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When I was 21 years old, I could only speak English,
which is typical for those of us from English-speaking countries,
and I had many reasons why
this is going to be the case for me for the rest of my life.
And I was very confident of this,
because I had no natural talent,
I had a very bad memory,
I couldn't travel to the country yet,
I was too old, I felt too old
and I was sure
that I was going to frustrate the native speakers
and embarrass myself.
And on top of this, in school,
I did really poorly with languages.
So, I did actually get the opportunity to get into languages
after I graduated at university
with a degree in Electronic Engineering,
still only able to speak English,
I moved to Spain.
And I figured, this is it!
This is going to solve my problems,
living in the country.
No!
Six months later of living in Spain,
I couldn't speak any Spanish.
Now, a sensible person would have given up at this stage
and gotten the point.
I'm not very sensible though.
So I figured
if I change my approach
and change my attitude,
maybe I can change my language skills.
And what happened to inspire me to get into language learning
was I met a polyglot.
A polyglot is someone who can speak many languages.
And the first time you meet someone like that,
you can't help but feel really impressed.
Like, for instance there's Richard from the UK,
and there's one video online where he speaks 16 languages.
Let me just show you a little clip here
and you can see him:
French,
Estonian,
Czech
and Catalan
which is pretty impressive.
We also have Lucca from Italy,
and here you can hear him speak in:
German
and Portuguese.
And we also have Susana,
who goes through here:
Italian
Russian.
And a very impressive video I saw once
of this 16-year-old from America called Tim,
goes through 20 languages in one video,
and in this part here you can see him go through:
Wolof,
Yiddish,
Hebrew,
Arabic, Turkish,
Swahili
and Hindi.
So wow!
I met someone like this and I was so impressed.
I thought to myself, "I want to be like that!"
But the reason I wanted to be like that
is because I wanted people to think I'm smart,
to be impressed with me,
and I met this polyglot at the start of my time in Spain
and with this very superficial motivation,
just because it will be cool to learn a language,
I failed.
So, what I discovered after those 6 months
is one of the biggest problems we have in language learning
but we don't know it,
and that's motivation.
A lot of us start with the wrong motivation to learn a language.
We are learning the language just to pass an exam,
to improve our career prospects
or, in my case,
for superficial reasons to impress people.
And what I've found
is that those polyglots that I've just shown in the video,
the reason they're learning the language
is because they're passionate about that language,
They're passionate about the literature, and the movies
and being able to read in a language
and of course to use it with people.
And when I changed that priority of use in the language of people,
I was able to learn the languages myself.
But there are a lot of things that people feel
will not allow them to learn a language.
So I want to go through...
I think there's five, I asked a lot of people,
there's five major reasons they'd never get into language learning.
So, let me go through some of these here.
The first is they've no language gene or talent.
No language gene or talent, well,
what does that mean?
I mean, sometimes this is actually just a self-fullfilling prophecy.
In my case,
when I had to learn the language growing up,
or the six months of failed learning Spanish,
it was just me telling myself, "I don't have the language gene,
so there's no point in doing any work in the language."
Because I didn't put the work in
I didn't learn the language,
it's just a vicious circle,
it's all in your head.
There's no language gene,
we all have it already.
But let's just imagine some people who do better,
because we see it in school,
people advance faster than the rest of the crowd.
So let's say there's some inborn trait
to give somebody 20% advantage over the rest of the people.
Good for them!
But that doesn't mean that you can't,
it just means that you have to work 20% harder.
And I've found that, at least in my case,
when I work harder, I can catch up with the naturally talented
and even overtake them.
So, not having talent is not a good excuse.
The next reason
is that you are too old to learn a second language.
I certainly felt this myself
because up to 21, I didn't learn a language,
and lots of us feel that children...
their brains are hard wired to learn languages better.
But is it really neurology at play here
or could it be the environment
in which the child is learning the language?
Well, a study at the University of Haifa in Israel
actually found that under the right conditions,
adults are better language learners than children.
It's sound incredible but it's about your environment,
it's about your motivation,
it's about the enthusiasm and encouragement
you get from other people.
And when you think of it,
adults tend to be studying dusty old grammar books
and doing boring exercises,
while children are playing in the language, having fun in it.
So I found that when I changed this to live through the language,
not making it by studying the language, but living the language,
then I was much more successful.
So you're not too old to learn a language.
I've met people in their sixties starting to learn a language
and being successful with that.
The next excuse people would have,
is that they can't travel to the country right now.
Now, maybe 20 years ago this would have been a valid excuse
but nowadays the world is smaller than you think.
Thanks to the internet,
we can connect with native speakers from across the planet
and you'll see that in a lot of cases,
they might want to learn your language,
and then money is not even an issue,
because you teach them a little and they teach you a little.
But even forgetting the internet for a moment,
a lot of us live in cities or towns
that are more international than what we think,
and when I was travelling in America,
I made it to Columbus, Ohio, of all places,
to meet this very interesting polyglot called Moses,
and he does what he likes to call "leveling up",
where he'll go to some public place
and just see if he can find some foreigners
and practice the language with them.
And I joined him when we went to a mall in Columbus,
and the two of us managed to practice twelve languages,
and just here in this clip you can see he goes through:
Cantonese,
and here's Cambodian,
and you can see that the guy really appreciated him trying.
