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  • - We live in a universe

    我們所居住的宇宙

  • where statistically disorder is king.

    混亂才是王道

  • As time moves forward, things fall apart.

    隨著時光流逝,萬物崩解

  • Stars burn out. Energy spreads out.

    星辰殞落,能量釋放

  • Entropy conquers all.

    混亂佔據了一切

  • But humans, life, fights that trend.

    但人類與生命體與之對抗

  • We build things.

    我們建造、組織

  • We organize things.

    我們挖掘資訊

  • We add information.

    為什麼我們喜歡摧毀東西?

  • So why is that we love destroying things?

    燃放煙火

  • [shouts]

    戰鬥與砸毀

  • Exploding fireworks.

    甚至是揉捏氣泡紙

  • Fights and crashes.

    可愛的事物讓我們想要

  • Even popping bubble wrap.

    捏捏他們,抱緊他們

  • Ugh!

    為什麼?

  • Tiny cute things can make us

    摧毀的力量很誘人

  • want to just squeeze 'em to death.

    即使只是像這樣拿著

  • Ugh!

    心裡想著一放手就會砸碎它

  • Why?

    一切由我控制

  • [electronic music]

    我可以自由發揮意志 造成戲劇性且不可逆的改變

  • ♪ ♪

    準備好了嗎?

  • The power to destroy is a delicious one.

    準備好了

  • Even just holding this here,

    漂亮

  • knowing I can drop it,

    為什麼這麼做感覺這麼好?

  • I am in control.

    或即使只是用看的

  • I can exert my will in a dramatic and irreversible way.

    對我而言,從丟下西瓜到這西瓜被砸碎,感覺很紓壓

  • Ready?

    破壞後我更感到平靜

  • Ready.

    像是我釋放了些能量

  • ♪ ♪

    或是憤怒

  • Ugh. [laughs]

    為什麼生氣時我們喜歡砸東西

  • Beautiful.

    建立於此的商業機會正在崛起

  • Why does that feel so good to do,

    舒壓用的暴怒房一一成立

  • or even just watch?

    在德州和多倫多

  • For me, throwing it to its death was almost relaxing,

    人們付錢來到這房間

  • like I feel calmer now after being destructive,

    藉由砸毀物品來消怒

  • like I've vented some pent-up energy.

    像是廚房、工作房等等

  • Or anger?

    宣洩理論認為這樣的破壞行為

  • Why do we like breakings things when we're angry?

    可以幫助紓壓與消氣

  • There's a growing trend of businesses

    但這真有效嗎?

  • anger rooms that are popping up in places

    有時有效,有時未必

  • like Texas and Toronto.

    這就是為什麼研究心智如此困難

  • People pay to visit these anger rooms

    學者們還在深入探討細節 以及相關變數

  • and let off steam by smashing mock-ups of workplaces,

    而我想要親眼見證第一手資料

  • kitchens, and more.

    當人們發怒而砸東西時是什麼樣子?

  • Catharsis Theory proposes that such acts of destruction

    他們的怒氣是否會因此平息?

  • reduce our anger.

    為了示範宣洩理論

  • But do they?

    我們佈置了自己的暴怒房

  • Sometimes, but sometimes they don't.

    觀察破壞東西是否能讓暴怒的人

  • This is what makes studying the mind so difficult.

    變得冷靜

  • Researchers are still looking into the specifics

    我們的受測者以為自己在參加

  • and the variables involved, and I want to see firsthand

    關於政治立場對立的研究

  • and in person what it's like when people get angry

    所以我們叫他們寫一篇短文

  • and then break things.

    關於兩極端立場主題

  • Will then be more or less violent afterwards?

    - 請進 - 柯莎娜?

  • To demonstrate Catharsis Theory,

    你好嗎? 我是麥可

  • we set up our own anger room

    你好,麥可

  • to see whether or not breaking things will help calm down

    很高興認識你

  • some angry people.

    我剛剛和你對立夥伴柯林特在一塊

  • Our subjects think they're participating

    他在另一個房間裡

  • in a study about opposing political views,

    我想把你的短文交給柯林特

  • so we've asked them to write an essay

    他會對此評論

  • on different polarizing topics.

    而你會評論他的

  • - Come in. - Kashona? Hi.

    - 好,謝謝 - 等會見

  • How are you? I'm Michael.

    他寫很多,我沒寫這麼多

  • - Hi, Michael.

    我們的每位受測者

  • - It's nice to meet you.

