Placeholder Image

字幕列表 影片播放

已審核 字幕已審核
  • Today ,more than half of all people in the world

    今日,全球有超過一半以上的人口

  • live in an urban area.

    居住在都市區域

  • By mid-century, this will increase to 70%.

    在2050年前這個數字會增加到七成

  • But as recently as 100 years ago,

    然而距今約一百年前

  • only two out of ten people lived in a city,

    每十人中,只有兩人住在都市中

  • and before that, it was even less.

    在那之前甚至更少

  • How have we reached

    究竟我們是怎麼達到

  • such a high degree of urbanization,

    如此高程度的都市化

  • and what does it mean for our future?

    而這對我們的未來又意味著什麼呢?

  • In the earliest days of human history,

    根據早期人類歷史記載

  • humans were hunter-gatherers,

    人們是狩獵採集者

  • often moving from place to place

    必須經常四處遷徙

  • in search of food.

    以便尋找食物

  • But about 10,000 years ago,

    但約莫一萬年前

  • our ancestors began to learn the secrets

    我們的祖先 開始發現一些生存的秘辛

  • of selective breeding

    像是選擇性育種

  • and early agricultural techniques.

    以及早期的農業技術

  • For the first time,

    有史以來第一次

  • people could raise food

    人類可以自己栽種食物

  • rather than search for it,

    而不是透過採集獲得

  • and this led to the development

    這也帶來了一個突破性的發展

  • of semi-permanent villages

    那就是半定居式村莊

  • for the first time in history.

    這個現象是史無前例的

  • "Why only semi-permanent?" you might ask.

    你可能會問:為什麼只有半定居呢?

  • Well, at first, the villages still had to relocate

    首先,這些村莊每隔數年

  • every few years

    就要遷徙一次

  • as the soil became depleted.

    是因為地力耗盡的緣故

  • It was only with the advent of techniques

    直到新技術出現 才有了轉機

  • like irrigation and soil tilling

    約莫五千年前

  • about 5,000 years ago

    人們學會灌溉和翻土耕地

  • that people could rely on a steady

    這使人們得以仰賴一個穩定

  • and long-term supply of food,

    而且長期的食物供應

  • making permanent settlements possible.

    使永久定居成為可能

  • And with the food surpluses

    也因為這些新技術

  • that these techniques produced,

    帶來的多餘的食物

  • it was no longer necessary for everyone to farm.

    不再需要人人當農夫

  • This allowed the development

    這又促進了

  • of other specialized trades,

    其他專門行業的發展

  • and, by extension, cities.

    也就是說,城市誕生了

  • With cities now producing surplus food,

    有了城市提供豐足的食物,

  • as well as tools,

    各種工具,

  • crafts,

    專精技藝,

  • and other goods,

    以及其他商品,

  • there was now the possibility of commerce

    貿易得以進行

  • and interaction over longer distances.

    也開始有了跨國界的互動

  • And as trade flourished,

    也因貿易日漸興盛

  • so did technologies that facilitated it,

    各式交通工具 和建設的發展也跟著日新月異

  • like carts,

    像是牛車,

  • ships,

    船隻,

  • roads,

    道路,

  • and ports.

    以及港口

  • Of course, these things required even more labor

    當然,這些東西需要更多人力

  • to build and maintain,

    來建造並維護

  • so more people were drawn

    所以越來越多人

  • from the countryside to the cities

    從鄉村遷移到城市

  • as more jobs and opportunities

    因為城市提供了

  • became available.

    更多工作和機會

  • If you think modern cities are overcrowded,

    如果你認為 許多現代城市已經人口爆炸

  • you may be surprised to learn

    你絕對會感到非常驚訝

  • that some cities in 2000 B.C. had population densities

    因為有些西元兩千年前的城市

  • nearly twice as high as that of Shanghai or Calcutta.

    人口密度幾乎是 上海或加爾各答的兩倍

  • One reason for this

    造成此現象的其中一個原因

  • was that transportation was not widely available,

    是由於當時交通不發達

  • so everything had to be within walking distance,

    所有事情都得在步行範圍內達成

  • including the few sources of clean water

    這也包括了

  • that existed then.

    汲取得來不易的水資源

  • And the land area of the city

    城市的土地

  • was further restricted by the need for walls

    又因須建造城牆抵禦外侮

  • to defend against attacks.

    而受到更多限制

  • The Roman Empire was able to develop infrastructure

    儘管羅馬帝國已發展了公共建設

  • to overcome these limitations,

    以便克服這些限制

  • but other than that,

    但除此之外,

  • modern cities as we know them,

    我們今日所知的現代城市

  • didn't really get their start

    直到工業革命時

  • until the Industrial Revolution,

    才真正開始發展

  • when new technology deployed on a mass scale

    當新科技背大量且廣泛地運用

  • allowed cities to expand and integrate further,

    使城市得以進一步擴張且整合

  • establishing police,

    像是建立警察制度,

  • fire,

    消防隊,

  • and sanitation departments,

    公衛部門,

  • as well as road networks,

    當然也包括道路系統,

  • and later electricity distribution.

    和之後的電力供應設施

  • So, what is the future of cities?

    所以,都市的未來發展為何呢?

  • Global population is currently more than 7 billion

    現今全球已經有超過70億人口

  • and is predicted to top out around 10 billion.

    而且據估計未來將突破100億

  • Most of this growth will occur

    大部分的人口成長將發生在

  • in the urban areas of the world's poorest countries.

    全世界最窮的國家中的都市區域

  • So, how will cities need to change

    那麼城市該做些什麼改變

  • to accommodate this growth?

    以應付如此龐大的成長呢?

  • First, the world will need to seek ways

    首先,各國須設法提供人民

  • to provide adequate food,

    足夠的食物,

  • sanitation,

    公共衛生設施,

  • and education for all people.

    以及教育

  • Second, growth will need to happen

    此外,人口成長必須發生在

  • in a way that does not damage the land

    不會破壞土地的前提上

  • that provides us with the goods and services

    因為土地等自然資源提供人類

  • that support the human population.

    許多賴以為生的必需品

  • Food production might move

    食物生產可能會移往

  • to vertical farms and skyscrapers,

    垂直農場,摩天大樓,

  • rooftop gardens,

    空中"菜"園,

  • or vacant lots in city centers,

    或市中心空曠的土地

  • while power will increasingly come

    此外也會持續增加

  • from multiple sources of renewable energy.

    多種不同再生能源的使用

  • Instead of single-family homes,

    獨棟的房子將逐漸式微

  • more residences will be built vertically.

    取而代之的是垂直加蓋的住宅

  • We may see buildings that contain everything

    未來我們將看到建築物

  • that people need for their daily life,

    內部涵蓋人們所有生存必須品

  • as well as a smaller, self-sufficient cities

    儼然如一個自給自足的小型城市

  • focused on local and sustainable production.

    仰賴能永續利用的當地產品

  • The future of cities is diverse,

    都市的未來是多樣化的,

  • malleable,

    可塑性高的.

  • and creative,

    而且充滿創意

  • no longer built around a single industry,

    城市不再是建立於單一工業上

  • but reflecting an increasingly connected

    而是反映了一個緊密連結

  • and global world.

    且國際化的地球村

Today ,more than half of all people in the world

今日,全球有超過一半以上的人口

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 城市 都市 人口 食物 發展

橫越一萬年的都市化與都市的演化 (Urbanization and the Evolution of Cities across 10,000 Years)

  • 5515 570
    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 03 月 18 日
影片單字