So, you can learn a language anywhere,
and I wanted to push this to the limit,
in my most recent project I went to the middle of Brazil,
of all places,
to learn Egyptian Arabic.
And I succeeded,
because even though there were no Egyptians around me,
I got on Skype
and I talked for one or two hours a day
and I managed to go up towards conversation levels.
So no!
not being able to travel to the country is not a good excuse.
The next one people might give
is that they've got bad memory for learning all the vocabulary.
And this was certainly what I felt
because when I first tried to learn Spanish,
I get a big list of words,
I tried to go through them
and I forget them very quickly.
But research on memory capacity
has found that
it's better when you revise these words with the right frequency,
and there's this technique called
"Spaced repetition",
where you revise the word
just before you'll forget it.
And it looks something like this forgetting curve,
the red line is what typically happens
when you first see a word
but to get it into your head and stuck there permanently
then just review it to make sure it goes,
like review it one day later, then a week later
and then a month later.
And there are apps in your Smartphone
and there's free programs that you can download
that help you time all of this.
And that's great
but you can learn the words
faster and better if you combine this
with an image association technique.
So, for instance, let's say I wanted to learn
that the Spanish word for "to fit" is "caber".
Well, what if I imagine then
that's barely possible to fit a bear in a cab?
"Cab-bear" it's "caber", it's "to fit".
So you do this for a lot of words
and it actually gets very easy with time
and you can learn vocabulary instantly.
So no, having a bad memory is not a good excuse.
Next,
and I think the most important one
that the people always say,
is that they're going to frustrate native speakers.
And this is just so not true.
I've been to many places, I've spoken to many people
and every time I attempt to use their language,
they're overjoyed, they're so pleased
that I'm even trying!
And I just feel like, especially adults,
when we learn a language, we are such perfectionists,
we want everything to be just right,
and perfectionism is a really bad thing in language learning,
because a language is a means of communication,
it's a way to get to know new people and new cultures,
and when you embrace this,
it's okay to make mistakes!
And I actually have a goal to make at least 200 mistakes a day
because then I know I'm getting somewhere,
I'm using the language!
So embarrass yourself,
go out there, talk to people
it's okay.
When do you think I was learning a language better:
here?
or here?
(Laughter)
So, anyone can indeed learn a language
when you use it with people,
and it's okay to use it early,
And this is so important,
that you don't have to wait
until you speak the language perfectly and fluently and so on.
You can get into it sooner than you'd expect
and it opens up so many doors to these other cultures.
So for instance,
after I'd learned that Arabic in Brazil,
I made it to Egypt
and I made all the way deep into the Sahara desert,
I sat down in the sand with an Egyptian
and we had some tea,
we had this nice little chat here:
(In Arabic)
(In Arabic)
and there I'm just saying that
Egypt is so much, so vast, so great,
it's so much more that just Tahrir Square in Cairo.
And, now when I was speaking with him,
I used the wrong word here and there
and I conjugated the wrong verb every now and again,
but that's okay,
because even with this conversation level,
I had this fascinating conversation with him.
And I've done this with other cultures and other languages
and I even managed to learn a little American sign language.
And here you can see Juliana had asked me
why I didn't learn Irish sign language,
and I said, because when I'm in Ireland
I like to improve my Irish and my Gaelic
which I can then speak here:
(In Irish)
so that was me on Irish radio
saying about my travels and whatever,
and I learned Irish for ten years in school
and I wasn't able to say the most basic phrases after that.
But as an adult,
I went back to Ireland
and I embraced using the language as a beginner.
And that helped me to reach this stage.
And it's okay to be a beginner,
it's okay to be conversational,
but when you take this on,
you take it to the next level,
then you can reach very well.
I mean, I've got a very good level in French,
Spanish and acouple of languages.
I've worked as a professional translator
like here I'm having a chat in French:
(In French)
and that's great, that's what everybody thinks of
when they're getting into language learning,
they think, "That's what I want to be,
I want to be at this very high professional level,
have deep philosophical conversations."
and that's fantastic
and yeah, it's impressive when you see people like that.
But rather than be impressive,
I think it's so much better
when you embrace the beginning stage of language learning.
And one of the most amazing experiences I've had,
was when I was in China, on the train,
at 2000 kilometers deep into China,
and I had a basic conversation of "What's your name?"
and it turns out I was given my Chinese name
there on the train,
and look, this is how it went:
(In Chinese)
"What's your name?"
"I'm Benny."
(In Chinese)
"I don't have a Chinese name."
and then (unclear),
says, "I tell you your name is Pun Li."
because this sounds like your normal name
and it means ability or skill.
And you know,
just, I can have that conversation,
even with a basic conversation level of Chinese.
And I do have the ability,
I do have the skill to learn a language.
But I always did,
we all always do.
And the reason I have this skill
is not because I was born with it and others weren't,
it's a decision I made.
And the problem a lot of us face
is that we feel that we're better studying
and preparing for speaking a language some day,
because if we do it too early
the world will end from all this frustration
we cause people.
There are seven days in a week
and some day is not one of them.
I say, rather than see if the world will end,
a whole new world will begin if you try to learn a new language.
So I hope you'll give it a try.
Thank you.
(Applause)
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【TEDx】語言學習之道 (Hacking language learning: Benny Lewis at TEDxWarsaw)

14649 分類 收藏
Polin shi 發佈於 2014 年 3 月 13 日    Debra Liu 翻譯    Sally Hsu 審核
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