising now that our first three signals came

    對我來說這是非常令人驚訝的,現在我們最先的三個訊號都來自於雙星系黑洞合併,

  • from binary black hole mergers which, were pretty much an unexpected source

    而這樣的訊號來源是我們在2015年時所無法料想得到的。

  • as of mid-2015.

    而這樣的訊號來源是我們在2015年時所無法料想得到的。

  • There's a working theory -- kind of exotic -- that says that some of

    有一個成形中的理論,好像是來自外國的,

  • the black holes we're seeing are primordial, alright? They weren't formed

    這理論認為我們所看到的那些黑洞是原生的。

  • through, you know, conventional supernova explosions. They were formed during the

    它們並不是經由眾人熟知的超新星爆炸所形成,而是在宇宙大爆炸時就形成了。

  • Big Bang themselves. And they could be a part of Dark Matter, component of dark matter.

    這些黑洞可能是暗物質的一部份,或暗物質的組成物。

  • So we may actually determine after we get statistics on

    所以在我們繼續針對更多這些黑洞合併訊號的數據統計之後,

  • lots and lots and lots of these black hole mergers that we're actually seeing

    或許我們可以確認它們與暗物質之間的關連,為我們的暗物質研究提供線索。

  • maybe a hint of dark matter.

    或許我們可以確認它們與暗物質之間的關連,為我們的暗物質研究提供線索。

  • It's sort of scratching at the door of the biggest

    這感覺就像是我們才剛輕輕扣到當今宇宙學中最奧秘的大門。

  • mysteries that we have today in cosmology.

    這感覺就像是我們才剛輕輕扣到當今宇宙學中最奧秘的大門。

  • In the past before there were any signals, people used to use this phrase,

    在過去我們能接收到任何此類訊號之前,人們習慣會這麼說...

  • which I completely disagree with.

    其實我完全不同意這些說法

  • And they would say, "you know if we don't find any signals it will be even more

    總之他們會說, "沒有找到任何訊號會比發現到訊號更有意義。"

  • interesting than if we do." I said no no no no no. No no no no.

    我會說不不不不,不是這樣子的。

  • Lots of signals. That's what we want.

    去發現大量的訊號才會是我們想要的結果。

  • But now that we have a few, I'm feeling a little bit more

    但現在我們的感覺是有點得意的,

  • complacent. And so I'd say we really expected to see a lot of binary neutron stars,

    我認為我們真的可以預期看到大量的中子星雙星系統,

  • and if we don't, well isn't that interesting? It means there's something going on--

    就算是如果我們沒看到,這也是很有趣的,不是嗎?那也代表著有一些事情正在發生中。

  • You know, you have all the pieces. We already know how neutron stars work.

    你知道嗎,你已經掌握了所有的線索。 我們已經明瞭中子星的運作方式。

  • We've seen neutron stars using radio astronomy. We know they're

    我們已經利用無線電天文學發現了中子星。

  • out there, we know that they come together in binaries.

    我們知道它們的存在,而且都是以雙星系統方式存在。

  • But why don't we see their gravitational waves?

    但是,為什麼我們還沒測到它們的重力波?

  • So it could be something else happens to them

    所以,在它們最終合而為一之前,可能發生了不同的事情,

  • just before the final merger and there's something in their evolutionary track

    在它們的發展軌跡中的某事物,使得它們脫離了我們所預期的演變方向。

  • which goes off in a different direction than what we expect.

    在它們的發展軌跡中的某事物,使得它們脫離了我們所預期的演變方向。

  • And I think that would actually be interesting. I guess I've become one of those people that

    這實際上聽起來就有點糗大了。 我想我也變成那些 "沒看到會更有趣" 的人們之一。

  • said if you don't see it then maybe it's interesting, because we'll learn something.

    不論如何,我們都能學到一些東西。

  • You never know how many more signals we have sitting in the can that we're not

    你永遠不知道我們沒打算跟你提起的訊號到底有多少?

  • telling you about.

    你永遠不知道我們沒打算跟你提起的訊號到底有多少?

  • Can you say that again?

    你能再說一遍嗎?

  • I don't think so. -Would you give me the exclusive, Rana?

    算了吧! 你可以讓我獨家專訪嗎,Rana?

  • I would! You know it, Derek. Come on. If I had secret signals, you'd be the first to know.

    我會的!你知道的,Derek。 如果我有神秘的新發現,你會是第一個知道的。

  • These lights are the first two tentacles of the jellyfish I'm

  • building, and there's a neural network which then drives this little chip, which

  • modulates these lights. And it's going to use these sensors like the proximity and the

  • sound to figure out if people are close to it. And the neural network is going to

  • train itself to flash the tentacle lights to make people come closer to it.

I've come to Caltech because there is a brand new gravitational wave discovery.

為了最近正沸沸揚揚的重力波新發現, 我特地來到了加州理工學院。

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B1 中級 中文 黑洞 訊號 物質 中子星 合併 線索

新引力波的發現! (NEW Gravitational Wave Discovery!)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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