B1 中級 25 分類 收藏
- We live in a universe
where statistically disorder is king.
As time moves forward, things fall apart.
Stars burn out. Energy spreads out.
Entropy conquers all.
But humans, life, fights that trend.
We build things.
We organize things.
We add information.
So why is that we love destroying things?
Exploding fireworks.
Fights and crashes.
Even popping bubble wrap.
Tiny cute things can make us
want to just squeeze 'em to death.
[electronic music]
♪ ♪
The power to destroy is a delicious one.
Even just holding this here,
knowing I can drop it,
I am in control.
I can exert my will in a dramatic and irreversible way.
♪ ♪
Ugh. [laughs]
Why does that feel so good to do,
or even just watch?
For me, throwing it to its death was almost relaxing,
like I feel calmer now after being destructive,
like I've vented some pent-up energy.
Or anger?
Why do we like breakings things when we're angry?
There's a growing trend of businesses
anger rooms that are popping up in places
like Texas and Toronto.
People pay to visit these anger rooms
and let off steam by smashing mock-ups of workplaces,
kitchens, and more.
Catharsis Theory proposes that such acts of destruction
reduce our anger.
But do they?
Sometimes, but sometimes they don't.
This is what makes studying the mind so difficult.
Researchers are still looking into the specifics
and the variables involved, and I want to see firsthand
and in person what it's like when people get angry
and then break things.
Will then be more or less violent afterwards?
To demonstrate Catharsis Theory,
we set up our own anger room
to see whether or not breaking things will help calm down
some angry people.
Our subjects think they're participating
in a study about opposing political views,
so we've asked them to write an essay
on different polarizing topics.
- Come in. - Kashona? Hi.
How are you? I'm Michael.
- Hi, Michael.
- It's nice to meet you.
I was just with your co-participant Clint.
He's in another room.
I'm gonna give your essay to Clint,
and he's gonna critique it,
and you're going to critique his.
- Okay, thank you. - See you soon.
- He wrote a lot. I didn't write that much.
- Each of our subjects
has been paired with a man named Clint,
and they will be critiquing each other's essays.
- "Police officers have a very difficult job.
They have to protect us mainly from people of color."
- The thing is...
Okay, here we go.
I'm actually Clint.
"Overblown, un-American. Get over it."
My job-- or rather, Clint's job--
is to make our subjects mad
so they can test our anger room.
"You should be ashamed."
- "You deserve what's coming to you."
What a asshole.
Ha. Changed it to black.
That's better.
- Okay, Kashona. I'm back.
And you were with Clint. Okay.
- Mm-hmm. - Let's go through what he wrote
just quickly.
- He wrote-- - Did I put that that way?
- No, you didn't. - Did you turn it around?
- I did turn it around.
He seems like a bigot or somebody.
I didn't want to keep looking at his face.
- He's responded to your essay there.
- We can't tell people where to go to eat for lunch,
what car to drive;
like, that just really irritates me.
- This is a person that is making arguments
that are not based in any fact.
- He's clearly someone who thinks
that the people who are on social programs
are lazy.
- I was like, "What the [bleep]?"
- Getting fired up, mother-- ooh, I'm getting fired up.
- It's disgusting.
- I got an F-plus?
Oh, I hope I don't see him in the hallway.
He's a dick,
and that is why he is part of the reason
why our country [bleep] sucks right now.
Because he's stupid.
- Well, I think that was pretty effective.
We've got a lot of angry people on our hands,
so will demolishing things calm them down
or will acts of destruction throw fuel on the fire?
[dramatic music]
Let's explore Catharsis Theory
with an expert.
- The modern view of catharsis
is that by acting out
we release sort of like a pressure valve
and that releases that energy
in order for us to sort of build up again
and handle everyday distress.
- People who are angry and aggressive
who then act that out, what would they feel afterwards?
- What many studies have found
is that it's a short-lived release,
and it feels good--it feels really good to release--
but what happens in the brain is,
the brain enjoys that.
There's really a reward to build up that pressure again
and then release it again.
It's a temporary fix, as far as we know.
- I didn't realize it was so complicated
and still being researched.
I thought it was black and white.
It was--you do this, and you release the emotion
and it's gone.