    都與這位名為柯林特的人配對

  • I was just with your co-participant Clint.

    他們會互評彼此的短文

  • He's in another room.

    警察的工作很艱難

  • I'm gonna give your essay to Clint,

    他們必須保護我們 不被其他有色人種傷害

  • and he's gonna critique it,

    問題是...

  • and you're going to critique his.

    開始吧

  • - Okay, thank you. - See you soon.

    事實上,我就是柯林特

  • - He wrote a lot. I didn't write that much.

    「誇張的」、「偽美國人」、放棄他」

  • Okay.

    我的任務,應該說柯林特的任務

  • - Each of our subjects

    就是激怒受試者

  • has been paired with a man named Clint,

    讓他們可以進一步在暴怒房受測

  • and they will be critiquing each other's essays.

    你該感到羞恥

  • - "Police officers have a very difficult job.

    你活該

  • They have to protect us mainly from people of color."

    真是個混帳

  • [laughs]

    眼不見為淨

  • - The thing is...

    這樣好多了

  • Okay, here we go.

    好了,柯莎娜,我回來了

  • I'm actually Clint.

    你是跟柯林特一組

  • "Overblown, un-American. Get over it."

    我們來看看他怎麼寫

  • My job-- or rather, Clint's job--

    很快地看即可

  • is to make our subjects mad

    剛才是這樣放的嗎?

  • so they can test our anger room.

    - 不是 - 是你把他轉過去的嗎?

  • "You should be ashamed."

    是我轉過去的

  • - "You deserve what's coming to you."

    他感覺很武斷

  • What a asshole.

    我不想繼續看他的臉

  • Ha. Changed it to black.

    他對你短文的回覆在這

  • That's better.

    我們不能命令別人去哪裡或去哪用餐

  • Oops.

    開什麼車

  • - Okay, Kashona. I'm back.

    這真讓我生氣

  • And you were with Clint. Okay.

    這個人的評斷

  • - Mm-hmm. - Let's go through what he wrote

    完全沒有根據事實

  • just quickly.

    他顯然認為

  • - He wrote-- - Did I put that that way?

    接受社會福利的人

  • - No, you didn't. - Did you turn it around?

    都很懶惰

  • - I did turn it around.

    這什麼跟什麼啊?

  • He seems like a bigot or somebody.

    太荒謬了

  • I didn't want to keep looking at his face.

    我發火了,我真的發火了

  • - He's responded to your essay there.

    令人作噁

  • - We can't tell people where to go to eat for lunch,

    我得到 F+?

  • what car to drive;

    我希望等下在走廊不要遇上他

  • like, that just really irritates me.

    他是個王八蛋

  • - This is a person that is making arguments

    這就是為什麼

  • that are not based in any fact.

    我們的國家現在這麼爛

  • - He's clearly someone who thinks

    因為他愚蠢

  • that the people who are on social programs

    我想這招還滿有效的

  • are lazy.

    我們這聚集了許多怒氣沖天的人

  • - I was like, "What the [bleep]?"

    而砸東西可以幫助他們平靜下來嗎?

  • - Getting fired up, mother-- ooh, I'm getting fired up.

    還是只是火上澆油

  • - It's disgusting.

    讓我們跟專家一起 深入了解宣洩理論

  • - I got an F-plus?

    當代對宣洩的觀點是 宣洩出來

  • Oh, I hope I don't see him in the hallway.

    就像釋放氣壓一樣

  • He's a dick,

    可以宣洩掉那能量

  • and that is why he is part of the reason

    以幫助我們重新開始處理 每天的壓力

  • why our country [bleep] sucks right now.

    憤怒而激進的人們

  • Because he's stupid.

    當他們宣洩後感受如何呢?

  • - Well, I think that was pretty effective.

    許多研究發現

  • We've got a lot of angry people on our hands,

    這只是短暫的舒壓

  • so will demolishing things calm them down

    而這感覺很好,抒放的感覺很棒

  • or will acts of destruction throw fuel on the fire?

    我們的大腦樂在其中

  • [dramatic music]

    因此這變成一種再次生氣的獎賞

  • Let's explore Catharsis Theory

    然後再次宣洩

  • with an expert.

    據我們所知,這治標不治本

  • - The modern view of catharsis

    我過去不了解原來這是這麼複雜

  • is that by acting out

    且仍在研究中

  • we release sort of like a pressure valve

    我以為這就是非黑即白

  • and that releases that energy

    就像...你做了這個,抒發了情緒

  • in order for us to sort of build up again

    然後就沒有了

  • and handle everyday distress.

