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  • Would you rather be bitten

    你寧願

  • by a venomous snake or touch a poisonous frog?

    被毒蛇咬 還是摸毒蛙?

  • Wait, what's the difference

    等一等 毒青蛙的毒及毒蛇的毒

  • between poison and venom, anyway?

    到底有什麼不同?

  • Let's say you have the misfortune

    如果說你很不幸

  • to be bitten by a venomous rattlesnake.

    被毒響尾蛇咬了一口

  • When it bites you,

    當牠咬你的時候

  • the snake will eject venom

    這條蛇會 從眼睛後面的小毒囊

  • from little sacks behind its eyes,

    射出毒液

  • through its hollow fangs and into your flesh.

    經過中空的毒牙 注入你的肉體

  • That venom will then travel through your bloodstream

    然後毒液會 隨著你的血液運行

  • and all over your body.

    遍佈全身

  • In most cases, snake venom contains neurotoxins,

    在大多數情況下 蛇毒液含有神經毒

  • proteins that can do all sorts of nasty stuff

    這類蛋白質做盡各種壞事

  • like make your muscles fire uncontrollably,

    像讓你的肌肉失控地顫動

  • burst your blood cells,

    讓你的血球破裂

  • and make you go completely numb.

    及讓你完全麻痺

  • But you might get lucky!

    但你可能很幸運!

  • Snakes don't always decide

    蛇不盡然都認為

  • you're worth wasting venom on.

    你值得牠們浪費毒液

  • In fact, between 20 and 80% of snake bites

    事實上,約 20% 到 80% 的蛇咬

  • are so-called "dry bites,"

    都是所謂的「乾咬」(無毒咬擊)

  • where the snake is just trying

    就是毒蛇只是試著嚇嚇你

  • to send a message without actually killing you.

    這並不會讓你真的死掉

  • You see, venom takes energy and resources

    你要知道,蛇要消耗能量及資源

  • for the snake to make,

    製造毒液

  • and they don't want to waste it on a warning shot.

    而牠們並不想浪費在警告上

  • When it comes to poison,

    但說到毒

  • on the other hand,

    從另一方面說

  • there's no warning shot.

    就沒有什麼警告咬擊了

  • If you pick up a poisonous dart frog

    如果你抓起一隻箭毒蛙

  • to admire its beautiful colors,

    想要好好欣賞牠美麗的顏色

  • you've already gotten deadly poison

    你的雙手就

  • all over your hands.

    已經碰到了牠的劇毒

  • As it seeps into your skin

    隨著它浸入你的皮膚

  • and travels through your blood,

    透過血液運行

  • the poison starts to interfere with your nerves,

    這種毒開始干擾你的神經

  • preventing your muscles from contracting.

    使你的肌肉無法收縮

  • If the frog's poison reaches your heart,

    如果這隻青蛙的毒 運行到你的心臟

  • it can cause it to stop.

    它會使心臟停止跳動

  • The distinction between venom and poison

    毒液和毒之間的區別

  • is purely in the method of delivery.

    純粹在於它們輸送的方式

  • Poison has to be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed.

    毒必須被吸入、攝入或吸收

  • Venom has to be injected into a wound.

    毒液必須由傷口注射進入

  • Chemically, venoms and poisons

    從化學上來看,毒液及毒

  • are both considered toxins,

    兩者都被視為毒素

  • so a snake bite is venomous.

    所以蛇咬是用毒液

  • A poison dart frog is poisonous.

    箭毒蛙則是有毒的

  • Brown recluse spiders are venomous.

    褐色隱蛛是有毒液

  • Lionfish and pufferfish are poisonous.

    獅子魚、河魨則是有毒的

  • And some compounds can be poisons in one animal

    有些化合物在某種動物上是毒

  • and venoms in another.

    在另一物種上卻是毒液

  • Tetrodotoxin, a chemical 10,000 times more toxic than cyanide,

    河豚毒素,是種比氰化物 還要毒一萬倍的化學物

  • is found in pufferfish,

    可在河魨上發現

  • where it makes them poisonous.

    使牠們具毒性

  • It's also found in the deadly blue-ringed octopus,

    它同時也在致命的 藍環章魚身上找到

  • where it's a venom delivered by bite.