- Yeah, not as much.
We don't have this perfect definition
of catharsis, where everybody agrees,
here's how it works, here's how it ends up.
- Well, let's see if catharsis works for us.
♪ ♪
Now that Clint has sufficiently angered all of our subjects...
- He's more like a [bleep] pussy, as far as I'm concerned.
- It's time to put Catharsis Theory to the test.
♪ ♪
Some subjects will be allowed
to actively take out their anger
on all of these beautiful art objects.
You have completely free reign
to break anything in this room.
- What? - Okay?
Other subjects are instructed
to sit in the room passively.
I want you to reflect on
the essay, the arguments,
the critiques,
and also on the objects in this room.
- Am I going to meet Clint or not?
- No, you are not. - Okay.
- That's not part of this study.
- Okay, got you.
- Wil these subjects feel less angry
after their violent acts of destruction?
Only one way to find out.
[rock music]
♪ ♪
[elevator music]
[rock music]
When we are angry, the body's adrenal glands
release cortisol and adrenaline,
readying the body and mind for fight mode.
- But Catharsis Theory hypothesizes
that letting it out relieves feelings of aggression.
[elevator music]
[rock music]
♪ ♪
Will these subjects feel less angry after their violent acts
of destruction?
- Okay, I'm done.
- Before we move on to the final step
of our anger room demonstration,
maybe we can gain insight from someone who makes
a living by hitting.
Not objects but other people.
Mark Smith, aka "Rhino,"
is a champion bodybuilder, boxer,
and UK gladiator who knows a thing or two
about how to destroy an opponent.
♪ ♪
So when you're going into a fight,
you know that you're going to get hurt.
- Yes. - You know that you're going
hurt someone else.
How do you psych yourself up
to be good at that?
- When you get into a fight,
you want to stick to your game plan,
stay focused, and be relaxed.
- Relaxed.
Because I would have thought
you'd want to go in angry.
- No, because if you go in too angry,
all you're doing is...
and you're not thinking straight,
it turns into, like, a school brawl.
It's a very tactical game. - Right.
- The eye of the tiger, like Rocky.
- But this is fascinating to me,
because you would think that to physically outfight someone,
in nature, we would have evolved to run off of angry and fear.
- That's like two lions; I agree with you there.
Two lions attack and go full out, don't they?
There's no pace in that fight whatsoever,
like animals, but you have to know when to be an animal
and at what point in the fight.
Bang! - Oh!
- But, like--so it's point in--
- I'm a very jumpy, flinchy person.
- It's knowing when to pull the trigger.
- If you ever find yourself angry in your real life,
do you find it helpful to punch a punching bag...
- Definitely. - Yeah?
I will get angry, like, I'm on the phone
with my bank, and I might think slamming a door
or just hanging up and throwing my phone on the bed--
- No, don't throw your phone, and don't slam doors.
- Why? - Just come and exercise
and hit the bag; you'll feel so much better.
- What's the difference, though?
They're both, like, active things.
- Well, you're not doing something spontaneous
and acting on impulse.
[growls] It's premeditated.
You know you're gonna go, "Okay, I'm gonna pack my bag,
"I'm gonna go to the gym,
I'll be releasing endorphins."
You'll feel more relaxed and you'll be able to assess
the bank manager who's been irritating you
for the last hour.
- Can I--can I try hitting some things?
- Definitely. You can try hitting me.
- Can I really? - Yes.
Are you gonna hit back? - I will--
I will let you know I'm there.
- Okay.
[dramatic music]
Awesome. Do I look scary?
- [laughs] - Oh, yeah.
Is Rhino correct that violent acts of rage
won't calm you down?
But the controlled aggression used in boxing
will actually relax you?
♪ ♪
I guess I'm about to find out.
[bell dings]
♪ ♪
- Yes, like that.
♪ ♪
No, no.
- [groaning]
- No. Come on.
- Well done!
Good work.
- I came out of the fight having learned two things.
One, I'm a wimp.
And two, Rhino was right;
when physical violence is channeled
in an organized sport like boxing,
it can actually reduce feelings of aggression.
I had this weird combination of feelings.
As tired as I am... - Yep.
- I'm very amped up.
- So now you feel it. - Yeah.