    不全然是

  • - People who are angry and aggressive

    沒有一個行遍天下的

  • who then act that out, what would they feel afterwards?

    完美定義

  • - What many studies have found

    這就是運作的方式

  • is that it's a short-lived release,

    讓我們來看看宣洩對我們是否有效

  • and it feels good--it feels really good to release--

    柯林特已把大家激得夠怒了

  • but what happens in the brain is,

    就我而言,他就是個膿包

  • the brain enjoys that.

    是時候實際測試宣洩理論了

  • There's really a reward to build up that pressure again

    部分受測者可盡情對這些 美麗的物件發洩怒氣

  • and then release it again.

    你有絕對的自由和權利

  • It's a temporary fix, as far as we know.

    摧毀這房裡的一切

  • - I didn't realize it was so complicated

    什麼?

  • and still being researched.

    其他受測者被指示

  • I thought it was black and white.

    被動地坐在這房間中

  • It was--you do this, and you release the emotion

    我要你回想那篇短文

  • and it's gone.

    他的論點和評論

  • - Yeah, not as much.

    同時想想這房裡的東西

  • We don't have this perfect definition

    我會和柯林特碰面嗎?

  • of catharsis, where everybody agrees,

    不,你不會

  • here's how it works, here's how it ends up.

    這不在實驗範圍中

  • - Well, let's see if catharsis works for us.

    了解

  • ♪ ♪

    這些受測者在恣意摧毀後

  • Now that Clint has sufficiently angered all of our subjects...

    會感到比較不生氣嗎

  • - He's more like a [bleep] pussy, as far as I'm concerned.

    找到解答的方式只有一個

  • - It's time to put Catharsis Theory to the test.

    當生氣時,我們的腎上腺

  • ♪ ♪

    會分泌皮質醇和腎上腺素

  • Some subjects will be allowed

    讓身體和心智進入戰鬥模式

  • to actively take out their anger

    但宣洩理論假設

  • on all of these beautiful art objects.

    釋放能量可舒緩侵略性

  • You have completely free reign

    這些受試者是否會因摧毀的暴行

  • to break anything in this room.

    而感到比較不生氣?

  • - What? - Okay?

    我好了

  • Other subjects are instructed

    在進入最後一個階段之前

  • to sit in the room passively.

    或許我們可以從這個

  • I want you to reflect on

    以打架維生的人身上得到一些啟發

  • the essay, the arguments,

    他不是受測對象

  • the critiques,

    馬克史密斯,又名犀牛

  • and also on the objects in this room.

    是健身和拳擊冠軍

  • - Am I going to meet Clint or not?

    這位英國的神鬼戰士對於

  • - No, you are not. - Okay.

    如何摧毀敵人略知一二

  • - That's not part of this study.

    當你前往打架時

  • - Okay, got you.

    你知道你會受傷

  • - Wil these subjects feel less angry

    是的

  • after their violent acts of destruction?

    你知道你將傷害別人

  • Only one way to find out.

    你是如何做好心理準備的?

  • [rock music]

    當要打架時

  • ♪ ♪

    會希望堅守計畫

  • [elevator music]

    專注、然後放鬆

  • [rock music]

    放鬆

  • When we are angry, the body's adrenal glands

    因為我以為

  • release cortisol and adrenaline,

    你會想要發飆

  • readying the body and mind for fight mode.

    不,因為當你太憤怒時

  • - But Catharsis Theory hypothesizes

    你只會這麼做...

  • that letting it out relieves feelings of aggression.

    你無法好好思考

  • [elevator music]

    比賽就只會變成學生打群架

  • [crack]

    這是個很靠戰術的比賽

  • [rock music]

    像老虎般兇狠的眼神,就像洛碁一樣

  • ♪ ♪

    這很吸引我

  • Will these subjects feel less angry after their violent acts

    因為很多人都以為

  • of destruction?

    要戰勝對手就必須要生氣而憤怒

  • - Okay, I'm done.

    就像兩頭獅子

  • - Before we move on to the final step

    兩頭獅子使出全力攻擊,不是嗎?

  • of our anger room demonstration,

    打架是混亂的 就像動物一樣

  • maybe we can gain insight from someone who makes

    但你必須要知道 戰鬥中的什麼時間點

  • a living by hitting.