    牠們要以咬擊 輸出這種毒液

  • Some animals can even be both poisonous and venomous.

    有些動物甚至兼具有「毒」及有「毒液」

  • Take the Asian tiger snake, for example.

    以台灣赤煉蛇為例

  • Not only does it have venom in its fangs

    牠不但有毒液在毒牙裡

  • but it also absorbs the toxins

    從牠吃的毒癩蛤蟆裡吸收

  • from the poisonous toads it eats,

    還可以吸收毒素

  • and then secretes those toxins

    從牠脖子上的 一種特別腺體

  • from special glands on its neck,

    分泌出這種毒素

  • rendering it poisonous, too.

    使得牠也成為有毒的

  • Scientists are constantly finding new animals

    科學家不斷地發現新的動物

  • that employ toxins in weird, interesting ways.

    用怪異、有趣的方式使毒

  • Recently, researchers discovered

    最近,研究者發現

  • the very first venomous crustacean.

    史上第一種有毒甲殼綱動物

  • Out of 70,000 species of crustaceans,

    在七萬種甲殼綱物種中

  • only this one little remipede is venomous.

    只有這個小小的 漿足動物是有毒液的

  • Speleonectes tulumensis has figured out

    圖倫冥府蝦找出了一種

  • how to create a cocktail of toxins

    如何製造混合毒素的方法

  • that it delivers through its tiny fangs.

    並經由牠小小的毒牙輸送

  • Scientists aren't totally sure how this venom works yet,

    科學家還不能完全確定 這種毒液如何作用

  • but they think that it causes the unwitting victims' neurons

    但他們認為毒液會使 不知情受害者的神經元

  • to fire over and over and over again

    一次又一次不斷地激發

  • until it becomes paralyzed.

    直到牠變成癱瘓為止

  • Then, the little remipede closes in,

    然後,這小小的漿足動物靠近

  • dissolving away the exoskeleton of its prey

    將牠的獵物外殼漸漸溶解

  • and sucking out the juices.

    吸出肉汁

  • But poisons and venoms aren't always all bad.

    但毒及毒液 不盡然百害無益

  • For thousands of years, humans have looked for

    數千年來,人類尋找

  • ways to harness the power of these toxic compounds for good.

    利用有毒化合物的方法

  • Today, we have all sorts of medicines

    今天,我們有許多藥品

  • that come from toxins.

    來自毒素

  • The poison from cone snails is used as a painkiller.

    雞心螺的毒可當作止痛藥

  • Many poisonous plants have been used

    很多有毒的植物已被用在

  • to treat everything from malaria to irregular heartbeats.

    治療從瘧疾到 心律不整等疾病

  • And scorpion venom might one day be used

    而蠍子的毒液有一天或可用在

  • to treat heart disease.

    治療心臟疾病上

  • So, what should you do if something bites or poisons you?

    所以,如果某種東西 咬你或毒你該怎麼辦?

  • Don't try any of the things you've seen

    不要嘗試任何你在

  • on the internet or in movies!

    網路或電影上看到的東西

  • Don't try to capture and kill the animal

    不要試圖捕捉或殺掉

  • that bit you,

    咬了你的動物

  • and don't use a tourniquet or knife on your wound.

    也不要在傷口上用止血帶或刀子

  • Most importantly, don't panic!

    最重要的是,不要驚慌!

  • Stay calm, and seek medical attention.

    保持鎮定,然後求醫

  • Treatment will mostly depend

    治療方法主要取決於

  • on what species you encountered.

    你碰到的是什麼物種

  • But if you forget the distinction

    但如果你就是忘了

  • between poison and venom,

    毒及毒液之間的區別

  • and tell the parademics

    且告訴急救人員

  • that you were poisoned by a viper,

    你被毒蛇「毒」到了

  • they'll probably forgive you and treat you anyway.

    他們還是會原諒你且治療你的

Would you rather be bitten

你寧願

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 毒液 毒素 有毒 動物 治療

【TED-Ed】 毒液和毒有什麼區別?(Poison vs. venom: What's the difference? - Rose Eveleth)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 03 月 22 日
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