I don't feel aggressive.
- You feel relaxed?
- I wouldn't say I'm relaxed here;
I would just say I'm clearer here,
and I feel more in control.
- Eye of the tiger, Rock.
- Yeah, well, maybe it's the eye of the kitten,
who is in a bad mood,
but, man, that was great.
♪ ♪
It's time for the final part of our anger room demonstration.
All of our subjects will be taking part
in what they think is a reflex test
against their opponent Clint.
In reality, of course, there is no Client,
and what we're really looking at
is the Catharsis Theory.
Have our subjects' levels of anger been affected
according to whether they committed
violent acts of destruction.
Or not.
Stage three is going to be testing
how your reflexes are working at this very moment.
So this right here is
a static electricity generator
that is going to provide a little bit of a shock.
We're putting one on Clint as well,
and he's in another room,
but you both have the same setup.
Once our subjects are fitted with the shock bracelet,
they're introduced to the test's control panel.
- [chuckles] Look at this.
- Yeah, it's very simplified,
but that really helps keep the variables low.
So both you and Clint will be competing in a bit of a game.
The yellow light is going to come on at some point,
and as soon as you see it come on,
hit that orange button.
And if you hit this button before Clint does,
you'll see the green light come on.
And that will mean that you won.
And Clint needs to receive a small shock, okay?
And you can set this to a level of your choosing.
- So--okay.
Light goes on, if I hit this,
the green one comes and then I'm allowed
to work this contraption.
- Correct. - Which controls how
high the voltage and for how long the voltage.
- Correct. - Okay.
- If however, Clint pushes the button before you do,
the red light will come on, indicating--
- My red light and I'm about to get it.
- That you'll get a shock, yeah. Correct.
We'll get a sense of our subjects' level of anger
by how they respond to the chance to administer pain
to Clint.
Remember, this subject just sat in the anger room passively.
- Did I get him?
Oh, all right.
- The green light means our subject wins.
How hard will he shock Clint?
- I'm gonna give you a little low one, buddy.
[buzzing] There you go.
Just a kiss.
Ah, got me.
- The red light means Clint won.
How will our subject respond
to getting shocked?
[static buzz] - Ah!
[laughs] You son of a bitch.
- Not only does this subject
not seem angry, he's actually enjoying the game.
- All right.
[buzzing] How about that?
I'm not gonna harm you, man.
Gave ya a little low one.
- He actually seems relatively calm.
Will our other passive subject follow suit?
[static buzz]
Clint gave her a painful shock.
Let's see how strongly she retaliates.
Even after getting a shock from Clint,
this subject is still hesitant
to give him a shock in return.
[over PA] Okay, Clint and Drea,
this is just a reminder that you are--
you are allowed to change that dial
to what you think would be appropriate.
- Yeah, I just don't want to, like, hurt him or anything.
I'm just gonna keep it at low.
- So the angry subjects who sat passively
seemed to have calmed down.
Now it's time to check on the subjects who acted violently
in the anger room.
Did letting out all of that aggression
relieve their anger?
[over PA] The experiment will begin now.
- Take it, take it, take it.
- Kashona.
That's--that's fine.
What level is your dial at?
- Um...
- He cranked that all the way up
and he's laying on that button.
This subject was one of the most aggressive people
in the anger room,
but that doesn't seem to have calmed him down.
- Among our subjects,
it seems that those who physically vented
their anger are still pretty angry
compared to that subjects who sat quietly.
- So at least in this case,
catharsis therapy was not effective.
In fact, in some cases,
the subject seems even angrier.
- Ow! [bleep]
You know what? That's too hard.
You [bleep] dick!
Why don't you come in here and [bleep] talk to me in person?
- Oh, my God. Oh, my God.
- We're all familiar with the concept of rubbernecking.
It's hard to look away from a car crash.
- Oh, my God.
- But why?
There are surely a myriad of reasons,
but one may be that at a primitive level,
witnessing danger allows us to learn and prepare for it.
Activities where danger and destruction are likely
are exciting.
Starting in our childhood,
physical aggression is encouraged,
even in games.
Take a piñata for example.
As a special birthday treat,
we are told to beat up an effigy with a baseball bat.