    才要像動物一般出手

  • Not objects but other people.

    不好意思

  • Mark Smith, aka "Rhino,"

    我很容易受驚

  • is a champion bodybuilder, boxer,

    你需要知道何時發動攻擊

  • and UK gladiator who knows a thing or two

    如果你發現自己很生氣

  • about how to destroy an opponent.

    打沙包對你而言有效嗎?

  • ♪ ♪

    - 絕對有的 - 是嗎?

  • So when you're going into a fight,

    我會發怒,例如說在電話中

  • you know that you're going to get hurt.

    和銀行溝通,我會想要摔門

  • - Yes. - You know that you're going

    或直接掛電話然後摔手機

  • hurt someone else.

    別扔手機也別摔門

  • How do you psych yourself up

    - 為什麼? - 就來運動就好

  • to be good at that?

    打沙包會讓你感覺好很多

  • - When you get into a fight,

    到底有什麼差異呢?

  • you want to stick to your game plan,

    兩種都是很動態的

  • stay focused, and be relaxed.

    你不會衝動行事

  • - Relaxed.

    你是事先計劃過的

  • Because I would have thought

    你會知道「好,我現在要打沙包」

  • you'd want to go in angry.

    「我要去健身房」

  • - No, because if you go in too angry,

    「我將分泌腦內啡」

  • all you're doing is...

    你會放鬆許多

  • and you're not thinking straight,

    並得以評估過去一小時 惹惱你的那位銀行經理

  • it turns into, like, a school brawl.

    我可以嘗試打些什麼嗎?

  • It's a very tactical game. - Right.

    當然,你可以揍我

  • - The eye of the tiger, like Rocky.

    - 我真的可以嗎? - 是的

  • - But this is fascinating to me,

    你會回擊嗎?

  • because you would think that to physically outfight someone,

    到時候我會告訴你

  • in nature, we would have evolved to run off of angry and fear.

  • - That's like two lions; I agree with you there.

    太棒了,我看起來很嚇人嗎?

  • Two lions attack and go full out, don't they?

    關於犀牛說的,暴力無法使人平靜

  • There's no pace in that fight whatsoever,

    的理論是正確的嗎?

  • like animals, but you have to know when to be an animal

    但控制下的主動行為

  • and at what point in the fight.

    卻可以使你放鬆?

  • Bang! - Oh!

    我想答案即將揭曉

  • - But, like--so it's point in--

    對,就像那樣

  • - I'm a very jumpy, flinchy person.

    繼續

  • - It's knowing when to pull the trigger.

    很好

  • - If you ever find yourself angry in your real life,

    做得好

  • do you find it helpful to punch a punching bag...

    打完架後我學會兩件事情

  • - Definitely. - Yeah?

    一、我是個窩囊廢

  • I will get angry, like, I'm on the phone

    二、犀牛是正確的

  • with my bank, and I might think slamming a door

    當肢體暴力被轉化為

  • or just hanging up and throwing my phone on the bed--

    一個有組織的運動,就像拳擊

  • - No, don't throw your phone, and don't slam doors.

    的確可以讓情緒和緩

  • - Why? - Just come and exercise

    這種混合的感覺很奇怪

  • and hit the bag; you'll feel so much better.

    雖然我很累

  • - What's the difference, though?

    但我感覺放鬆許多

  • They're both, like, active things.

    現在你懂了

  • - Well, you're not doing something spontaneous

    我不覺得激動了

  • and acting on impulse.

    你有覺得放鬆嗎?

  • [growls] It's premeditated.

    我不會說我很放鬆

  • You know you're gonna go, "Okay, I'm gonna pack my bag,

    但我會說我頭腦很清楚

  • "I'm gonna go to the gym,

    而且覺得一切更得以掌握

  • I'll be releasing endorphins."

    堅毅的老虎之眼

  • You'll feel more relaxed and you'll be able to assess

    我更像小貓之眼

  • the bank manager who's been irritating you

    而且小貓的心情抑鬱

  • for the last hour.

    但這感覺太棒了

  • - Can I--can I try hitting some things?

    進入暴怒房實驗的最後階段

  • - Definitely. You can try hitting me.

    所有的受測者都會參加

  • - Can I really? - Yes.

    一個他們認為是在對柯林特的反射實驗

  • Are you gonna hit back? - I will--

    但事實上,柯林特根本不存在

  • I will let you know I'm there.

    我們真正要觀察的是