And when we hit it hard enough,
we are rewarded with candy.
What parts of a child's urge to destroy are innate
versus learned?
Well, there is a groundbreaking experiment
that shed light on this.
In 1961, Albert Bandura conducted a famous
and controversial study called the Bobo Doll Experiment.
He had adults act violently to an inflatable clown doll
in the presence of children.
Then left the children alone with the same doll
to see if they would mimic the destructive behavior
they'd observed.
Disturbingly, the children did indeed copy the adults,
and lashed out at the doll,
often getting very creative with their aggression
and destruction.
Aggression comes in many unexpected forms.
Why is it so hard to resist popping bubbles in bubble wrap,
for instance?
Do we like the sound?
The destruction? Or both?
It's like we're naturally drawn to destroying
these harmless plastic bubbles of air.
Destructive tendencies seem to be so engrained in us
that we even respond to positive stimulation
with urges to destroy.
One of the strangest things about destruction
is how people want to hug things to death,
especially things that are extremely cute,
like a puppy.
We don't know exactly why this is,
but there is a study that demonstrates the effect
by using bubble wrap and our desire
to pop these bubbles.
[popping] Oh, yeah.
[dramatic music]
Can sweet adorable stimuli
really insight aggressive behavior?
We're about to find out.
- Thank you for participating in our focus test.
- No problem.
- Please make yourself comfortable.
- We've recruited subjects who think
they're taking part in a motor skills test.
- Are you familiar with this product?
- Yes. - Have you popped the bubbles
in bubble wrap before?
- Yes.
- But really what we're testing
is their aggressive response to cute stimuli.
- So you will be viewing a montage of images.
Please pop bubbles in the bubble wrap.
You may pop as many or as few as you like.
Just be sure to start when the images begin
and stop when the images end.
- Popping bubbles is like squeezing a stress ball.
It's a great way to express aggression.
The question is, will the subjects pop more bubbles
when watching neutral images or cute ones?
♪ ♪
First we showed our subjects these basic landscapes,
which are not designed to elicit an emotional response.
And we tallied the total number of bubbles popped.
♪ ♪
- Okay, great. I'll take those.
All right, we're gonna do part two,
where you'll be viewing another set of images.
- Okay.
- We also showed them images of...
[playful piano music]
♪ ♪
Oh, look at that one!
Don't you just want to hug it and squeeze it to--
well, okay, you get the point.
♪ ♪
To keep things even,
half of the subjects viewed the landscapes first
and half viewed the puppies first.
But either way, they seemed to pop a lot more bubbles
while watching the puppies.
Except for this guy.
♪ ♪
So-called cute aggression
is a universal psychological phenomenon.
Researchers believe the brain's response
to both cuteness and aggression
results in the release of dopamine
implicated in the reward and pleasure,
but if we are unable to physically touch cute stimuli,
the desire to do so can be regulated
by substituting aggressive physical behavior.
Will our results reflect this theory?
♪ ♪
- How did you feel about the images that you saw?
- They were cool.
- How did you feel about the puppies?
- I love them. - They were very tiny
and adorable.
And I wanted to hug them.
- And how did you feel about popping the bubble wrap?
- I felt like I wanted to
play with the dogs or--
I wanted to play with the bubble wrap with the dogs.
- In our simple test, our subjects popped an average
of 33% more bubbles while watching cute puppies,
as opposed to boring landscapes.
- So was the bubble wrap a stand-in for the puppies?
- I guess so.
- In fact, the majority of our subjects
popped more bubbles while watching puppies.
But not this guy. Remember him?
- So how did you feel about seeing the dog pictures?
- Um, I've always been more of a cat person.
- It seems sometimes cuteness
is a matter of perspective.
[dramatic music]
♪ ♪
Our relationship with destruction is not a simple one.
It can release endorphins and relax our minds.
It can amp us up and make us even more aggressive.
It can even help us regulate our emotional reactions
to cute things.
Destruction can be useful,
it can be dangerous,
and it can be a lot of fun.
♪ ♪
And as always, thanks for watching.
[electronic music]
♪ ♪


Destruction - Mind Field (Ep 3)

25 分類 收藏
林宜悉 發佈於 2020 年 3 月 28 日
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